Chordates are deuterostomes, as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are bilaterally symmetric coelomates, in the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development, and they may have body plans organized via segmentation. There are additional extinct taxa, the Vertebrata are sometimes considered as a subgroup of the clade Craniata, consisting of chordates with a skull, the Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, the worlds largest and fastest animals, the blue whale and peregrine falcon respectively, are chordates, as are humans. Fossil chordates are known from at least as early as the Cambrian explosion, which includes the acorn worms, has been presented as a fourth chordate subphylum, but it now is usually treated as a separate phylum. The Hemichordata, along with the Echinodermata, form the Ambulacraria, the Chordata and Ambulacraria form the superphylum Deuterostomia, composed of the deuterostomes.
Attempts to work out the relationships of the chordates have produced several hypotheses. All of the earliest chordate fossils have found in the Early Cambrian Chengjiang fauna. Because the fossil record of early chordates is poor, only molecular phylogenetics offers a prospect of dating their emergence. However, the use of molecular phylogenetics for dating evolutionary transitions is controversial and it has proved difficult to produce a detailed classification within the living chordates. Attempts to produce family trees shows that many of the traditional classes are paraphyletic. While this has been known since the 19th century, an insistence on only monophyletic taxa has resulted in vertebrate classification being in a state of flux. Although the name Chordata is attributed to William Bateson, it was already in prevalent use by 1880, ernst Haeckel described a taxon comprising tunicates and vertebrates in 1866. Though he used the German vernacular form, it is allowed under the ICZN code because of its subsequent latinization, among the vertebrate sub-group of chordates the notochord develops into the spine, and in wholly aquatic species this helps the animal to swim by flexing its tail.
In fish and other vertebrates, this develops into the spinal cord, the pharynx is the part of the throat immediately behind the mouth. In fish, the slits are modified to form gills, a muscular tail that extends backwards behind the anus. This is a groove in the wall of the pharynx. In filter-feeding species it produces mucus to gather food particles, which helps in transporting food to the esophagus and it stores iodine, and may be a precursor of the vertebrate thyroid gland
Common brushtail possum
The common brushtail possum is a nocturnal, semi-arboreal marsupial of the family Phalangeridae, it is native to Australia, and the second largest of the possums. Like most possums, the common brushtail possum is nocturnal and it is mainly a folivore, but has been known to eat small mammals such as rats. In most Australian habitats, leaves of eucalyptus are a significant part of the diet, the tail is prehensile and naked on its lower underside. There are four variations, silver-grey, black. It is the Australian marsupial most often seen by city-dwellers, as it is one of few that thrives in cities, as well as a range of natural. Around human habitations, common brushtails are inventive and determined foragers with a liking for fruit trees, vegetable gardens, the common brushtail possum has large and pointed ears. It has a tail that is adapted to grasping branches. Its forefeet have claws and the first toe of each hind foot is clawless but has a strong grasp. The possum grooms itself with the third and fourth toes which are fused together and it has a thick and woolly pelage that varies in colour depending on the subspecies.
Colour patterns tend to be silver-gray, black, red or cream, the ventral areas are typically lighter and the tail is usually brown or black. The muzzle is marked with dark patches, the common brushtail possum has a head and body length of 32–58 cm with a tail length of 24–40 cm. Males are generally larger than females, in addition, the coat of the male tends to be reddish at the shoulders. As with most marsupials, the female brushtail possum has a forward-opening, the chest of both sexes has a scent gland that emits a reddish secretion which stains that fur around it. It marks its territory with these secretions, the common brushtail possum is perhaps the most widespread marsupial of Australia. It is found throughout the eastern and northern parts of the continent, as well as some regions, Tasmania. It is widespread in New Zealand since its introduction in 1840, the common brushtail possum can be found in a variety of habitats, such as forests, semiarid areas and even cultivated or urban areas.
