The Phalanx CIWS is a close-in weapon system for defense against airborne threats such as anti-ship missiles and helicopters. It was designed and manufactured by the General Dynamics Corporation, Pomona Division a part of Raytheon. Consisting of a radar-guided 20 mm Vulcan cannon mounted on a swiveling base, the Phalanx has been used by the United States Navy and the naval forces of 15 other countries; the US Navy deploys it on every class of surface combat ship, except the Zumwalt-class destroyer and San Antonio-class amphibious transport dock. Other users include the British Royal Navy, the Royal Australian Navy, the Royal Canadian Navy and the US Coast Guard. A land variant, known as the LPWS, part of the C-RAM system, has been deployed in a short range missile defense role, to counter incoming rockets and mortar fire; the U. S. Navy fields the SeaRAM system, which pairs the RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile with sensors based on the Phalanx; because of their distinctive barrel-shaped radome and their automated nature of operation, Phalanx CIWS units are sometimes nicknamed "R2-D2" after the famous droid character from the Star Wars films.
The Phalanx Close-In Weapons System was developed as the last line of automated weapons defense against antiship missiles and attacking aircraft, including high-g and maneuvering sea-skimmers. The first prototype system was offered to the U. S. Navy for evaluation on the destroyer leader USS King in 1973 and it was determined that additional improvements were required to improve performance and reliability. Subsequently, the Phalanx Operational Suitability Model completed its Operational Test and Evaluation on board the destroyer USS Bigelow in 1977; the model exceeded operational maintenance and availability specifications. Another evaluation followed, the weapon system was approved for production in 1978. Phalanx production started with orders for 14 foreign military systems; the first ship fitted out was the aircraft carrier USS Coral Sea in 1980. The Navy began placing CIWS systems on non-combatant vessels in 1984; the basis of the system is the 20 mm M61 Vulcan Gatling gun autocannon, used since 1959 by the United States military on various tactical aircraft, linked to a Ku band fire control radar system for acquiring and tracking targets.
This proven system was combined with a purpose-made mounting, capable of fast elevation and traverse speeds, to track incoming targets. An self-contained unit, the mounting houses the gun, an automated fire-control system and all other major components, enabling it to automatically search for, track and confirm kills using its computer-controlled radar system. Owing to this self-contained nature, Phalanx is ideal for support ships, which lack integrated targeting systems and have limited sensors; the entire unit has a mass between 12,400 to 13,500 lb. Due to the evolution of threats and computer technology, the Phalanx system has been developed through several configurations; the basic style is the Block 0, equipped with first-generation, solid-state electronics and with marginal capability against surface targets. The Block 1 upgrade offered various improvements in radar, computing power, rate of fire, an increase in maximum engagement elevation to +70 degrees; these improvements were intended to increase the system's capability against emerging Russian supersonic antiship missiles.
Block 1A introduced a new computer system to counter more maneuverable targets. The Block 1B PSuM adds a forward-looking infrared sensor to make the weapon effective against surface targets; this addition was developed to provide ship defense against small vessel threats and other "floaters" in littoral waters and to improve the weapon's performance against slower low-flying aircraft. The FLIR's capability is of use against low-observability missiles and can be linked with the RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile system to increase RAM engagement range and accuracy; the Block 1B allows for an operator to visually identify and target threats. As the system model manager, the U. S. Navy is in the process of upgrading all their Phalanx systems to the Block 1B configuration. All U. S Navy Phalanx systems are scheduled for upgrade to Block 1B by the end of FY 2015. In addition to the FLIR sensor, the Block 1B incorporates an automatic acquisition video tracker, optimized gun barrels, Enhanced Lethality Cartridges for additional capabilities against asymmetric threats such as small maneuvering surface craft, slow-flying fixed and rotary-winged aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles.
The FLIR sensor improves performance against antiship cruise missiles, while the OGB and ELC provide tighter dispersion and increased "first-hit" range. Another system upgrade is the Phalanx 1B Baseline 2 radar to improve detection performance, increase reliability, reduce maintenance, it has a surface mode to track and destroy threats closer to the water's surface, increasing the ability to defend against fast-attack boats and low-flying missiles. S. Navy Phalanx system-equipped vessels by FY 2019; the Block 1B is used by other navies, such as Canada, Japan, Egypt and the UK. In April 2017, Raytheon tested a new electric gun for the Phalanx allowing the system to fire at varying rates to conserve ammunition. T
The World Series is the annual championship series of Major League Baseball in North America, contested since 1903 between the American League champion team and the National League champion team. The winner of the World Series championship is determined through a best-of-seven playoff, the winning team is awarded the Commissioner's Trophy; as the series is played during the fall season in North America, it is sometimes referred to as the Fall Classic. Since 2017, it has been known as the World Series presented by YouTube TV for sponsorship reasons. Prior to 1969, the team with the best regular-season win-loss record in each league automatically advanced to the World Series; the World Series has been contested 115 times as of 2019, with the AL winning 66 and the NL winning 49. Until the formation of the American Association in 1882 as a second major league, the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players and the National League represented the top level of organized baseball in the United States.
All championships were awarded to the team with the best record at the end of the season, without a postseason series being played. From 1884 to 1890, the National League and the American Association faced each other in a series of games at the end of the season to determine an overall champion; these series were disorganized in comparison to the modern World Series, with the terms arranged through negotiation of the owners of the championship teams beforehand. The number of games played ranged from as few as three in 1884, to a high of fifteen in 1887. Both the 1885 and 1890 Series ended in each team having won three games with one tie game; the series was promoted and referred to as "The Championship of the United States", "World's Championship Series", or "World's Series" for short. In his book Krakatoa: The Day the World Exploded: August 27, 1883, Simon Winchester mentions in passing that the World Series was named for the New York World newspaper, but this view is disputed; the 19th-century competitions are, not recognized as part of World Series history by Major League Baseball, as it considers 19th-century baseball to be a prologue to the modern baseball era.
Until about 1960, some sources treated the 19th-century Series on an equal basis with the post-19th-century series. After about 1930, many authorities list the start of the World Series in 1903 and discuss the earlier contests separately. Following the collapse of the American Association after the 1891 season, the National League was again the only major league; the league championship was awarded in 1892 by a playoff between half-season champions. This scheme was abandoned after one season. Beginning in 1893—and continuing until divisional play was introduced in 1969—the pennant was awarded to the first-place club in the standings at the end of the season. For four seasons, 1894–1897, the league champions played the runners-up in the post season championship series called the Temple Cup. A second attempt at this format was the Chronicle-Telegraph Cup series, played only once, in 1900. In 1901, the American League was formed as a second major league. No championship series were played in 1901 or 1902 as the National and American Leagues fought each other for business supremacy.
After two years of bitter competition and player raiding, the National and American Leagues made peace and, as part of the accord, several pairs of teams squared off for interleague exhibition games after the 1903 season. These series were arranged by the participating clubs. One of them matched the two pennant winners, Pittsburgh Pirates of the NL and Boston Americans of the AL, it had been arranged well in advance by the two owners, as both teams were league leaders by large margins. Boston upset Pittsburgh by five games to three, winning with pitching depth behind Cy Young and Bill Dinneen and with the support of the band of Royal Rooters; the Series brought much civic pride to Boston and proved the new American League could beat the Nationals. The 1904 Series, if it had been held, would have been between the AL's Boston Americans and the NL's New York Giants. At that point there was no governing body for the World Series nor any requirement that a Series be played, thus the Giants' owner John T.
Brush refused to allow his team to participate in such an event, citing the "inferiority" of the upstart American League. John McGraw, the Giants' manager went so far as to say that his Giants were "world champions" since they were the champions of the "only real major league". At the time of the announcement, their new cross-town rivals, the New York Highlanders, were leading the AL, the prospect of facing the Highlanders did not please Giants management. Boston won on the last day of the season, the leagues had agreed to hold a World's Championship Series in 1904, but it was not binding, Brush stuck to his original decision. In addition t
"Hey Little Girl" is a single released by Australian band Icehouse, the second single from the band's 1982 album, Primitive Man. The album and single were co-produced by band member and the track's writer, Iva Davies, Keith Forsey, it was released in October 1982, on Regular Records in 7" vinyl single and 12" vinyl single formats. UK and Europe releases by Chrysalis Records were on 7" and 12" formats, but with different track listings; the single was released in the US in 1983 on the same formats. On "Hey Little Girl", Iva Davies uses the Linn drum machine — the first for an Australian recording, it peaked at No. 7 on the Australian singles chart and No. 2 in Switzerland, No. 5 in Germany, Top 20 in UK, Sweden and Netherlands, No. 31 on the Billboard Mainstream Rock chart. The US cover for the single has a still from the Russell Mulcahy music video for "Hey Little Girl". In 1997, a series of re-mixes of the song was released in Germany on the Edel Music label. Another remix version by Infusion was released on the Icehouse album Meltdown in 2002.
All tracks written by Iva Davies. "Hey Little Girl" – 3:53 "Glam" – 6:40 "Hey Little Girl" – 4:10 "Love in Motion" – 3:34 "Hey Little Girl" "Glam" "Glam" "Hey Little Girl" – 7:00 "Hey Little Girl" – 3:40 "Can't Help Myself" – 5:58 "Hey Little Girl" – 3:40 "Mysterious Thing" – 4:21 "Hey Little Girl" – 6:11 "Hey Little Girl – 6:14 "Hey Little Girl" – 3:45 "Hey Little Girl" – 3:40 "Hey Little Girl" – 4:59 "Hey Little Girl" – 6:40 "Hey Little Girl" – 4:22 "Hey Little Girl" – 6:40 "Hey Little Girl" – 3:40 "Hey Little Girl" – 4:59 "Hey Little Girl" – 3:45 Credits: Icehouse membersIva Davies – vocals, Sequential Circuits Prophet-5, bass guitar, Linn drum machineAdditional musiciansKeith Forsey – additional percussionRecording detailsMixing – Cameron Allan, Bob Clearmountain, Iva Davies, Keith Forsey Engineer – Dave Jerden, Brian Reeves, David Price, Rick Butz Produced – Iva Davies, Keith Forsey "Hey Little Girl" is included in Robert Dimery's 1001 Songs You Must Hear Before You Die. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics