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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Pharmacology

Pharmacology is the branch of pharmaceutical sciences, concerned with the study of drug or medication action, where a drug can be broadly or narrowly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, organ, or organism. More it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals; the field encompasses drug composition and properties and drug design and cellular mechanisms, organ/systems mechanisms, signal transduction/cellular communication, molecular diagnostics, chemical biology and medical applications and antipathogenic capabilities. The two main areas of pharmacology are pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamics studies the effects of a drug on biological systems, pharmacokinetics studies the effects of biological systems on a drug. In broad terms, pharmacodynamics discusses the chemicals with biological receptors, pharmacokinetics discusses the absorption, distribution and excretion of chemicals from the biological systems.

Pharmacology is not synonymous with pharmacy and the two terms are confused. Pharmacology, a biomedical science, deals with the research and characterization of chemicals which show biological effects and the elucidation of cellular and organismal function in relation to these chemicals. In contrast, pharmacy, a health services profession, is concerned with the application of the principles learned from pharmacology in its clinical settings. In either field, the primary contrast between the two is their distinctions between direct-patient care, pharmacy practice, the science-oriented research field, driven by pharmacology; the word "pharmacology" is derived from Greek φάρμακον, pharmakon, "drug, spell" and -λογία, -logia "study of", "knowledge of". Pharmakon is related to pharmakos, the ritualistic sacrifice or exile of a human scapegoat or victim in Ancient Greek religion; the origins of clinical pharmacology date back to the Middle Ages, with pharmacognosy and Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine, Peter of Spain's Commentary on Isaac, John of St Amand's Commentary on the Antedotary of Nicholas.

Early pharmacology focused on herbalism and natural substances plant extracts. Medicines were compiled in books called pharmacopoeias. Crude drugs have been used since prehistory as a preparation of substances from natural sources. However, the active ingredient of crude drugs are not purified and the substance is adulterated with other substances. Traditional medicine varies between cultures and may be specific to a particular culture, such as in traditional Chinese, Mongolian and Korean medicine; however much of this has since been regarded as pseudoscience. Pharmacological substances known as entheogens may have spiritual and religious use and historical context. In the 17th century, the English physician Nicholas Culpeper translated and used pharmacological texts. Culpeper detailed plants and the conditions they could treat. In the 18th century, much of clinical pharmacology was established by the work of William Withering. Pharmacology as a scientific discipline did not further advance until the mid-19th century amid the great biomedical resurgence of that period.

Before the second half of the nineteenth century, the remarkable potency and specificity of the actions of drugs such as morphine and digitalis were explained vaguely and with reference to extraordinary chemical powers and affinities to certain organs or tissues. The first pharmacology department was set up by Rudolf Buchheim in 1847, in recognition of the need to understand how therapeutic drugs and poisons produced their effects. Subsequently, the first pharmacology department in England was set up in 1905 at University College London. Pharmacology developed in the 19th century as a biomedical science that applied the principles of scientific experimentation to therapeutic contexts; the advancement of research techniques propelled pharmacological understanding. The development of the organ bath preparation, where tissue samples are connected to recording devices, such as a myograph, physiological responses are recorded after drug application, allowed analysis of drugs' effects on tissues.

The development of the ligand binding assay in 1945 allowed quantification of the binding affinity of drugs at chemical targets. Modern pharmacologists use techniques from genetics, molecular biology and other advanced tools to transform information about molecular mechanisms and targets into therapies directed against disease, defects or pathogens, create methods for preventative care and personalized medicine; the discipline of pharmacology can be divided into many sub disciplines each with a specific focus. Pharmacology can focus on specific systems comprising the body. Divisions related to bodily systems study the effects of drugs in different systems of the body; these include neuropharmacology, in the peripheral nervous systems. Other divisions include cardiovascular and endocrine pharmacology. Psychopharmacology, is the study of the effects of drugs on the psyche and behavior, such as the behavioral effects of psychoactive drugs, it incorporates approaches and techniques from neuropharmacology, animal behavior and behavioral neuroscience, is interested in the

Pibgorn (instrument)

The pibgorn is a Welsh species of idioglot reed aerophone. The name translates as "pipe-horn", it is historically known as cornicyll and pib-corn. It utilises a single reed, cut from elder or reed, like that found in the drone of a bagpipe, an early form of the modern clarinet reed; the single chambered body of the elder pipe has a occurring parallel bore, into which are drilled six small finger-holes and a thumb-hole giving a diatonic compass of an octave. The body of the instrument is traditionally carved from a single piece of bone. Playable, extant historical examples in the Museum of Welsh Life have bodies cut and shaped of elder. Another, unplayable instrument at the Museum of a date, is made from the leg bone of an unspecified ungulate. Contemporary instruments are bored from a variety of fruitwoods, or exotic hardwoods; the reed is protected by a stock of cow-horn. The bell is shaped from a section of cow-horn; the pibgorn may be attached to a bag, with the additional possibility of a drone, called pibau cwd.