It is mostly a forest inhabiting species, however it is found in treeless areas. In New Zealand, possums favour broadleaf-podocarp near farmland pastures, in southern beech forests and pine plantations, possums are less common
Taxonomy is the science of defining groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics and giving names to those groups. The exact definition of taxonomy varies from source to source, but the core of the remains, the conception, naming. There is some disagreement as to whether biological nomenclature is considered a part of taxonomy, the broadest meaning of taxonomy is used here. The word taxonomy was introduced in 1813 by Candolle, in his Théorie élémentaire de la botanique, the term alpha taxonomy is primarily used today to refer to the discipline of finding and naming taxa, particularly species. In earlier literature, the term had a different meaning, referring to morphological taxonomy, ideals can, it may be said, never be completely realized. They have, however, a value of acting as permanent stimulants. Some of us please ourselves by thinking we are now groping in a beta taxonomy, turrill thus explicitly excludes from alpha taxonomy various areas of study that he includes within taxonomy as a whole, such as ecology, physiology and cytology.
He further excludes phylogenetic reconstruction from alpha taxonomy, Ernst Mayr in 1968 defined beta taxonomy as the classification of ranks higher than species. This activity is what the term denotes, it is referred to as beta taxonomy. How species should be defined in a group of organisms gives rise to practical and theoretical problems that are referred to as the species problem. The scientific work of deciding how to define species has been called microtaxonomy, by extension, macrotaxonomy is the study of groups at higher taxonomic ranks, from subgenus and above only, than species. While some descriptions of taxonomic history attempt to date taxonomy to ancient civilizations, earlier works were primarily descriptive, and focused on plants that were useful in agriculture or medicine. There are a number of stages in scientific thinking. Early taxonomy was based on criteria, the so-called artificial systems. Later came systems based on a complete consideration of the characteristics of taxa, referred to as natural systems, such as those of de Jussieu, de Candolle and Bentham.
The publication of Charles Darwins Origin of Species led to new ways of thinking about classification based on evolutionary relationships and this was the concept of phyletic systems, from 1883 onwards. This approach was typified by those of Eichler and Engler, the advent of molecular genetics and statistical methodology allowed the creation of the modern era of phylogenetic systems based on cladistics, rather than morphology alone. Taxonomy has been called the worlds oldest profession, and naming and classifying our surroundings has likely been taking place as long as mankind has been able to communicate
New Guinea is a large Island in the South West Pacific region. It is the worlds second-largest island, after Greenland, covering an area of 785,753 km2. The island is divided between two countries, Papua New Guinea to the east, and Indonesia to the west, the island has been known by various names. The name Papua was used to refer to parts of the island before contact with the West and its etymology is unclear, one theory states that it is from Tidore, the language used by the Sultanate of Tidore, which controlled parts of the islands coastal region. The name came from papo and ua, which means not united or, ploeg reports that the word papua is often said to derive from the Malay word papua or pua-pua, meaning frizzly-haired, referring to the highly curly hair of the inhabitants of these areas. When the Portuguese and Spanish explorers arrived in the island via the Spice Islands, when the Dutch colonized it as part of Netherlands East Indies, they called it Nieuw Guinea. The name Irian was used in the Indonesian language to refer the island and Indonesian province, the name was promoted in 1945 by Marcus Kaisiepo, brother of the future governor Frans Kaisiepo.
It is taken from the Biak language of Biak Island, and means to rise and this name of Irian is the name used in the Biak language and other languages such as Serui and Waropen. The name was used until 2001, when the name Papua was again used for the island, the name Irian, which was originally favored by natives, is now considered to be a name imposed by the authority of Jakarta. New Guinea is an island to the north of Australia, and it is isolated by the Arafura Sea to the west and the Torres Strait and Coral Sea to the east. A spine of east–west mountains, the New Guinea Highlands, dominates the geography of New Guinea, stretching over 1,600 km from the head to the tail of the island. The western half of the island of New Guinea contains the highest mountains in Oceania, rising up to 4,884 m high, the tree line is around 4,000 m elevation and the tallest peaks contain permanent equatorial glaciers—which have been retreating since at least 1936. Various other smaller mountain ranges occur both north and west of the central ranges, except in high elevations, most areas possess a warm humid climate throughout the year, with some seasonal variation associated with the northeast monsoon season.
At 4,884 metres, Puncak Jaya makes New Guinea the worlds fourth highest landmass, Puncak Mandala, located in Papua, is the second highest peak on the island at 4,760 metres. Puncak Trikora, in Papua, is 4,750 metres, mount Wilhelm is the highest peak on the PNG side of the border at 4,509 metres. Its granite peak is the highest point of the Bismarck Range, mount Giluwe 4,368 metres is the second highest summit in PNG. It is the highest volcanic peak in Oceania, another major habitat feature is the vast southern and northern lowlands. Stretching for hundreds of kilometres, these include lowland rainforests, extensive wetlands, savanna grasslands, the southern lowlands are the site of Lorentz National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
The honey possum, known by the native names tait and noolbenger, is a tiny Australian marsupial. It is the species in the genus Tarsipes and in the family Tarsipedidae. Many authorities believe it is distinct to be more properly raised to a separate superfamily within the Diprotodontia. It is thought to be the survivor of an otherwise long-extinct marsupial group. It is an important pollinator for such plants as Banksia attenuata, male honey possums weigh just 7 to 11 g, and females weigh 8 to 16 g, about half the weight of a mouse. Their body length ranges from 6.5 to 9 cm, radio-tracking has shown, that males particularly are quite mobile, moving distances of up to 0.5 km in a night and with use areas averaging 0.8 hectares. Both its front and back feet are adept at grasping, enabling it to trees with ease. The honey possum can use its tail to grip. They have a lifespan between one and two years. The honey possum is nocturnal, but will come out to feed during daylight in cooler weather. Generally, though, it spends the days asleep in a shelter of convenience, a rock cranny, a tree cavity, when food is scarce, or in cold weather, it becomes torpid to conserve energy.
Breeding depends on the availability of nectar and can occur at any time of the year, females are promiscuous, mating with a large number of males. Competition has led to the males having very large relative to their body weight. Their sperm is the largest in the world, measuring 0.36 mm. Gestation lasts for 28 days. At birth, they are the smallest of any mammal, weighing 0.005 g, nurturing and development within the pouch lasts for about 60 days, after which they emerge covered in fur and with open eyes, weighing some 2.5 g. As soon as they emerge, they are left in a sheltered area while the mother searches for food for herself. However, their weight soon becomes too much, and they stop nursing at around 11 weeks, as is common in marsupials, a second litter is often born when the pouch is vacated by the first, fertilised embryos being stopped from developing. Most of the time, honey possums stick to separate territories of one hectare
Mammals are any vertebrates within the class Mammalia, a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles by the possession of a neocortex, three middle ear bones and mammary glands. All female mammals nurse their young with milk, secreted from the mammary glands, Mammals include the largest animals on the planet, the great whales. The basic body type is a quadruped, but some mammals are adapted for life at sea, in the air, in trees. The largest group of mammals, the placentals, have a placenta, Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm bumblebee bat to the 30-meter blue whale. With the exception of the five species of monotreme, all modern mammals give birth to live young, most mammals, including the six most species-rich orders, belong to the placental group. The largest orders are the rodents and Soricomorpha, the next three biggest orders, depending on the biological classification scheme used, are the Primates, the Cetartiodactyla, and the Carnivora. Living mammals are divided into the Yinotheria and Theriiformes There are around 5450 species of mammal, in some classifications, extant mammals are divided into two subclasses, the Prototheria, that is, the order Monotremata, and the Theria, or the infraclasses Metatheria and Eutheria.
The marsupials constitute the group of the Metatheria, and include all living metatherians as well as many extinct ones. Much of the changes reflect the advances of cladistic analysis and molecular genetics, findings from molecular genetics, for example, have prompted adopting new groups, such as the Afrotheria, and abandoning traditional groups, such as the Insectivora. The mammals represent the only living Synapsida, which together with the Sauropsida form the Amniota clade, the early synapsid mammalian ancestors were sphenacodont pelycosaurs, a group that produced the non-mammalian Dimetrodon. At the end of the Carboniferous period, this group diverged from the line that led to todays reptiles. Some mammals are intelligent, with some possessing large brains, self-awareness, Mammals can communicate and vocalize in several different ways, including the production of ultrasound, scent-marking, alarm signals and echolocation. Mammals can organize themselves into fission-fusion societies and hierarchies, most mammals are polygynous, but some can be monogamous or polyandrous.
They provided, and continue to provide, power for transport and agriculture, as well as commodities such as meat, dairy products, wool. Mammals are hunted or raced for sport, and are used as model organisms in science, Mammals have been depicted in art since Palaeolithic times, and appear in literature, film and religion. Defaunation of mammals is primarily driven by anthropogenic factors, such as poaching and habitat destruction, Mammal classification has been through several iterations since Carl Linnaeus initially defined the class. No classification system is accepted, McKenna & Bell and Wilson & Reader provide useful recent compendiums. Though field work gradually made Simpsons classification outdated, it remains the closest thing to a classification of mammals
The greater glider is a small gliding marsupial found in Australia. It is not closely related to the Petaurus group of gliding marsupials but instead to the ringtail possum. The greater glider is nocturnal and is a herbivore feeding almost exclusively on Eucalyptus leaves. Like its relative the lemur-like ringtail, the glider is found in two forms, a sooty brown form, or a grey-to-white form. The greater glider is found in eucalypt forest from Mossman, Queensland, to Daylesford, Greater gliders have a head and body about 39 to 43 centimetres long, with the females being generally larger than the males. Their body is covered with a coat of fur that increases their apparent size. The head is short, but with a muzzle. Each side of the body bears membranes stretching between the elbow and the ankle, that give the animal the ability to perform controlled glides and this is in contrast to other gliding marsupials that have gliding membranes stretching from the wrists to the ankles. The feet have strongly recurved claws to grip onto bark or other surfaces, there are five toes on each foot, with the first toe on the hind foot, and the first two toes on the fore foot, being opposable.
The fur is soft and up to 60 millimetres long, the colour is variable within the populations, ranging from white to brown. Body mass varies clinally from about 1,600 grams in southern Victoria to about 600 grams in north Queensland, heat management in the greater glider is performed by licking extremities and the ventral body surface, with direct evaporation being the main method of the cooling. Furthermore, the glider can use its gliding membranes to reduce heat loss by increasing the layer of insulation at the skin surface. The greater glider can digest low nutrient foliage, specifically eucalypt leaf matter, which contains a variety of phenolic and terpenoid compounds, mature females will give birth to a single progeny, each year which is typically born in late autumn or early winter. The underdeveloped offspring will spend the four months within the pouch of the mother to suckle. It will remain within the security of the pouch until about nine months of age, the greater glider is found in southern Queensland, eastern Australia, southeastern New South Wales, and the montane forests of the Victorian central highlands.
The greater glider is usually tracked via spotlighting on transects, radio tagging, a large factor determining habitat choice is the presence of specific species of eucalypt. Distribution levels are higher in regions of montane forest containing manna gum, the presence of E. cypellocarpa appears to improve the quality of habitat for the greater glider in forests dominated by E. obliqua. Another factor determining population density is elevation, optimal levels are 845 m above sea level
The kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae. The Australian government estimates that 34.3 million kangaroos lived within the commercial harvest areas of Australia in 2011, as with the terms wallaroo and wallaby, kangaroo refers to a polyphyletic grouping of species. All three refer to members of the taxonomic family and are distinguished according to size. The largest species in the family are called kangaroos and the smallest are generally called wallabies, the term wallaroos refers to species of an intermediate size. There is the tree-kangaroo, another genus of macropod, which inhabits the rainforests of New Guinea, far northeastern Queensland. Kangaroos have large, powerful legs, large feet adapted for leaping, a long muscular tail for balance. Like most marsupials, female kangaroos have a pouch called a marsupium in which joeys complete postnatal development, the large kangaroos have adapted much better than the smaller macropods to land clearing for pastoral agriculture and habitat changes brought to the Australian landscape by humans.
