The pfennig or penny is a former German coin or note, official currency from the 9th century until the introduction of the euro in 2002. While a valuable coin during the Middle Ages, it lost its value through the years and was the minor coin of the Mark currencies in the German Reich and East Germany, the reunified Germany until the introduction of the euro. Pfennig was the name of the subunit of the Danzig mark and the Danzig gulden in the Free City of Danzig; the pfennig is etymologically related to the English penny, the Swedish penning, model for the Finnish penni, the Estonian penn, the Polish fenig, the Lithuanian word for money pinigai and the pfenig of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The etymology of all of these is not clear, but seems to rely on the way coins were minted during the Middle Ages: the base material were thin flat metal discs; the value was embossed from one side - like coin. In some German countries, coins had similar but different names, as pfenning, pending and penny; this was for better handling due to different currencies used simultaneously.
As a currency sign a variation of the minuscule letter ‘d’ for ‘denarius’ in German Kurrent script was modified so the terminal end of the minuscule Kurrent ‘d’, that trailed at the top of the ascender in an anticlockwise loop, was instead brought down behind the right of the ascender, to form a descender, that hooked clockwise, thus making it a distinct symbol, different from any of the other Kurrent letters in its own right: ₰. The pfennig symbol has nearly fallen out of use since the 1950s, with the demise and eventual abolition of the Reichsmark with its Reichspfennig, to say nothing of the abolition of Kurrent by the National Socialists on 3 January 1941, thus making it cryptic as familiarity with Kurrent script has decreased since that time; the symbol is encoded in Unicode at U+20B0 ₰ GERMAN PENNY SIGN. In the 8th century Charlemagne declared. A single coin had a mass of 1.7 grams after the coinage reform of circa 790. Until the 13th century, the pfennig was made from real silver, thus of high value.
From the 12th century on, the German King was no longer able to enforce the regalia to mint coins, so many towns and local lords made their own coins. Less valuable metals and less metal per coin was used, so different pfennigs had different values. Within a few decades, two parallel denominations had developed: high-value Weißpfennige with over 50 percent of silver and low-value Schwarzpfennige with a high content of copper and little silver or no silver at all; some renowned coins made of copper are the Häller or Haller pfennig of Schwäbisch Hall, some centuries called Heller, minted throughout the country, the Kreuzer, minted in Austria and some regions of Upper Germany. By the late 17th century, the pfennigs had lost most of their value; the last pfennig coins containing traces of silver are rarities minted in 1805. The Mark gold currency, introduced in 1871 as currency of the newly founded German Reich, was divided as 1 Mark = 100 Pfennig; this partition was retained through all German currencies until 2001.
The last West German one- and two-pfennig coins were steel with a copper coating. The five- and ten-pfennig coins were steel with a brass coating; the latter was called a Groschen, while the five-pfennig coin, half a groschen, was regionally referred to as the Sechser, deriving from the former duodecimal division of the groschen. All four coins had their value imprinted on an oak on the reverse; the coins of the Mark der DDR were made of aluminium, except for the 20 pfennigs coin, made of an aluminium copper alloy. After the introduction of the euro, some older, Germans tend to use the term pfennig instead of cent for the copper-coloured coins; the pfennig ligature is defined and coded in Unicode as follows: Bracteate Penny Denier, the French penny
Middletown was the main station along the Erie Railroad mainline in the city of Middletown, New York. Located on Depot Street, the station was first opened in 1843 with construction of the New York, Lake Erie and Western Railroad, which had terminated at Goshen; the station was located along the New York Division, which stretched from Pavonia Terminal in Jersey City, New Jersey to the Sparrowbush station just north of Port Jervis. The building was opened in 1896 to replace one, in use since 1843 when the New York and Erie began service to the city; the Romanesque Revival building was designed by George E. Archer, Chief Architect of the New York, Lake Erie and Western Railroad the Erie Railroad; the station saw service for trains going from Chicago to Erie's terminal in Jersey City, as part of Erie Lackawanna Railway, service to Hoboken Terminal. The long distance train along this route was the Atlantic Express and Pacific Express in 1965; the station saw regular commuter service. The building served as a railroad station until 1983, when rail service was taken over by MTA's Metro-North Railroad.
Service on the route of Erie's original Main Line was discontinued in favor of the Graham Line, an Erie-built freight line now used by Norfolk Southern and the Port Jervis Line and was replaced by the Middletown Metro-North station. The station depot was renovated and restored, becoming the Thrall Library in 1995. List of Erie Railroad structures documented by the Historic American Engineering Record Middletown and New Jersey Railroad Orange Heritage Trailway Historic American Engineering Record No. NY-56, "Erie Railway, Middletown Station" Middletown Thrall Library - see these historic photographs: Erie Railroad Theodore Roosevelt at Middletown when running for Governor in 1898. 1898 Erie Depot. Erie Railroad Station viewed from James St. Middletown, NY. Circa 1900
Karl Johnson, is a New Zealand rugby league footballer who plays for the Gladstone Past Brothers. He plays as a second-row, he is a New Zealand Māori international. A Waiheke Rams junior, Johnson played for the Northcote Tigers and North Harbour Tigers in the Bartercard Cup between 2002 and 2004 and represented Auckland in 2004. Johnson was a Junior Kiwi and represented New Zealand'A'. In 2006 Johnson played for the North Sydney Bears in the NSWRL Premier League. After being the leading try scorer in the competition he signed a two-year deal with the North Queensland Cowboys in August that year. Johnson was named the'2006 North Sydney Player of the Year', he played Reserve Grade for the Newcastle Knights before joining the Central Comets in the Queensland Cup in 2008. That year he was named in the Queensland Residents. In 2011 Johnston joined the Past Brothers club in Gladstone. Central Comets profile
Bandelier National Monument is a 33,677-acre United States National Monument near Los Alamos in Sandoval and Los Alamos counties, New Mexico. The monument preserves the homes and territory of the Ancestral Puebloans of a era in the Southwest. Most of the pueblo structures date to two eras, dating between 1150 and 1600 AD; the monument is 50 square miles of the Pajarito Plateau, on the slopes of the Jemez volcanic field in the Jemez Mountains. Over 70% of the monument is wilderness, with over one mile of elevation change, from about 5,000 feet along the Rio Grande to over 10,000 feet at the peak of Cerro Grande on the rim of the Valles Caldera, providing for a wide range of life zones and wildlife habitats. Three miles of road and more than 70 miles of hiking trails are built; the monument protects Ancestral Pueblo archeological sites, a diverse and scenic landscape, the country's largest National Park Service Civilian Conservation Corps National Landmark District. Bandelier was designated by President Woodrow Wilson as a national monument on February 11, 1916, named for Adolph Bandelier, a Swiss-American anthropologist, who researched the cultures of the area and supported preservation of the sites.
The park infrastructure was developed in the 1930s by crews of the Civilian Conservation Corps and is a National Historic Landmark for its well-preserved architecture. The National Park Service cooperates with surrounding Pueblos, other federal agencies, state agencies to manage the park. In October 1976 70% of the monument, 23,267 acres, was included within the National Wilderness Preservation System; the park's elevations range from about 5,000 feet at the Rio Grande to over 10,200 feet at the summit of Cerro Grande. The Valles Caldera National Preserve adjoins the monument on the north and west, extending into the Jemez Mountains. Much of the area was covered with volcanic ash from an eruption of the Valles Caldera volcano 1.14 million years ago. The tuff overlays shales and sandstones deposited during the Permian Period and limestone of Pennsylvanian age; the volcanic outflow varied in hardness. Human presence in the area has been dated to over 10,000 years before present. Permanent settlements by ancestors of the Puebloan peoples have been dated to 1150 CE.
The distribution of basalt and obsidian artifacts from the area, along with other traded goods, rock markings, construction techniques, indicate that its inhabitants were part of a regional trade network that included what is now Mexico. Spanish colonial settlers arrived in the 18th century; the Pueblo Jose Montoya brought Adolph Bandelier to visit the area in 1880. Looking over the cliff dwellings, Bandelier said, "It is the grandest thing I saw."Based on documentation and research by Bandelier, support began for preserving the area and President Woodrow Wilson signed the legislation creating the monument in 1916. Supporting infrastructure, including a lodge, was built during the 1930s; the structures at the monument built during the Great Depression by the Civilian Conservation Corps constitute the largest assembly of CCC-built structures in a national park area that has not been altered by new structures in the district. This group of 31 buildings illustrates the guiding principles of National Park Service Rustic architecture, being based on local materials and styles.
It has been designated as a national landmark district. During World War II, the monument area was closed to the public for several years, since the lodge was being used to house personnel working on the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos to develop an atom bomb. In 2019, Senator Martin Heinrich, announced plans to introduce legislation to redesignate Bandelier National Monument as a national park and preserve. Frijoles Canyon contains a number of ancestral pueblo homes, rock paintings, petroglyphs; some of the dwellings were rock structures built on the canyon floor. A 1.2-mile, predominantly paved, "Main Loop Trail" from the visitor center affords access to these features. A trail extending beyond this loop leads to Alcove House, a shelter cave produced by erosion of the soft rock and containing a small, reconstructed kiva that hikers may enter via ladder. One site of archaeological interest in the canyon is Tyuonyi pueblo and nearby building sites, such as Long House. Tyuonyi is a circular pueblo site.
Long House is adjacent to Tyounyi, supported by the walls of the canyon. A reconstructed Talus House is found along the Main Loop Trail; these sites date from the Pueblo III Era to the Pueblo IV Era. The age of the Tyuonyi construction has been well established by the tree-ring method of dating and used by archeologists in the Southwest. Ceiling-beam fragments recovered from various rooms have been dated between 1383 and 1466; this general period seems to have been a time of much building in Frijoles Canyon. The last construction anywhere in Frijoles Canyon occurred close to 1500, with a peak of population reached near that time or shortly thereafter; the century before Tyuonyi's construction is thought to have been characterized b
Women's rock climbing started out as a oriented mixed gender sport in Australia at the start of the twentieth century. Women wore the same restrictive costumes that they wore in other sports of the era like golf and cricket. By 1954, women were members of the Sydney Rock Climbing Club and were participating in club events alongside their male counterparts. In 1940, a study of 314 women in New Zealand and Australia was done. Most of the women in the study were middle class, conservative and white; the study found. The nineteenth most popular sport that these women participated in was mountaineering/hill climbing, with 2 having played the sport; the sport was tied with cricket, mountaineering and surfing. Women were climbing at Katoomba in New South Wales by 1934. Women's rock climbing was being reported in Australian newspaper in 1930; the media described the women who participated in the sport as "intrepid." Rock climbing in Australia Sport Climbing Australia
Charles Vernon Gridley was an officer in the United States Navy during the American Civil War and the Spanish–American War. Gridley descended from Thomas Gridley, who emigrated from England to New England in 1633, he was born to Frank and Ann Eliza Gridley in Logansport, Indiana, on 24 November 1844. His parents moved to Hillsdale, when he was three months old. After attending Hillsdale College, Gridley was appointed to the United States Naval Academy in 1860, he reported for duty with his class in September 1863, joining the sloop-of-war Oneida with the West Gulf Blockading Squadron. He distinguished himself with David Farragut at the Battle of Mobile Bay on 5 August 1864. Gridley was promoted to lieutenant in 1867 and lieutenant commander on March 12, 1868, he was stationed from 1871 to 1875 on the only United States Navy ship based on the Great Lakes at the time, the Michigan, at Erie, Pennsylvania. While stationed in Erie, he married Harriet, the daughter of Judge John P. Vincent and had three children.
Harriet was a cousin of Civil War hero Brigadier General Strong Vincent. Gridley was promoted to commander in 1882, he served a tour as instructor at the Naval Academy and another with the Cruiser Training Squadron. Gridley was promoted to captain on March 14, 1897, ordered to the Asiatic squadron and was assigned on July 28, 1897, to the command of the Olympia, Commodore George Dewey's famous flagship in Yokohama, Japan. During the Battle of Manila Bay on 1 May 1898, Gridley commanded the Olympia from inside the vessel's armored conning tower, an uncomfortably hot station in the Philippine sun. Dewey gave his famous command, "You may fire when you are ready, Gridley". At the conclusion of the battle, Gridley was not in a condition to celebrate, suffering from dysentery and what appears to have been liver cancer; the heat and stress of the conning tower further weakened him. Dewey would have relieved. Several weeks he was sent home. On May 25, Gridley was to begin his journey home. One crewman recorded the event as follows: He came up out of his cabin dressed in civilian clothes and was met by the rear admiral who extended him a most cordial hand.
A look of troubled disappointment flitted across the captain's brow, but vanished when he stepped to the head of the gangway and, over saw, not the launch, but a twelve-oared cutter manned by officers of the Olympia. There were men in the boat. Old Glory was at a captain's silken coach-whip at the bow; when he sat down upon the handsome boat-cloth, spread for him, he bowed his head, his hands hid his face as First-Lieutenant Reese, acting coxswain, ordered,'Shove off. In the day the lookout on the bridge reported,'Zafiro under way sir,' and the deck officer passed on the word until a little twitter from Pat Murray's pipe brought all the other bo's'ns around him, in concert they sang out,'Stand by to man the rigging!' Not the Olympia alone, but every other ship in the squadron dressed and manned, the last we saw of our dear captain he was sitting on a chair out on the Zafiro's quarter-deck listening to the old band play. Gridley was physically spent, his health began to sink faster once he was released from the strain of command.
He was transferred from the Zafiro to the commercial steamer Coptic on May 27, but he had to be taken aboard on a stretcher. He knew that his condition was grave and wrote "I think I am done for it, personally." Aboard the Coptic, on June 5, 1898, Gridley died while the vessel was in Japan. His body was sent home. Services were held in Pennsylvania's Cathedral of St. Paul, he was buried in Erie's Lakeside Cemetery. Gridley was a member of the Empire State Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. Four ships in the United States Navy have been named for him. A monument to Gridley was erected in Erie and placed in the center of a city park, named Gridley Park; the engraved plaque affixed to the monument is made of a metal panel retrieved from the Maine. A seashell is depicted on the coat-of-arms of Gridley's original alma mater, Hillsdale College, in honor of his heroism at the Battle of Manila Bay. USS Olympia George Dewey Battle of Manila Bay This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.
The entry can be found permanent dead link] here. Harris, Richard. "U. S. Navy Captain Charles Gridley and the Battle of Manila Bay". American History. "Guide to the Gridley Collection". Independence Seaport Museum. Capt Charles Vernon Gridley at Find a Grave