Ford produced three cars between 1932 and 1934, the Model B, Model 18 & Model 40. The Model B continued to offer Fords proven four cylinder and was available from 1932 to 1934, the V8 was succeeded by the Model 48. It was the first Ford fitted with the flathead V‑8, in Europe, it was built slightly longer. The same bodies were available on both 4 cylinder Model Bs and V8 Model 18/40s, the company replaced the Model AA truck with the Model BB, available with either the four- or eight-cylinder engine. Rather than just a much updated version of the Model A, the V-8 was marketed as the Model 18 in its initial year, and commonly simply called the Ford V‑8. It had the new flathead V‑8 engine, the Model 18 was the first low-priced, mass-marketed car to have a V8 engine, an important milestone in Automotive industry in the United States. The 221 cu in V8 was rated at 65 hp when introduced and this engine choice was more popular than the four-cylinder, which was essentially a variant of the Model A engine with improvements to balancing and lubrication.
Model B was derived with as few changes as possible to keep cost low. Other than the engine, and badging on headlamp support bar and hub caps and its intention was to be a price leader, and as it offered more than the popular Model A, this should have been a winning formula. In fact, the new and only slightly more expensive V-8 stole the show, the V8 engine was previously exclusive to Lincoln products, which in 1932 switched to V12 engines only. Although there is a certain relationship with the predecessor Model A. While the Model A has a frame with two straight longitudinal members, the new car got a longer wheelbase, and an outward curved. While the V-8 was developed from scratch, the B just had an improved four-cylinder Model A engine of 201 cu in displacement producing 50 horsepower. When Ford introduced the Model A in late 1927, there were several competitors offering four cylinder cars, among them Chevrolet, Durant, or Willys. That changed within a few years, soon leaving the new Plymouth the sole major make in the Fords price class with a four.
Although sharing a platform, Model Bs and Model 18s came not only in Standard and Deluxe trim. Some of them, like the commercial cars described below, were available as Standards. The wooden panels were manufactured at the Ford Iron Mountain Plant in the Michigan Upper Peninsula from Ford owned lumber, one of the more well known and popular models was the two-door Victoria, which was largely designed by Edsel Ford
A roadster, sometimes referred to as a spider or spyder, is an open two-seat car with emphasis on sporting appearance or character. Initially an American term for a car with no weather protection. The roadster is a style of racing car driven in United States Auto Club Championship Racing, including the Indianapolis 500 and this type of racing car was superseded by mid-engined cars. In the nineteenth century, the word denoted a horse suitable for traveling. By the end of the century the definition had expanded to include bicycles and tricycles. In 1916, the Society of Automobile Engineers defined a roadster as and it may have additional seats on running boards or in rear deck. Additional seating in the deck was known as a rumble seat or a dickey seat. The main seat for the driver and passenger was usually further back in the chassis than it would have been in a touring car, Roadsters usually had a hooded dashboard. The earliest roadster automobiles had only basic bodies without doors, windshields, by the 1920s they were appointed similarly to touring cars, with doors, simple folding tops, and side curtains.
When roadsters of this era were equipped with seats, the seats folded into the body when not in use. They are popular with collectors, often valued over other open styles, the term roadster as applied to automobiles is American in origin, before World War II, the British equivalent was a two-seat tourer. By the 1970s, the roadster was applied to open two-seat cars of sporting appearance or character. Roadsters had become almost as well-equipped as convertibles, including side windows that retract into the doors, Roadsters of that time included the Alfa Romeo Spider, MGB, and Triumph TR4. A roadster is still defined as a car with two seats, with some roadsters having power tops or retractable hardtops. A few manufacturers and fabricators still offer roadsters that meet the older definitions and these include Morgan, with the windowless Roadster, with the doorless Seven, and Ariel, with the bodyless Atom. The American hot rod is based on pre–World War II roadsters, late run Model Ts and 1932 Fords were the most popular starting points.