Many of the species are rare and endangered, while kangaroos are relatively plentiful. The kangaroo is important to both Australian culture and the image, and consequently there are numerous popular culture references. Wild kangaroos are shot for meat, leather hides, and to grazing land. Although controversial, kangaroo meat has perceived health benefits for human consumption compared with traditional meats due to the low level of fat on kangaroos, the word kangaroo derives from the Guugu Yimithirr word gangurru, referring to grey kangaroos. Cook first referred to kangaroos in his entry of 4 August. Guugu Yimithirr is the language of the people of the area, a common myth about the kangaroos English name is that kangaroo was a Guugu Yimithirr phrase for I dont understand you. According to this legend and Banks were exploring the area when they happened upon the animal and they asked a nearby local what the creatures were called. The local responded Kangaroo, meaning I dont understand you, which Cook took to be the name of the creature and this myth was debunked in the 1970s by linguist John B.
Haviland in his research with the Guugu Yimithirr people, Kangaroos are often colloquially referred to as roos. Male kangaroos are called bucks, jacks, or old men, females are does, flyers, or jills, the collective noun for kangaroos is a mob, troop, or court. There are four species that are referred to as kangaroos
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian,419.2 million years ago, to the beginning of the Carboniferous,358.9 Mya. It is named after Devon, where rocks from this period were first studied, the first significant adaptive radiation of life on dry land occurred during the Devonian. Free-sporing vascular plants began to spread across dry land, forming extensive forests which covered the continents, by the middle of the Devonian, several groups of plants had evolved leaves and true roots, and by the end of the period the first seed-bearing plants appeared. Various terrestrial arthropods became well-established, Fish reached substantial diversity during this time, leading the Devonian to often be dubbed the Age of Fish. The first ray-finned and lobe-finned bony fish appeared, while the placodermi began dominating almost every aquatic environment. The ancestors of all four-limbed vertebrates began adapting to walking on land, as their strong pectoral, in the oceans, primitive sharks became more numerous than in the Silurian and Late Ordovician.
The first ammonites, species of molluscs, trilobites, the mollusk-like brachiopods and the great coral reefs, were still common. The Late Devonian extinction which started about 375 million years ago severely affected marine life, killing off all placodermi, and all trilobites, save for a few species of the order Proetida. The palaeogeography was dominated by the supercontinent of Gondwana to the south, the continent of Siberia to the north, while the rock beds that define the start and end of the Devonian period are well identified, the exact dates are uncertain. According to the International Commission on Stratigraphy, the Devonian extends from the end of the Silurian 419.2 Mya, another common term is Age of the Fishes, referring to the evolution of several major groups of fish that took place during the period. Older literature on the Anglo-Welsh basin divides it into the Downtonian, Dittonian and Farlovian stages, in the Late Devonian, by contrast, arid conditions were less prevalent across the world and temperate climates were more common.
The Devonian Period is formally broken into Early and Late subdivisions, the rocks corresponding to those epochs are referred to as belonging to the Lower and Upper parts of the Devonian System. Early Devonian The Early Devonian lasted from 419.2 ±2.8 to 393.3 ±2.5 and began with the Lochkovian stage, which lasted until the Pragian. It spanned from 410.8 ±2.8 to 407.6 ±2.5, and was followed by the Emsian, which lasted until the Middle Devonian began,393. 3±2.7 million years ago. Middle Devonian The Middle Devonian comprised two subdivisions, first the Eifelian, which gave way to the Givetian 387. 7±2.7 million years ago. Late Devonian Finally, the Late Devonian started with the Frasnian,382.7 ±2.8 to 372.2 ±2.5, during which the first forests took shape on land. The first tetrapods appeared in the record in the ensuing Famennian subdivision. This lasted until the end of the Devonian,358. 9±2.5 million years ago, the Devonian was a relatively warm period, and probably lacked any glaciers
The Powhatan are a Native American people in Virginia. It may refer to a leader of those tribes. It is estimated there were about 14, 000–21,000 Powhatan people in eastern Virginia when the English settled Jamestown in 1607. They were known as Virginia Algonquians, as they spoke a language known as Powhatan or Virginia Algonquian. In the late 16th and early 17th centuries, a mamanatowick named Wahunsunacawh, created an organization by affiliating 30 tributary peoples. Wahunsunacawh came to be known by the English as Powhatan, each of the tribes within this organization had its own weroance, but all paid tribute to Powhatan. After Powhatans death in 1618, hostilities with colonists escalated under the chiefdom of his brother and his large-scale attacks in 1622 and 1644 met strong reprisals by the English, resulting in the near elimination of the tribe. By 1646, what is called the Powhatan Paramount Chiefdom by modern historians had been decimated, the Native Americans did not have any immunity to these, which had been endemic in Europe and Asia for centuries.
