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Phagomimicry

Phagomimicry is a defensive behaviour of sea hares, in which the animal ejects a mixture of chemicals, which mimic food, overwhelm the senses of their predator, giving the sea hare a chance to escape. The typical defence response of the sea hare to a predator is to release two chemicals - ink from the ink gland and opaline from the opaline gland. While ink creates a dark, diffuse cloud in the water which disrupts the sensory perception of the predator by acting as a smokescreen and as a decoy, the opaline, which affects the senses dealing with feeding, causes the predator to instinctively attack the cloud of chemicals as if it were indeed food; this ink is able to mimic food by having a high concentration of amino acids and other compounds that are found in food, the attack behaviour of the predator allows the sea-hares the opportunity to escape. The inking behaviour exhibited in phagomimicry is in response to predator threat. Sea hares have many natural predators such as starfish and other crustaceans.

When threatened by a predator, phagomimicry behaviour begins. An ink solution is released from both the opaline and ink glands individually the compounds mix in the mantle of the sea hare to form the ink mixture; when ink is released it creates a smoke-screen like defense mechanism allowing the sea hares time to escape while affecting the olfactory and gustation senses of their predator. Predators are tricked into thinking that they have captured their prey due to the specific chemical composition of the ink released; this induces feeding behaviours in the predator, again gives the sea hares a better chance of escaping predation. The opaline gland is a structure resembling a bundle of grapes attached to a central canal, composed of epithelial cells. Synthesis of the opaline substance happens in the opaline vesicles themselves, as there are only opaline vesicles and muscle cells in the opaline gland; the gland is innervated by three separate motor neurons, is composed of single large cells and vesicle cells, all of which have enlarged nucleus.

These cells are inclosed in an external layer of muscle. When a sensory neuron detects a predator threat, dopamine is released onto one of the three motor neurons; the dopamine release causes a gland contraction, which causes the expulsion of the opaline substance. The ink gland is smaller in size than the opaline gland, is composed of two cell types: Rough endoplasmic recticlum and granulate cells; the cells are surrounded to contraction and expelling their contents. The RER is the formation site of the anti-predator protein, the granulate cells are for extra pigment storage. Pigment is dependent on the amount of red algae available to the sea hares, the higher the red algal consumption, the darker the colour of their ink; this mixing can cause another chain of reactions between the compounds that have further implications on the effect that the ink secretion has on predators. Both the opaline and ink gland secrete different substances that when mixed together form the ink released during phagomimicry.

The secretion is acidic and contains high levels of bioactive molecules that can serve as feeding stimulants, feeding deterrents, aversive compounds. Feeding stimulants can be found in both the ink and opaline secretions in the form of amino acids, serve to trick predators into thinking that the ink secretion is a food source. To induce the aversive feeding effects on predators the ink contains a compound from the opaline gland produced from the oxidation of L-lysine, mixed in the mantle with the L-amino acid oxidase from the ink gland. Together this compound, called escapin is secreted in the ink, is a feeding deterrent; the ink secretion can have a long-lasting effect on predators as chemical phagomimics can cause chemo-mechanosensory stimulation which overwhelms the sensory system and leads to confusion and the cession of the attack. The ink released from the ink gland is dark purple in colour, the colour depends on the type of algae consumed by the sea-hare; the opaline ink is white in colour, when it mixes with the ink gland ink they form a compound that suspends itself in the water, creating a smoke-screen defence mechanism.

The particle density of the ink is similar to that of species such as cuttlefish, the particles range in size from 80–150 nm, with a density of 1.27 cm-3, which allows for the inks suspension in water. Cuttlefish cephalopod ink

Ceuthomantis duellmani

Ceuthomantis duellmani is a species of frog in the Craugastoridae family. It is endemic to Bolívar state, in the southeastern Venezuela, it is named in honour of herpetologist from the University of Kansas. The type series consists of three males measuring 24–25 mm in snout–vent length. Dorsal skin is areolate to green to brown in colour, without any apparent pattern; some tubercles on head and body are reddish. Tympanum is distinct. Iris is yellow. Ventral surfaces are grey. Third and fourth fingers and third to fifth toes bear broad, medially notched discs that are characteristic for the genus. Males call during the day on humid days and after rains; the trill call might be a synapomorphy of the genus. Ceuthomantis duellmani occur in montane dwarf forests that are covered by mosses and other epiphytes. Males call from hidden inside roots and holes of trees, its altitudinal range is at least 1,100–1,375 m asl. Ceuthomantis duellmani is abundant on the Sarisariñama tepui; the tepui is within the Jaua-Sarisariñama National Park, no major threats to this species have been identified.

Its distribution is to include the neighbouring tepuis Jaua and Guanacoco

Stefan Kramer (impressionist)

Stefan Kramer Solé is a Chilean impressionist, actor and announcer. He is known in Chile for his ability to mimic accents and expressions of dozens of famous people in Chile, such as TV hosts, politicians, sports players and celebrities. Kramer comes from a German Swiss family in the Araucanía Region of southern Chile, he is married to singer Paloma Soto. Kramer's first television appearance was as a contestant on ¿Cuánto vale el show? on Chilevisión. His debut as an impressionist was in the TVN television show Noche de Juegos, during the comedy section of Ponce Candidato, a character performed by Julián Elfenbein. Kramer has participated in various television shows, such as Mekano, Amenaza Real, De Pe a Pá, REC and ¿Cuánto vale el show?, both programs from Chilevisión and hosted by Leo Caprile. In 2006 Kramer had a great success in the Huaso de Olmué Festival. Kramer took part in the second night of the Viña de Mar Festival in 2008. In a comedy routine that lasted 90 minutes, Kramer impersonated around 33 characters.

The audience awarded him with two Antorchas and a Gaviota de Plata. Many Chilean TV shows have taken advantage of the good rating that produces Kramer's routine and they have repeated it in uncountable occasions, without the comedian receives some money remuneration. On July 12, 2009, Kramer appeared on TVN's Animal Nocturno, where he personified several presidential candidates, such as Marco Enríquez-Ominami, Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, Sebastián Piñera, he imitated football manager Marcelo Bielsa, met with praise. In 2010, Kramer co-hosted with Felipe Camiroaga the TV show Halcón y Camaleón in TVN, where he achieved great success. During one of the shows, Kramer personified Bielsa, where he explained the alleged reasons for the impasse that he lived in La Moneda with the Chilean President Sebastián Piñera. Kramer taped a personification of Piñera, which caused displeasure within the Chilean Government, as it was held just when the former President Michelle Bachelet was invited. On December 2, 2011, Kramer was again invited to the Telethon Theater, as the opening artist for that year's Teletón, where he imitated Miguel "Negro" Piñera, the brother of President Sebastián Piñera.

For the 30th Anniversary of the Chilean Telethon, he performed at the closing ceremony at the National Stadium, where he imitated politicians and Teletón host Mario Kreutzberger, of "Sábado Gigante" fame. Kramer was praised by Don Francisco himself, he repeated at the closures of the 2014, 2015, 2016 editions. On May 26, 2016, Kramer became the announcer of his own television show, called Kamaleón, el show de Kramer, broadcast by TVN, he was invited by Chilevisión in the new version of the El Club de la Comedia stand up comedy show. Stefan Kramer on IMDb

Dragana Mirković videography

The videography of Serbian recording artist Dragana Mirković consists of 135 music videos. Imam dečka nemirnog Imam dečka nemirnog Uteši me, tužna sam Hej mladiću, baš si šik Spasi me samoće Spasi me samoće Oprosti za sve Kad bi znao kako čeznem Ruže cvetaju samo u pesmama Ne veruj im, srećo Ruže cvetaju samo u pesmama Treba mi neko Najlepši par Ne idi, ostani moj Mogu li reći, ne volim te Slađano moje, slađano Kolo sreće Najlepši par Milo moje, što te nema Još ljubavi ima Milo moje, što te nema Simpatija Simpatija Nema sreće bez tebe Sto ću ćuda ućiniti Vatra Doviđenja, milo moje Neću da živim bez tebe Čekaj me još malo Pomisli želju Mamina i tatina Jeleni košute ljube Hoćeš, hoćeš, hogledaćeš Oprosti što ti smetam Cvete moj Ne plače se za junakom Dobra devojka Volim te, voliš me Kaži mi sunce moje Dodaj gas Umreću zbog tebe Što te nema Bog srca mog Dobra devojka Hajdemo negde Svud si oko mene Poklanjam ti svoju ljubav Poklanjam ti svoju ljubav Dolaze nam bolji dani Dobro jutro, dobar dan Umirem majko Pitaju me u mom kraju Sedmi dan Žensko srce Matematika Da, da, da Dve sudbine Stani dušo, stani zlato Dolaze nam bolji dani Moralo je leto proći O, da li znaš Do poslednjeg daha Do poslednjeg daha Pitam svoje srce Baš tebe volim ja Mnogo sam te poželela Biću njegova Zaboravi srce Vetrovi tuge Kad za tobom umrem ja Halo dragi Tebi ljubav, meni bol Ne pada mi na pamet Nije tebi do mene Nije tebi do mene Crni Leptir Čarolija Varala bih, varala Od kad sam se u tebe zaljubila Za mene si ti Tugo mojih dana Opojni su zumbuli Ljubav se meni dešava Kaži mi Slatko Od Snova Baby Don't You Know Red Ferrari Plači Zemljo Plači Zemljo I u dobru i u zlu Stani suzo stani Divlja devojka (featuring Nino Sve me na tebe podseca Volela bih da te vidim Jedan život je Oslobodi me Vrati mi se ti Nema promene Nema promene Dušu si mi opio Zagrli me majko Oči pune tuge To nije tvoja stvar Kojom gorom Poslednje veče Biće mi kako kad Niko nikog ne voli Dolina kestenova U godini Danima Nema te nema Sama Sama Ostani Nemam ja milion sudbina Ja uspomenu čuvam Trag u vremenu Evo dobro sam Prsten Rođendan Fobija Luće moje Luće moje Pečat na usnama Na kraju Nepoželjna Teci mi kroz vene Ljubi il ubi Sudbina Danak ljubavi Depresivan dan Eksplozija Život moj Zemljo okreni se Nauči me Zapaliću srce Eksplozija Jedino moje Ti me rani Laste Sve bih dala da si tu Nešto lepo Jači nego ikad 20 Umreću zbog tebe Drugovi Jedini Mili, mili Ljubavi Kontinent Pucaj pravo u srce Mače Pustinja osećanja Hej, živote Od milion jedan Lepi moj Zasto me trazis Od milion jedan On i ona Zagrli opet As featured artist and other Nek puknu dušmani Locomotion I Feel the Earth E, moj doktore Obraše se vinogradi Jecam zela Black or White ZaM Samo jedan sat Ja imam te a ko da nemam te Srcu nije lako Gromovi Ti misliš da je meni lako Kad nas vide zagrljene Simpatija Dragana Mirkovic i Juzni Vetar Dobra devojka Dolaze nam bolji dani No10

Unspotted saw-whet owl

The unspotted saw-whet owl is a small owl. It is a resident breeder in the highlands of Central America from southern Mexico south to western Panama at altitudes above 2500 m, it has been considered conspecific with the northern saw-whet owl. There are no recognized subspecies; this nocturnal bird breeds in open mountain forests, in both the cloud forest and the higher oak woodland, laying its eggs in a tree hole. It hunts rodents and other small mammals as its main prey, but will feed on birds and insects; the unspotted saw-whet owl is a small, short-tailed and broad-winged owl 18 cm long and weighing 80 g. It is dark brown above with white markings on the wings; the underparts are unstreaked buff, becoming darker on facial disc. The head is large, with a white-edged facial disc; the flight is agile. The voice of the unspotted saw-whet owl is a series of rhythmic toots. Reports of this owl at lower altitudes are invariably due to the similar call of an Anotheca tree frog; the scientific species name is for the American ornithologist Robert Ridgway.

Stiles and Skutch A guide to the birds of Costa Rica ISBN 0-8014-9600-4

2008 Zurich Film Festival

The third annual 2008 Zurich Film Festival ran from September 25 to October 5, 2008. Actor Peter Fonda will act as prexy of the feature film jury; the festival introduced a new section this year, Panorama D, dedicated to German-language film from Germany and Switzerland. The showcase opened with the Nicolette Krebitz-directed psychological drama, Das Herz ist ein dunkler Wald. Highlights of the festival included Toronto and Venice Film Festival hits such as the Coen brothers' Burn After Reading, the psychological Iraq war thriller, The Hurt Locker directed by Kathryn Bigelow, as well as Religulous, featuring Bill Maher and lensed by Larry Charles. Screening is a documentary about filmmaker Roman Polanski directed by Marina Zenovich, Roman Polanski: Wanted and Desired. Two films at the festival featured the work of actor Ben Kingsley, Elegy directed by Isabel Coixet and The Wackness helmed by Jonathan Levine. Blindness - directed by Fernando Meirelles The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas - directed by Mark Herman Burn After Reading - directed by the Coen brothers Cloud 9 - directed by Andreas Dresen Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon directed by Ang Lee Eagle Eye - directed by D.

J. Caruso Elegy - directed by Isabel Coixet The Hurt Locker - directed by Kathryn Bigelow Nights in Rodanthe - directed by George C. Wolfe Paris, Paris - directed by Christophe Barratier Religulous - directed by Larry Charles Ballast directed by Lance Hammer Before the Fall directed by F. Javier Gutierrez Blood Appears - directed by Pablo Fendrik Boogie - directed by Radu Muntean Boy of Pigs directed by William Sten Olsson Dr. Aleman - directed by Tom Schreiber Dunya & Desie - directed by Dana Nechushtan For a Moment, Freedom directed by Arash T. Riahi Jerusalema - directed by Ralph Ziman The Man Who Loved Yngve directed by Stian Kristiansen Moscow, Belgium directed by Christophe van Rompaey Sell Out! Directed by Yeo Joon Han A Thousand Oceans - directed by Luki Frieden Tulpan directed by Sergey Dvortsevoy The Wackness - directed by Jonathan Levine The World Is Big and Salvation Lurks Around the Corner directed by Stephan Komandarev Brides of Allah - directed by Natalie Assouline My Life Inside - directed by Lucia Gaja The Flower Bridge - directed by Thomas Ciulei Suddenly, Last Winter - directed by Gustav Hofer & Luca Ragazzi Blind Loves - directed by Juraj Lehotsky The Art Star and the Sudanese Twins - directed by Pietra Brettkelly Roman Polanski: Wanted and Desired - directed by Marina Zenovich Mr. Rakowski - directed by Jan Diederen Peter Fonda - head jurist Michael Dougherty Stephen Nemeth Claudia Puig Herve Schneid Dror Shaul Andrea StakaDocumentary Jury: Christian Frei Walter Huegli Lorna Tee Zurich Film Festival web site