A double-pipe of unknown provenance, dated 1701 held by the Museum of Welsh Life has caused some controversy as to its possible Welsh or Mediterranean origin. The pipes in Wales, of which the pibgorn is a class, are mentioned in the laws of Hywel Dda; the earliest transcription of these dates from 1250 and specify that "the King should recognise the status of a Pencerdd in his service by giving him an appropriate instrument - either Harp, Crwth or Pipes." In modern Welsh orthography these three instruments are called telyn and pibau. Peniarth 20 c 1330, states that there are three types of wind instrument: "Organ, a Phibeu a Cherd y got", "organ, pipes and bag music". However, the instrument itself is older than these references, is part of a pattern of distribution of similar idioglot reedpipes and bag-hornpipes throughout Asia and North Africa that includes the "Old British pibcorn or hornpipe" alboka, arghul and others. William Morris writes in a letter to his brother the folklorist Richard Morris in 1759: " How pleasing it was to see the young farmworkers with their pibau cyrn under their arms....gathering the cows and piping'Mwynen Mai' and'Meillionnen’."According to Daines Barrington, who presented the pibgorn specimen shown at the Museum of Welsh life to Fellows of the Society of Antiquaries of London, an Anglesey landowner called Mr Wynn of Penhesgedd, offered an annual prize for pibgorn playing towards the end of the eighteenth century.

One such competition at Castellior Farm attracted 200 players. There is a further description by Siôn Wiliam Prichard of Christmas celebrations on the Castellior farm where the pibgorn and other instruments were played. Barrington described the tone of the instrument as played to him: "by one of the lads... considering the materials of which the pibgorn is composed is very tolerable"David Griffith recalls his father telling him that "playing the Pibgorn was a common thing in those days in the South and that farmers' servant men were in the habit of carrying them with them when driving cattle to the fairs." The Reverend Meredith Morris of The Gwaun Valley in Pembrokeshire writes in his autobiography in 1910: "Mabsantau, gwylnosau, &c, were their red-letter days, the rude merrimaking of the village green the pivot of all, worth living for in a mundane existence. I do not remember much about the Gwylmabsant and the Gwylnos - I came a quarter of a century too late for those wonderful orgies - but I remember the neithior with its all-day and all-night rollicking fun.

We did not have the crwth, but we had the fiddle, the harp, or a home-made degenerate sort of pibgorn. I myself am a tolerable player on the simplified bibgorn." After a hiatus of fifty years, the pibgorn, alongside instruments such as the crwth and the triple harp, has witnessed a resurgence in popularity as part of a general revival of interest in Welsh folk music. Some modern instruments play a tempered scale to accommodate fixed pitch instruments such as guitar or keyboard, are pitched in D. Historical instruments play in a variety of pitch. Jonathan Shorland, after measuring and playing the instruments in co-operation with the then-keeper of instruments, D. Roy Saer, at the Museum of Folk Life in Wales, concluded that the instrument made of bone was no longer playable due to splitting. Of the two elder pipes, The shorter instrument gave a six-finger key note near to F and played a scale close to the Locrian mode; the longer instrument gave a six-finger key note near to an unnamed mode. Shorland noted that the finger hole for the sixth note was shaped differently and was smaller than the rest, that the flat note was intentional.

Contemporary pibgorn makers in Wales include Jonathan Shorland, John Tose, John Glennydd, Keith Lewis, Gafin Morgan, Gerard KilBride. In Scotland, Julian Goodacre. In the United States. Contemporary repertoire makes use of folksong and Hymn tunes adapted to the instrument and printed collections of dance music that may be adapted to fit the instrument's

Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations

Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations and Vein of Galen aneurysmal dilations are the most frequent arteriovenous malformations in infants and fetuses. VGAM consist of a tangled mass of dilated vessels supplied by an enlarged artery; the malformation increases in size with age, although the mechanism of the increase is unknown. Dilation of the great cerebral vein of Galen is a secondary result of the force of arterial blood either directly from an artery via an arteriovenous fistula or by way of a tributary vein that receives the blood directly from an artery. There is a venous anomaly downstream from the draining vein that, together with the high blood flow into the great cerebral vein of Galen causes its dilation; the right sided cardiac chambers and pulmonary arteries develop mild to severe dilation. 10% of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations are associated with deleterious heterozygous mutations of EPHB4Another study found that 30% of cases were associated with mutations in EPH receptor B4 gene.

Malformations lead to cardiac failure, cranial bruits and subarachnoid hemorrhage in neonates. The heart failure is due to the size of the arteriovenous shunt that can steal 80% or more of the cardiac output, with large volumes of blood under high pressure returning to the right heart and pulmonary circulation and sinus venosus atrial septal defects, it is the most common cause of death in such patients. Non-developmental syndromes directly or indirectly affect the Great Cerebral Vein of Galen, although they are rare; these include superior vena cava syndrome, thrombosis of the lateral sinus, superior sagittal sinus, internal jugular vein, or of the Great Cerebral Vein of Galen itself. Testing for a malformed vein of Galen is indicated when a patient has heart failure which has no obvious cause. Diagnosis is achieved by signs such as cranial bruits and symptoms such as expanded facial veins; the vein of Galen can be visualized using Doppler. A malformed Great Cerebral Vein will be noticeably enlarged.

Ultrasound is a useful tool for vein of Galen malformations because so many cases occur in infancy and ultrasound can make diagnoses prenatally. Many cases are diagnosed only during autopsy as congestive heart failure occurs early. Five patterns of Galenic arteriovenous malformations have been described: These malformations develop in utero by the persistence of fistulae between primitive pia arachnoidal arteries and pial veins that cross each other at right angles; because the primitive Galenic system and the primitive choroidal system lie close together, an arteriovenous malformation involving the primitive choroidal system will involve the Galenic vein. Larger arteriovenous shunts correlate with earlier symptom onset. Treatment depends on the anatomy of the malformation as determined by angiography or Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Head circumference measurements should be obtained and monitored to detect hydrocephalus. Neurosurgical procedures to relieve hydrocephalus are important. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt may be required in some infants.

A pediatric cardiologist should be consulted to manage high-output failure. Patients need to be intubated. In most cases, the fistulous arteries feeding into the Vein of Galen must be blocked, thereby reducing the blood flow into the vein. Open surgery has mortality. Recent advances over the past few decades have made endovascular embolization the preferred method of treatment; these treatments are preferred. However, there have been several reported cases of arteriovenous malformations recurring; the young age of many patients, the complex vascular anatomy, the sensitive location of the Vein of Galen offer considerable challenges to surgeons. Another treatment option is Radiotherapy. Radiotherapy called radiosurgery, involves the use of focused beams to damage the blood vessel. Radiotherapy is not pursued as a treatment because the effects of the procedure can take months or years and there is risk of damaging adjacent brain tissue. Surgery is not always an option. Recent improvements in endovascular procedures have made many cases, which were not surgically accessible, treatable.

Endovascular treatments involve delivering drugs, balloons, or coils to the site of the malformation through blood vessels via catheters. These treatments work by limiting blood flow through the vein. There is, still risk of complications from endovascular treatments; the wall of the vein can be damaged during the procedure and, in some cases, the emboli can become dislodged and travel through the vascular system. Two-dimensional echocardiography with color-flow imaging and pulsed Doppler ultrasound was used to evaluate one fetus and five neonates with a Vein of Galen malformation. Color-flow imaging and pulsed Doppler ultrasonography provided anatomical and pathophysiological information regarding cardiac hemodynamics and intracranial blood flow; when none of these procedures are viable, shunting can be used to ameliorate the pressure inside the varix. Seizures are managed with antiepileptic medications; the complications that are associated with vein of Galen malformations are intracranial hemorrhages.

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Johnson Chesnut Whittaker

Johnson Chesnut Whittaker was one of the first black men to win an appointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point. When at the academy, he was brutally assaulted and expelled after being falsely accused and convicted of faking the incident. Over sixty years after his death, his name was formally cleared when he was posthumously commissioned by President Bill Clinton. Whittaker was born into slavery on the Chesnut Plantation in South Carolina, he studied with Richard Greener, the first African American to graduate from Harvard college. Whittaker attended the University of South Carolina a freedmen's school, he was appointed to the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1876 after receiving an appointment from South Carolina Representative Solomon L. Hoge. For most of his time at West Point, he was the only black cadet, he was ostracized by his white peers. In the morning of April 5, 1880, he was found tied to his bed, unconscious and bruised, his hands and face had been cut by a razor, burned pages from his Bible were strewn about his room.

Whittaker told administrators that he had been attacked by three fellow cadets, but his account of the morning was not believed. West Point administrators said. Whittacker was held by a court of inquiry, where he was defended by Martin I. Townsend and his old friend, Richard Greener and granted a court-martial. After more than a year of nationally publicized hearings, Whittaker was found guilty in an 1881 court martial and expelled from West Point; the prosecuting attorney was West Point Judge Advocate Major Asa Bird Gardiner a Sachem of Tammany Hall in New York and disgraced New York District Attorney, who blatantly talked of the "inferior" and "superior" races and commented that "Negroes are noted for their ability to sham and feign." His defense was led by Daniel Henry Chamberlain assisted by Greener. Though the verdict was overturned in 1883 by President Chester A. Arthur, West Point reinstated the expulsion on the grounds that Whittaker had failed an exam. In his life, Whittaker was a teacher, high school principal in Oklahoma City, psychology professor in South Carolina.

He died in Orangeburg, South Carolina in 1931. Whittaker was buried at Orangeburg Cemetery, his sons, Johnson Whittaker Jr. and Miller Whittaker, both served as Army officers in World War I. In addition, a grandson joined the all-black Tuskegee Airmen in World War II and a great-grandson served as a first lieutenant in the Vietnam-era Army. In the 1970s, a book about Whittaker by John Marszalek, a historian at Mississippi State University, drew attention to his case. In 1994, a television movie based on the book aired, which generated momentum for the movement to award Whittaker a posthumous commission. On July 25, 1995, President Bill Clinton awarded the commission to Whittaker's heirs, saying, "We cannot undo history, but today we can pay tribute to a great American and we can acknowledge a great injustice." Assault at West Point: The Court-Martial of Johnson Whittaker is a 1994 TV movie about the case. Matter of Honor, a stage play by Michael Chepiga retelling Whittaker's story while at West Point, was produced at the Pasadena Playhouse in Pasadena, California, in September 2007.

Henry Ossian Flipper first African American to graduate from West Point, Class of 1877 Johnson Chesnut Whittaker at Find a Grave Marszalek, John. Assault at West Point: The Court Martial of Johnson Whittaker. Touchstone. ISBN 0-02-034515-1

Look at Them Beans

Look at Them Beans is the 52nd album by country singer Johnny Cash, released in 1975 on Columbia Records. Following an unsuccessful attempt with the previous album, John R. Cash to update Cash's sound with a new set of session musicians, Look at Them Beans reinstated The Tennessee Three as Cash's core session group; the cover depicts him with his son, John Carter Cash, while the back cover features a dedication to Johnny Cash by his wife, June Carter Cash. The album reached #38 on the Country Album Chart, while the title track, as the only released single, peaked at #17. Johnny Cash - vocals, guitar Bob Wootton, Jerry Hensley, Pete Wade, James Colvard, Dave Kirby, Kelso Herston, Glenn Keener - guitar Marshall Grant, Henry Strzelecki, Joe Allen - bass WS Holland, Kenny Malone, Jerry Carrigan, Willie Ackerman - drums Bobby Thompson - guitar, banjo Curly Chalker - steel guitar Johnny Gimble, Buddy Spicher, Marcy Gates, Marjorie Gates, Tommy Jackson - fiddle David Briggs, Earl Poole Ball - piano Shane Keister - keyboards George Tidwell, George Cunningham - trumpet The Nashville Edition - vocals Produced by Don Davis "Texas, 1947" and "I Hardly Ever Sing Beer Drinking Songs" produced by Charlie Bragg Engineered by Charlie Bragg, Roger Tucker, David Malloy and Freeman Ramsey at the House of Cash Studio, Tennessee Design by Bill Barnes Photography by Marion Ward and Bill Barnes Liner notes by June Carter Cash Album - Billboard Singles - Billboard Luma Electronic entry on Look at Them Beans

Waidi Akanni

Waidi Akanni known as Waheed Akanni, is a former Nigerian football defender and former head of the Lagos State Football Association. Born in Surulere, Lagos State, Akanni began playing football for local side NEPA Lagos in 1983, he joined another local side, Flash Flamingoes, in 1985. In 1988, Akanni attended Howard University in the United States, earning bachelor's and master's degrees in engineering, he played for the university's soccer team and was the NCAA Men's Soccer Championship runner-up and the team's leading scorer with sixteen goals. He was selected to the All-American first team. While in the United States, he played for Boston Bolts and Maryland FC. Akanni played for the Nigeria national under-20 football team that won the bronze medal at the 1985 FIFA World Youth Championship finals in the Soviet Union, he would play for the senior Nigeria national football team, appearing in a 1988 African Cup of Nations qualifying match against Sierra Leone and a 1990 FIFA World Cup qualifying match against Cameroon.

Waidi Akanni – FIFA competition record At home with Waidi Akanni