The wholesale deaths greatly weakened and hollowed out the Native American societies, by the mid-17th century, the leaders of the colony were desperate for labor to develop the land. Almost half of the English and European immigrants arrived as indentured servants, as settlement continued, the colonists imported growing numbers of enslaved Africans for labor. By 1700, the colonies had about 6,000 black slaves and it was common for black slaves to escape and join the surrounding Powhatan, some white servants were noted to have joined the Indians. Africans and whites worked and lived together, some intermarried with them. After Bacons Rebellion in 1676, the colony enslaved Indians for control, in 1691, the House of Burgesses abolished Indian slavery, many Powhatan were held in servitude well into the 18th century. In the 21st century, eight Indian tribes are recognized by Virginia as having ancestral ties to the Powhatan confederation. The Pamunkey and Mattaponi are the two peoples who have retained reservation lands from the 17th century.
The Powhatan Renape Nation has been recognized by the state of New Jersey, the competing cultures of the Powhatan and English settlers were united through unions and marriages of members, of which the most well known was that of Pocahontas and John Rolfe. Their son Thomas Rolfe was the ancestor of many Virginians, many of the First Families of Virginia have both English and Virginia Indian ancestry, the name Powhatan is the name of the native village or town of Wahunsunacawh. The title Chief or King Powhatan, used by the English is believed to have derived from the name of this site
Marsupials are any members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia. All extant marsupials are endemic to Australasia and the Americas, a distinctive characteristic common to these species is that most of the young are carried in a pouch. Well-known marsupials include kangaroos, koalas, opossums, Tasmanian devils, others include the numbat, the bandicoot, the bettong, the bilby, the quoll, and the quokka. Marsupials represent the clade originating from the last common ancestor of extant metatherians, like other mammals in the Metatheria, they give birth to relatively undeveloped young that often reside with the mother in a pouch, for a certain amount of time. Close to 70% of the 334 extant species occur on the Australian continent, the remaining 100 are found in the Americas — primarily in South America, but thirteen in Central America, and one in North America, north of Mexico. Taxonomically, the two divisions of Marsupialia are and Australian marsupials. The order Microbiotheria is found in South America, but is believed to be closely related to Australian marsupials.
There are many small species in each group. The term opossum is used to refer to American species, while similar Australian species are properly called possums, shrew opossums are more closely related to australidelphians than to true opossums. Order Notoryctemorphia. Marsupials have the characteristics of mammals—e. g. Mammary glands, three middle ear bones, and true hair, there are, striking differences as well as a number anatomical features that separate them from Eutherians. In addition to the front pouch, which contains multiple nipples for the protection and sustenance of their young, ossified patellae are absent in most modern marsupials and epipubic bones are present. Marsupials lack a gross communication between the right and left brain hemispheres, the skull has peculiarities in comparison to higher mammals. In general, the skull is small and tight. Holes are located in the front of the orbit, the cheekbone is enlarged and extends further to the rear. The angular extension of the jaw is bent toward the center.
Another feature is the palate which, in contrast to the higher mammals foramina. The teeth differ from that of mammals, so that all taxa except wombats have a different number of incisors in the upper and lower jaws
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia