Pfizer Inc. is an American multinational pharmaceutical corporation headquartered in New York City. It is one of the world's largest pharmaceutical companies, it is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, its shares have been a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average since 2004. Pfizer ranked No. 57 on the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. On December 19, 2018, Pfizer announced a joint merger of their consumer healthcare division with UK pharma giant GlaxoSmithKline; the company developed and produces medicines and vaccines for a wide range of medical disciplines, including immunology, cardiology and neurology. Its products include the blockbuster drug Lipitor, used to lower LDL blood cholesterol. In 2016, Pfizer Inc. was expected to merge with Allergan, plc to create the Ireland-based "Pfizer plc" in a deal that would have been worth $160 billion. The merger was called off in April 2016, because of new rules from the United States Treasury against tax inversions, a method of avoiding taxes by merging with a foreign company.
The company has made the second-largest pharmaceutical settlement with the United States Department of Justice. Pfizer was founded in New York City in 1849 by German-American Charles Pfizer and his cousin Charles F. Erhart from Ludwigsburg, Germany, they launched the chemicals business Charles Pfizer and Company from a building at the intersection of Harrison Avenue and Bartlett Street in Williamsburg, where they produced an antiparasitic called santonin. This was an immediate success, although it was the production of citric acid that kick-started Pfizer's growth in the 1880s. Pfizer continued to buy property to expand its lab and factory on the block bounded by Bartlett Street, Harrison Avenue, Gerry Street, Flushing Avenue. Pfizer's original administrative headquarters was at 81 Maiden Lane in Manhattan. By 1906, sales totaled $3.4 million. World War I caused a shortage of calcium citrate which Pfizer imported from Italy for the manufacture of citric acid, the company began a search for an alternative supply.
Pfizer chemists learned of a fungus that ferments sugar to citric acid, they were able to commercialize production of citric acid from this source in 1919, the company developed expertise in fermentation technology as a result. These skills were applied to the mass production of the antibiotic penicillin during World War II in response to the need to treat injured Allied soldiers. Penicillin became inexpensive in the 1940s, Pfizer searched for new antibiotics with greater profit potential, they discovered Terramycin in 1950, this changed the company from a manufacturer of fine chemicals to a research-based pharmaceutical company. Pfizer developed a drug discovery program focusing on in vitro synthesis in order to augment its research in fermentation technology; the company established an animal health division in 1959 with an 700-acre farm and research facility in Terre Haute, Indiana. By the 1950s, Pfizer had established offices in Belgium, Canada, Mexico, Puerto Rico, the United Kingdom. In 1960, the company moved its medical research laboratory operations out of New York City to a new facility in Groton, Connecticut.
In 1980, they launched Feldene, a prescription anti-inflammatory medication that became Pfizer's first product to reach one billion dollars in total sales. During the 1980s and 1990s, Pfizer Corporation growth was sustained by the discovery and marketing of Zoloft, Norvasc, Aricept and Viagra. In this decade, Pfizer grew by mergers, including those with Warner–Lambert and Wyeth. In 2003, the company acquired Esperion Therapeutics for $1.3 billion, protecting Lipitor from ETC-216. In 2004, Pfizer announced. In 2005, the company made a number of acquisitions: Vicuron Pharmaceuticals for $1.9 billion, Idun for just less than $300 million and Angiosyn for $527 million. On June 26, 2006, Pfizer announced it would sell its Consumer Healthcare unit to Johnson & Johnson for $16.6 billion. Development of torcetrapib, a drug that increases production of HDL, or "good cholesterol", which reduces LDL thought to be correlated to heart disease, was cancelled in December 2006. During a Phase III clinical trial involving 15,000 patients, more deaths occurred in the group that took the medicine than expected, a sixty percent increase in mortality was seen among patients taking the combination of torcetrapib and Lipitor versus Lipitor alone.
Lipitor alone was not implicated in the results, but Pfizer lost nearly $1 billion developing the failed drug and the market value of the company plummeted afterwards. The company announced it would acquire Powermed and Rivax. In September 2009, Pfizer pleaded guilty to the illegal marketing of the arthritis drug Bextra for uses unapproved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration, agreed to a $2.3 billion settlement, the largest health care fraud settlement at that time. A July 2010 article in BusinessWeek reported that Pfizer was seeing more success in its battle against makers of counterfeit prescription drugs by pursuing civil lawsuits rather than criminal pr
Chityala Ailamma, or Chakali Ailamma was an Indian revolutionary leader during the Telangana Rebellion. Her act of defiance against Zamindar Ramachandra Reddy, known as Visnoor Deshmukh, to cultivate her land became an inspiration for many during the rebellion against the feudal lords of the Telangana region. Chityala Ailamma was born as the fourth child of Oruganti Mallamma and Soilu in Krishnapuram village Warangal district, Telangana State, India, she belongs to Rajaka caste. Chityala Ailamma joined the Andhra Mahasabha as well as the Communist Party, she worked against the Nizam government and her house was the center for activities conducted against the feudal land lords who collaborated with the Nizam. Chityala Ailamma had four sons and one daughter. Chakkali Illamma was born as the fourth child of Oruganti Mallamma and Soilu in Krishnapuram village in Warangal district. Illamma's childhood marriage to the ruler Chittaya Narsaya, they have two daughters. The economically disadvantaged family is the breadwinner of the laundry.
Illamma took the red flag against the anarchy of Deshmukh and Razakar in Visnur between 1940-44
Break Free is a television series and the eighth Malaysian production by MediaCorp Studios Malaysia. Filming took place in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, it stars Tay Ping Hui, Terence Cao, Zhang Zhen Huan, Andie Chen, Yvonne Lim & Kate Pang as the casts of the series. It made its debut in Singapore on 18 March 2013, it is scheduled to air on Malaysia on 27 March 2013. It broadcasts on Sunday at 12pm; the series is about four men from different backgrounds who were convicted to jail and their aftermaths when they were released. The series is one of three drama serials to tie-in for 3rd-highest-rated drama serial in 2013, behind C. L. I. F. 2 and The Dream Makers. It is so far, the highest-rated series for MediaCorp Studios Malaysia, with an average viewership of 835,000. Four men leave prison, each facing an uncertain future; the first one, Li Tianming, is a hot headed and emotional man. He led a happy and contented life, not knowing that his wife, Huang Hai Tang, was having an affair with her qigong master, Wang Xiao Tian.
His younger sister, Li Chun Li, ganged up with her husband, Xiong Zhenghui, to cheat their mother of her life savings. Thus the siblings became bitter enemies. Once, in a fight, Tianming chopped Zheng Hui’s hand, was sentenced to jail. Just before he was released, he received news that his mother had died, that his wife was asking for a divorce. Tianming had lost everything, including his house and daughter, to Wang Xiao Tian. At this point in time, Tian Shi Shi, a social worker, got to know the four prisoners, she was kind hearted and helpful, but ended up embroiled the lives and relationships of the four men. Jin Yongcheng used to be an alcoholic gambler. Thus, his wife took his daughter, Jin Hui Chen, attempted suicide. Luckily Jin Yong Cheng was too late to save his wife; as he was guilt ridden and drank more, he killed Ye Zhi Bin’s cousin while drink-driving and was sentenced to prison. With her mother dead and father in prison, Jin Hui Chen became rebellious with a hatred for her father, her father was in no position to discipline her, she had a reputation for being a wild and problematic child.
Ye Zhi Bin was the chief financial officer of a finance company owned by his uncle. He was timid and lacked ambition. However, he had a greedy wife, Wang Zi Yu, materialistic; as Zhibin had to satisfy her demands, he embezzled from his company and was sentenced to 5 years in prison. Xu Hao Long came from a wealthy family, his grandfather had raised him up, he had been thrown into jail for violence. Just before he was sentenced, he had Liu Shu Yuan, with whom he wanted to marry. However, they broke off after that. Haolong is a HIV positive patient, infected after a prostitute with AIDS pricked him with a contaminated needle after a quarrel, when he was working as a nurse, he was thus sentenced to prison. In prison, he worked hard to improve himself. Upon release, Tianming brought Yongcheng into his moving company, he started his divorce proceedings with his wife. With Shishi’s help, he managed to convince the judge into letting him have custody of his daughter, won the court case for the return of his money that his wife had taken from him.
However, his wife fled overseas with his money. He had promised to invest the money recovered from his wife into Ye Zhi Bin’s company, but could not keep his word as his wife fled, thus Wang Zi Yu wanted to sue him. Over this issue, Ye Zhi Bin and his wife quarrelled bitterly, Wang Zi Yu kept nagging him, forbidding him from having any further contact with the other three men. Haolong got to know a shampoo girl named Ni Qing Qing at the hair salon, he thought she was arrogant with a bad attitude, had a bad impression of her. However when he got to know her better, he realised that she was a good person, learnt that she was Ye Zhi Bin’s cousin. Although she seemed arrogant and hard to get along with, she was trying to protect herself after years of being sexually abused by relatives because she had been an orphan, she could not trust any man after her ordeal. As Xu Hao Long helped Ni Qing Qing, they started to develop feelings for each other; however Xu Hao Long’s medical condition deteriorated, so he began to get cold feet about dating again.
Zhi Bin and Wang Zi Yu’s marriage was on the rocks with their constant bickering, so Ziyu stopped respecting him and insisted on a divorce. As Haolong felt that Zhibin was a reliable man, he decided to match make him with Qingqing instead. Meanwhile, Huichen kept causing trouble, such that Yongcheng neglected his health. Coincidentally, the young man that he had killed while drink-driving was Qingqing's brother. With Hao Long’s counselling, Qing Qing was able to forgive Yong Cheng, move on in her life. To help Jin Yong Cheng, Li Tian Ming let. Jin Hui Chen was grateful for the opportunity, worked hard to change her attitude, thus her relationship with her father started improving as well. However, her ex-boyfriend’s henchmen still kept creating trouble for her; as Tianming saved her many times, she developed a crush on him. Yongchengobjected, they fell out with each other again. Huichen was devastated to be rejected by Li Tian Ming, became depressed. Thus, Jin Yong Cheng was worried sick over his daughter.
As Tian Shi Shi showed care for Jin Yong Cheng, Li Tian Ming misunderstood that she had fallen for him. With his son’s encouragem
The Norwegian–British–Swedish Antarctic Expedition was the first Antarctica expedition involving an international team of scientists. The team members came from Norway and the British Commonwealth of Nations; the Norwegian–British–Swedish Antarctic Expedition was the first expedition to Antarctica involving an international team of scientists. The expedition was led by a Norwegian author and polar researcher; the expedition had the goal of establishing whether climatic fluctuations observed in the Arctic were occurring in the Antarctic. A base known as Maudheim was established on the Quar Ice Shelf along the coast of Queen Maud Land in February 1950; this expedition laid the groundwork for the following Australian expeditions to Antarctic from 1954 to the early 1960s. The expedition was transported aboard a 600-ton sealer named Norsel, powered by a German U-boat diesel engine; this ship was used in conjunction with a 24,000 ton whaling factory ship named Thorshovdi. The larger ship was needed because the Norsel was too small to carry all the needed equipment and supplies for the Antarctic expedition.
In addition to both ships, two light Auster aircraft intended for reconnaissance were included on the expedition. These were piloted by a five-man RAF team from Britain; the Norsel made three round-trips to the Antarctic, with subsequent visits accompanied by a Norwegian and a Swedish flying unit to assist with aerial photography. The information obtained from the expedition helped with the further study of glaciology and geology, it found that the world's "sea-level was principally controlled by the state of the Antarctic ice-sheet." It improved the understanding of the impact of the Antarctic ice-sheets on the regulation of the world's climate. It found evidence that suggest a portion of Antarctica was once joined to southern Africa. Further scientific studies have found strong evidence that eastern Antarctica was adjacent to southern Africa until the late Jurassic period. John Giaever Norwegian, leader of the wintering party Valter Schytt Swedish, chief glaciologist, second-in-command Gordon de Quetteville Robin Australian, third-in-command Nils Jørgen Schumacher Norwegian, chief meteorologist Gösta Liljequist Swedish, assistant meteorologist Ernest Frederick Roots Canadian, chief geologist Alan Reece British, assistant geologist Charles Swithinbank British, assistant glaciologist Nils Roer Norwegian, topographic surveyor Ove Wilson Swedish, medical officer Bertil Ekström Swedish, mechanical engineer Egil Rogstad Norwegian, radio operator Peter Melleby Norwegian, in charge of dogs Schølberg Nilsen Norwegian, cookAdditional members that joined at a date: Stig Hallgren Leslie Quar John Jelbart John Snarby Tom Stobart British, made the official film of the expedition.
List of Antarctic expeditions Maudheim medal Giaever, J.. The White Desert: The official account of the Norwegian–British–Swedish Antarctic Expedition. Greenwood Pub Group. ISBN 0-8371-1318-0 Swithinbank, C.. Foothold on Antarctica. Sussex, England: The Book Guild Ltd. ISBN 1-85776-406-4 Norwegian-British-Swedish Antarctic Expedition, 1949-1952 Page for the Norwegian Maudheim medal
Víctor Camarasa Ferrando is a Spanish professional footballer who plays as a central midfielder for Deportivo Alavés on loan from Real Betis. Born in Meliana, Valencian Community, Camarasa joined local Valencia CF's youth academy in 2001, aged seven. Ten years he was released, finished his development with neighbouring Levante UD, making his senior debut with the reserve side in the 2012–13 season, in Segunda División B. On 7 December 2013, Camarasa played his first official game with the main squad, starting in a 0–1 away loss against Recreativo de Huelva in the round of 32 of the Copa del Rey. Two days he signed a new six-year deal with the club, he scored his first goal on the 17th, helping turn the Cup deficit in his team's favour by netting the last in the 4–0 home win. Camarasa made his La Liga debut on 4 January 2014, coming on as a substitute for Simão Mate in a 0–2 away loss against Valencia CF, he was promoted to the first team in July, was made a starter by new manager José Luis Mendilibar.
On 4 October 2014, Camarasa scored his first goal in the top flight, netting his side's second in a 3–3 draw at SD Eibar. On 11 August 2016, after suffering relegation, he was loaned to Deportivo Alavés of the top tier, for one year. On 29 June 2017, Camarasa signed a five-year contract with fellow league club Real Betis, he scored his first competitive goal for them on 18 December, helping close a 2–0 away defeat of Málaga CF. On 9 August 2018, Camarasa joined Cardiff City on loan for the upcoming campaign, he made his Premier League debut nine days playing 76 minutes in a 0–0 home draw against Newcastle United. His first goal came on 2 September, but in a 2–3 loss to Arsenal at the Cardiff City Stadium. In August 2019, Camarasa signed with Crystal Palace on loan until the following 30 June, with an option to make the move permanent afterwards, he made his debut on 27 August in a 0–0 home draw against Colchester United in the second round in the EFL Cup, with the tie being lost after a penalty shoot-out.
Camarasa returned to both Alavés and the Spanish top division on 13 January 2020, agreeing to a six-month loan deal. Camarasa won the first of his four caps for Spain at under-21 level on 12 November 2014, playing 25 minutes in a 1–4 friendly home loss to Belgium; as of 14 September 2019 Víctor Camarasa at BDFutbol Víctor Camarasa at Futbolme
Calvin Bowen Taylor was an American banker, politician and educator. He served on the town council of and as mayor of Berlin, served two terms in the Maryland House of Delegates, founded a banking company bearing his name that continues to exist in eastern Maryland and Delaware; the son of Arthur W. Taylor and Margaret Ellen Bowen Taylor, Calvin B. Taylor was born at Trappe Creek Farm near Berlin, Maryland, on December 28, 1857. Growing up on the farm, he attended public schools in addition to Old Buckingham Academy, he earned a Bachelor of Arts in 1882 and a Master of Arts degree from Western Maryland College. Taylor became an educator after earning his degrees, teaching at Bishopville Academy before becoming principal, he subsequently returned to Buckingham Academy, his alma mater, to serve as its first principal after becoming Berlin High School. He would remain in that position for six years, studying law and being admitted to the bar in 1886 or 1887 during that time, until resigning in 1889 to practice law full-time.
Shortly thereafter, in 1890, Taylor entered business as a banker in conjunction with his law partner, Edward D. Martin. A private bank under the name of Calvin B. Taylor, Martin withdrew before its renaming to Calvin B. Taylor Banking Company and its 1907 incorporation as the Calvin B. Taylor Banking Company of Berlin; the corporation remains in existence in Worcester County and Sussex County, Delaware, as Taylor Bank. Taylor served as director of the First National Bank in Snow Hill, Maryland, as well as the Bishopville Bank. In addition to banking, Taylor began an insurance company connected to the bank under the name of Calvin B. Taylor & Co. in conjunction with William L. Holloway, which remains in existence as Smith, Cropper & Deeley Inc. Having established a name for himself in the local community, Taylor served for four years as a member of the Berlin Town Council. In 1898, he was elected to represent Worcester County in the Maryland House of Delegates, receiving 2,109 votes, the most of any of the nine candidates in the field—three of whom were elected.
He served one term, until 1899, before returning in 1912 for another term through 1913. He subsequently served from 1914 to 1916, as Mayor of Berlin. In addition to holding political office, Taylor served on the Maryland Democratic State Central Committee for 25 years. Taylor continued to practice law and serve as president and chairman of the board of directors for the Calvin B. Taylor Banking Company until his death on May 31, 1932, he was interred in Buckingham Cemetery. Calvin B. Taylor married his wife, Martha "Mattie" Collins of Hannibal, Missouri, on July 21, 1886, while serving as principal of Berlin High School; the couple purchased the building presently known as the Calvin B. Taylor House in September 1894 and had only one child, Thomas Collins Taylor, who died as an infant. Taylor was active throughout his life as a member of the Buckingham Presbyterian Church. Calvin B. Taylor House Museum Taylor Bank History