The term roadster applies to front-engined AAA/USAC Championship cars, associated with the Indianapolis 500, the roadster engine and drive shaft are offset from the centerline of the car. This allows the driver to sit lower in the chassis and facilitates a weight offset which is beneficial on oval tracks, one story of why this type of racing car is referred to as a roadster is that a team was preparing a new car for the Indianapolis 500
A touring car is an open car seating four or more. A popular car body style in the twentieth century, it declined in popularity in the 1920s when closed bodies became less expensive. A tourer, in Britain and the Commonwealth, is a vehicle, however. The term all-weather tourer was used to describe open vehicles that could be fully enclosed, a popular version of the touring car style was the torpedo, with the hood/bonnet line at the cars waistline giving the car a straight line from front to back. This eventually became the version of the touring car. In 1916, the US-based Society of Automobile Engineers defined a touring car as, the term has been defined as an open car seating five or more. Touring cars may have two or four doors, engines on early models were either in the front, or in a mid-body position. When the top was folded down, it formed a bulky mass known as the fan behind the seat, fan covers were made to protect the top. The touring car style was popular in the early 20th century, being an alternative to the runabout.
Most of Model Ts produced by Ford between 1908 and 1927 were four and three-door models touring cars, accounting for 6,519,643 cars sold out of the 15,000,000 estimated Model Ts built. The popularity of the car began to wane in the 1920s when cars with enclosed passenger compartments became more affordable. In Australia tourers may have two or four doors, the belt lines of tourers were often lowered in the front doors to give the car a more sporting character. And would be named sports tourers, the torpedo body style was a type of touring body used from the early twentieth century until the mid-1920s. A torpedos hood line was level with the waistline, giving a straight line from front to back. The torpedo style became the style of touring car and the name fell into disuse around 1920
Isotta Fraschini is an Italian motors brand historically known for the production of cars as well as trucks, and engines for marine and aviation use. The company went bankrupt in 1999, in 2000, a new company was founded, under the name of Isotta Fraschini Milano. Isotta Fraschini currently has offices in Milan and Bari, the firm was named for its founders, Cesare Isotta and Vincenzo Fraschini, as Società Milanese Automobili Isotta, Fraschini & C. on 27 January 1900. The motto was Import, repair cars, prior to establishing their own company in 1904, Isotta and Fraschini assembled Renaults. The first automobile bearing this marque featured an engine with an output of 24 horsepower. The car, driven by Vincenzo Fraschini, appeared in several races, in 1905, Isotta Fraschini gained notoriety in the Coppa Florio, where they entered a Tipo D with a 17. 2-litre 100 horsepower engine. For a short time in 1907, Isotta Fraschini merged with French automobile company Lorraine-Dietrich, the firm started making race cars using this same 100 horsepower engine, establishing the companys reputation and giving its name considerable cachet.
It was one of the first cars with four-wheel brakes and they were among the early pioneers of overhead cam, with an engine designed by Giustino Cattaneo. Isotta Fraschini introduced their Tipo 8, the first production automobile to be powered by an engine, at the Paris Salon in 1919. With the growth of the middle class in North America in the 1920s. Early film stars Clara Bow and Rudolph Valentino drove Isotta Fraschinis, a 1929 Tipo 8A Castagna Transformable is featured in the 1950 film Sunset Boulevard and another appears in the 1934 film Death Takes a Holiday with Fredric March. An Isotta makes a appearance in the 1946 film Without Reservations with John Wayne. Also, an Isotta Fraschini was gigolo Lindsay Marriotts car in Raymond Chandlers classic Farewell, My Lovely that was made into a motion picture starring Dick Powell and Claire Trevor. The grille of the Isotta with the lightning bolt insignia is seen parked in a ravine, an oversized Isotta is the vehicle of choice for Dick and Nicole Diver in F.
Scott Fitzgeralds 1933 novel Tender is the Night. Seriously affected by the crisis of the 1930s and by the disruptions of World War II. Only five of the last model, the Monterosa, were produced, the plants were converted to produce marine engines. The company was left on the register and in 1955 it was merged with engine manufacturer Breda Motori. The company started to produce buses again and in 1960s built a new diesel engine factory in Bari
A horse-drawn vehicle is a mechanized piece of equipment pulled by one horse or by a team of horses. These vehicles typically had two or four wheels and were used to carry passengers and/or a load and they were once common worldwide, but they have mostly been replaced by automobiles and other forms of self-propelled transport. A two-wheeled horse-drawn vehicle is a cart, four-wheeled vehicles have many names – one for heavy loads is most commonly called a wagon. Very light carts and wagons can be pulled by donkeys, other smaller animals are occasionally used, such as large dogs and goats. Heavy wagons and agricultural implements can be pulled by other large animals such as oxen, water buffalo, yaks or even camels. Vehicles pulled by one animal have two shafts which attach either side of the rearmost animal, Vehicles which are pulled by a pair have a pole which attaches between the wheel pair. Other arrangements are possible, for example three or more abreast, a wheel pair with a single lead animal, or a wheel pair with three lead animals abreast.
Very heavy loads sometimes had a team behind to slow the vehicle down steep hills. Sometimes at a hill with frequent traffic such a team would be hired to passing wagons to help them up or down the hill. Two-wheeled vehicles are balanced by the distribution of weight of the load over the axle, four-wheeled vehicles remain level on their own, and so the shafts or pole are hinged vertically, allowing them to rise and fall with the movement of the animals. A four-wheeled vehicle is steered by the shafts or pole, which are attached to the front axle. Ambulance, much the purpose as the modern sense. Details of the varied but would be a lightly built and well-sprung, enclosed vehicle with provision for seated casualties. Barouche, an elegant, high-slung, open carriage with a seat in the rear of the body and a bench at the front for the driver. Berlin Brake Britzka Brougham Buckboard Bus, see omnibus Buggy, a light, four-wheeled carriage, joseph Hansom based the design of his public hire vehicle on the cabriolet so the name cab stuck to vehicles for public hire.
Cabriolet Calash or Calèshe, see barouche, cape cart Cariole Carriage, in the late eighteenth century, roughly equivalent to the modern word vehicle. It came to be restricted to vehicle and even to private. This last is the adopted by the linked article
The Jeepster was an automobile originally produced by Willys-Overland Motors from 1948 to 1950. It was the last phaeton produced by a major automaker, the Jeepster name was revived in 1966 on a new model, the C-101 Jeepster Commando. American Motors, Willys-Overlands successor, removed Jeepster from the name for 1972, Willys began producing the Jeep Wagon and the Panel Utility in 1946, and the Jeep Truck in 1947. Seeing a gap in their lineup, Willys developed the Jeepster to crossover from their utilitarian trucks to the passenger automobile market. Willys-Overland lacked the machinery to form deep-drawn fenders or complicated shapes, so the vehicle had to use a simple, the Willys-Overland Jeepster was introduced in April 1948, and produced through 1950. Some leftover models were sold under the 1951 model year, the basic 1948 Jeepster included numerous deluxe features and interior fittings in addition to a high level of standard equipment that cost extra on other automobiles. The car was offered with rear-wheel drive, thus limiting its appeal with other Jeep customers.
Its distinctive boxy styling and performance were praised by automotive journalists, the Jeepster did not catch on with the intended market segment. Sales were limited by sparse advertising and an insufficient dealer network, the VJ-2 Jeepster was powered by the 134.2 cu in straight-4 Go Devil engine, which gave 63 hp through a 3-speed manual transmission with standard overdrive. The flat-topped rear fenders were taken from the Jeep truck line, the 1949 Jeepster began production with a one-model/one-engine offering. The price was lowered to $1,495, with some previously standard features returning as extra-cost options, toward the middle of the year, an additional model was introduced, the VJ3-6, powered by a new six-cylinder engine. The VJ-3 Jeepster had very little standard equipment and this time there were two engines offered, changing the Jeepsters designations to VJ-3 4-63 for the four-cylinder and VJ-3 6-63 for the Lightning-equipped six-cylinder. The 1950 model year saw the first styling revisions included a new instrument panel.
New engines and designations dependent on what part of the year it was, early 1950s four-cylinder Jeepsters were VJ-3463, and the straight-six Jeepsters were VJ-3663. The later-year Jeepsters were VJ-473 and VJ-673, respectively, 1948-1950 - L134 Go Devil I4 —134.1 cu in 1949-1950 - L148 Lightning I6 —148.5 cu in 1950 - F134 Hurricane I4 —134. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014, 1948-1951 Willys Jeepster page 2,1948 Willys Jeepster Development. Archived from the original on 12 March 2014, 1948-1951 Willys Jeepster page 3,1948 Willys Jeepster Introduction. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014, 1948-1951 Willys Jeepster page 4,1948 Willys Jeepster Design Features
A Phaeton was a form of sporty open carriage popular in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. Drawn by one or two horses, a phaeton typically featured a very lightly sprung body atop four extravagantly large wheels. With the advent of the automobile, the term was adapted to open touring cars, the most impressive phaeton was the English four-wheeled high flyer. The mail and spider phaetons were more conservatively constructed, the mail phaeton was used chiefly to carry passengers with luggage and was named for its construction, using mail springs originally designed for use on mail coaches. The spider phaeton, of American origin and made for drivers, was a high and lightly constructed carriage with a covered seat in front. A variation of type of a carriage is called a Victoria. There is a print of the monarch enjoying her morning excursions on page 490 of the Illustrated London News of April 10,1897, in addition, there is a photograph in the Royal Collection, dated 1898. There are photographs, using a black donkey, taken at Windsor Castle.
Bolshevik revolutionaries used a phaeton to escape after carrying out the 1907 Tiflis bank robbery, Lady Meux would startle London Society by driving herself in a high phaeton drawn by zebras. In the 1995 film Sense and Sensibility, the character Mr. Willoughby drives a yellow phaeton, while the phaeton seems to exhibit his reckless and dashing character, in the novel on which the film is based, the original character drives a curricle. In the 2012 Bengali film Bhooter Bhabishyat, Raibahadur Darpo Narayan Chowdhury often refers to phaetons in reference to Sir Donald Ramsay, in Turn, Washingtons Spies, season 3 episode 1 Benedict Arnold is riding in a phaeton spider. He states to Peggy Shippen Do you like it, goes on to say I had it fit with a Collinge axle for a smoother ride. In Frances Burneys novel, young gentlemen race their phaetons on the highways of Clifton, near Bristol. In Anne Brontës The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, Mr. Huntingdon drives a light phaeton that comes bowling merrily up the lawn, the sporty character of the carriage reflects Huntingdons devil-may-care attitude.
She references a phaeton in Agnes Grey, the useful pony phaeton was sold. In the 1928 American childrens book Freddy Goes to Florida by Walter R. Brooks, Hank the farm horse draws an old phaeton that carries the animals and their treasure back from Florida to the Bean farm. In Absalom, Absalom. by William Faulkner, Sutpens wife Ellen had a phaeton that caused her daughter to become distressed when it arrived in place of their normal carriage. The character Mr. Spenlow from the novel David Copperfield dies suddenly of an attack while driving his phaeton home
The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States, located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D. C. It has been the residence of every U. S. president since John Adams in 1800, the term White House is often used to refer to actions of the president and his advisers, as in The White House announced that. The residence was designed by Irish-born architect James Hoban in the Neoclassical style, construction took place between 1792 and 1800 using Aquia Creek sandstone painted white. When Thomas Jefferson moved into the house in 1801, he added low colonnades on each wing that concealed stables and storage. In 1814, during the War of 1812, the mansion was set ablaze by the British Army in the Burning of Washington, destroying the interior, reconstruction began almost immediately, and President James Monroe moved into the partially reconstructed Executive Residence in October 1817. Exterior construction continued with the addition of the semi-circular South portico in 1824, because of crowding within the executive mansion itself, President Theodore Roosevelt had all work offices relocated to the newly constructed West Wing in 1901.
Eight years in 1909, President William Howard Taft expanded the West Wing and created the first Oval Office, in the main mansion, the third-floor attic was converted to living quarters in 1927 by augmenting the existing hip roof with long shed dormers. A newly constructed East Wing was used as an area for social events. East Wing alterations were completed in 1946, creating additional office space, by 1948, the houses load-bearing exterior walls and internal wood beams were found to be close to failure. Under Harry S. Truman, the rooms were completely dismantled. Once this work was completed, the rooms were rebuilt. The Executive Residence is made up of six stories—the Ground Floor, State Floor, Second Floor, the property is a National Heritage Site owned by the National Park Service and is part of the Presidents Park. In 2007, it was ranked second on the American Institute of Architects list of Americas Favorite Architecture, in May 1790, New York began construction of Government House for his official residence, but he never occupied it.
The national capital moved to Philadelphia in December 1790, the July 1790 Residence Act named Philadelphia, Pennsylvania the temporary national capital for a 10-year period while the Federal City was under construction. The City of Philadelphia rented Robert Morriss city house at 190 High Street for Washingtons presidential residence, the first president occupied the Market Street mansion from November 1790 to March 1797, and altered it in ways that may have influenced the design of the White House. As part of an effort to have Philadelphia named the permanent national capital, Pennsylvania built a much grander presidential mansion several blocks away. President John Adams occupied the Market Street mansion from March 1797 to May 1800, on Saturday, November 1,1800, he became the first president to occupy the White House. The Presidents House in Philadelphia became a hotel and was demolished in 1832, the Presidents House was a major feature of Pierre Charles LEnfants plan for the newly established federal city, Washington, D. C
A car is a wheeled, self-powered motor vehicle used for transportation and a product of the automotive industry. The year 1886 is regarded as the year of the modern car. In that year, German inventor Karl Benz built the Benz Patent-Motorwagen, cars did not become widely available until the early 20th century. One of the first cars that was accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were rapidly adopted in the United States of America, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, cars are equipped with controls used for driving, passenger comfort and safety, and controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, examples include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, and in car entertainment. Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by a combustion engine. Both fuels cause air pollution and are blamed for contributing to climate change.
Vehicles using alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles and natural gas vehicles are gaining popularity in some countries, electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are costs and benefits to car use, the costs of car usage include the cost of, acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and auto maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society of car use include, maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide. The benefits may include transportation, independence. The ability for humans to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies and it was estimated in 2010 that the number of cars had risen to over 1 billion vehicles, up from the 500 million of 1986. The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China, the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre.
In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, the Gaulish language was a branch of the Brythoic language which used the word Karr, the Brythonig language evolved into Welsh where Car llusg and car rhyfel still survive. It originally referred to any wheeled vehicle, such as a cart, carriage. Motor car is attested from 1895, and is the formal name for cars in British English. Autocar is a variant that is attested from 1895
Volkswagen, shortened to VW, is a German automaker founded on May 28,1937 by the German Labour Front and headquartered in Wolfsburg. It is the flagship marque of the Volkswagen Group and is the largest automaker worldwide, Volkswagen is German for peoples car, and the companys current international advertising slogan is just Volkswagen. American English pronunciation is approximately volks wagon, for vehicle timeline tables, Volkswagen. Volkswagen was originally established in 1937 by the German Labour Front, in the early 1930s, the German auto industry was still largely composed of luxury models, and the average German could rarely afford anything more than a motorcycle. As a result, only one German out of 50 owned a car, seeking a potential new market, some car makers began independent peoples car projects – the Mercedes 170H, Adler AutoBahn, Steyr 55, and Hanomag 1. 3L, among others. The trend was not new, as Béla Barényi is credited with having conceived the design in the mid-1920s. Josef Ganz developed the Standard Superior, in Germany, the company Hanomag mass-produced the 2/10 PS Komissbrot, a small, cheap rear engined car, from 1925 to 1928.
Also, in Czechoslovakia, the Hans Ledwinkas penned Tatra T77, Ferdinand Porsche, a well-known designer for high-end vehicles and race cars, had been trying for years to get a manufacturer interested in a small car suitable for a family. He felt the cars at the time were just stripped down big cars. He wanted his German citizens to have the access to a car as the Americans. The Peoples Car would be available to citizens of the Third Reich through a plan at 990 Reichsmark —about the price of a small motorcycle. Despite heavy lobbying in favor of one of the existing projects, Hitler chose to sponsor an all-new, state-owned factory using Ferdinand Porsches design. The intention was that ordinary Germans would buy the car by means of a savings scheme, the entire project was financially unsound, and only the corruption and lack of accountability of the Nazi regime made it possible. Prototypes of the car called the KdF-Wagen, appeared from 1938 onwards, the car already had its distinctive round shape and air-cooled, flat-four, rear-mounted engine.
The VW car was just one of many KdF programs, which included such as tours. The prefix Volks— was not just applied to cars, but to products in Germany. On May 28,1937, Gesellschaft zur Vorbereitung des Deutschen Volkswagens mbH, more than a year later, on September 16,1938, it was renamed to Volkswagenwerk GmbH. Erwin Komenda, the longstanding Auto Union chief designer, part of Ferdinand Porsches hand-picked team, developed the car body of the prototype and it was one of the first cars designed with the aid of a wind tunnel—a method used for German aircraft design since the early 1920s
The Mercury Monterey is a full-size car model that was introduced by Mercury in 1952. It would share the body style with the slightly more upscale Marquis. The Marquis-Monterey body was built on a wheelbase and had a longer body than the Ford LTD, Ford Galaxie. During its production the Monterey served as the high-end, mid-range and it was the only Mercury to be in continuous production throughout the 1960s. After the 1974 model year, the Monterey was discontinued as Mercury streamlined its full-size offerings down to the Marquis nameplate, from 2004 to 2007, the nameplate was revived for a minivan, the counterpart of the Ford Freestar. Montereys had either a covered top for $2146 or vinyl for $2157. For $10 more all leather seats were an option, two special colors were offered, Turquoise Blue with dark blue top and Cortaro Red metallic with black top. Black with yellow top was available, Mercury got a styling and engineering redesign for 1952, such as 18% more window area. Monterey became a series and Mercurys top model line, a convertible.
The heater and vent controls were changed to levers and placed on a plane set perpendicular to the dash behind the steering wheel, a station wagon bowed for 1953, the same year a Siren Red Monterey Convertible became Fords forty-millionth car produced. The 1954 Montereys received alterations, such as new. For 1955 the car lost its status as Mercurys top model, the same year, it gained the 292 cu in Y-block from the Thunderbird, producing 188 hp with the standard transmission or 198 with the Merc-O-Matic. It used independent ball-joint front suspension and it was available in two lower-priced trim packages called the Medalist, with the Custom as the basic model. 1956 brought another new engine, the 235 hp 312 cu. in and this year, along with the rest of Ford, Mercury cars started to sport the Lifeguard safety equipment. The deep-dish steering wheel and safety door locks were standard, the fullsize Mercury was redesigned for 1957 and grew considerably larger as well, riding on an exclusive 122 in wheelbase. A new frame allowed a lower floor which made the car look lower and longer.
Interior features included a front seat track stop, a new design for the safety steering wheel, a new radio, the station wagons were divested from the Monterey series, with the Commuter and Colony Park lines. The 312 Ford Y-block gained 20 horsepower to go with the weight
Its appearance followed the concept show car in 1954 called the Mercury XM-800. The vehicle name was introduced in 1955 and applied to Mercurys premium automobile line, ford historians are at a loss as to where the name originated, the consensus is that its taken from the upper class community of Montclair, New Jersey. For 1955 and 1956, Montclairs featured Mercurys best appointments, extra chrome trim, the dash was redesigned with a new three-tier instrument panel. The Montclair model line included the Sun Valley, which featured a Plexiglas bubble over the front half of the roof section. Following lower sales of the Sun Valley for 1956, the version was discontinued for 1957, in 1957 the Montclair name was pushed down market by the introduction of the Turnpike Cruiser. Nevertheless it could now be ordered with the same 368 cu in Lincoln Y-Block V8 that came standard on the Turnpike Cruiser, fuel economy was 16. 2MPG at 50 mph. In 1958 the Turnpike Cruiser became a Montclair trim level, in 1959, Popular Mechanics wrote that head room was not good.
The Montclair and Park Lane models were resurrected for 1964 as trim levels on full-sized Mercurys and they remained in place until replaced by the Monterey Custom in 1969. The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946-1975, 1955-56 Mercury, Mink Coat at a Muskrat Price