Pharrell Lanscilo Williams is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, fashion designer, entrepreneur. Williams and Chad Hugo formed the record production duo The Neptunes in 1994, producing hip hop and R&B music, he is the lead vocalist of the band N*E*R*D, which he formed with Hugo and childhood friend Shay Haley. Williams owns I Am Other, a multimedia creative collective that serves as an umbrella for all of Pharrell Williams' endeavors, including Billionaire Boys Club. Williams released his first solo single, "Frontin'", in 2003 and followed it with his debut solo album, In My Mind, in 2006, his second album, was released in March 2014 and included the commercially successful single "Happy". As part of the Neptunes, Williams has produced numerous singles for various recording artists. Williams featured on Daft Punk's "Get Lucky" which reached the top ten in the music charts of over 32 countries, has sold more than 9.3 million copies, making it one of the best-selling singles of all time.
The song won Record of Best Pop Duo/Group Performance at the 56th Grammy Awards. Williams has received numerous nominations, he is a two-time Academy Award nominee, receiving a 2014 Best Original Song nomination for "Happy" and a 2017 Best Picture nomination as one of the producers of Hidden Figures. Pharrell Lanscilo Williams was born on April 5, 1973, in Virginia Beach, the oldest of three sons of Pharaoh Williams, a handyman, his wife Carolyn, a teacher, his roots extend for generations in Virginia and North Carolina, one of his ancestors journeyed to West Africa in 1831, prompting other relatives to emigrate from America to Liberia in 1832. He met Chad Hugo in a seventh-grade summer band camp where Williams played the keyboards and drums and Hugo played tenor saxophone, they were both members of a marching band. Williams and Hugo attended Princess Anne High School. Hugo attended Kempsville High School. In the MTV show When I Was 17, Pharrell stated that he was a nerd and did things that made him stand out from most of his peers.
Williams attended Northwestern University for two years before dropping out. In the early 1990s, Hugo and Williams formed a four-piece "R&B-type" group, the Neptunes, with friends Shay Haley and Mike Etheridge, they entered a high school talent show where they were discovered by Teddy Riley, whose studio was next to Princess Anne High School. After graduating from high school, the group signed with Riley. Through working with Riley, Williams went on to write a verse and help produce for Wreckx-N-Effect's 1992 hit "Rump Shaker"; that same year, he performed a small rap solo on SWV's second hit, "Right Here". Williams and Hugo met rap duo Clipse in Virginia Beach in 1993, where they signed to Arista Records through Williams' Star Trak Entertainment imprint in 2002. In 1994, Hugo and Williams had established themselves as a production duo under their old name "The Neptunes", assistant-produced "Tonight's The Night" from Blackstreet's self-titled album. Over the next three years they continued to produce and some of the results had little resemblance to the Neptunes' sound later.
However, some like Mase's 1997 song "Lookin' at Me" from his album Harlem World, the most definite beginning of the distinctive "Neptunes sound", came with N. O. R. E's "Superthug" in 1998, reaching number 36 on the Billboard Hot 100, gaining them widespread attention for the first time. In 2000, they produced the song "I Just Wanna Love U" for Jay Z's album The Dynasty: Roc La Familia, which released as the album's first single; the song's sound and success sparked the interest of maturing pop artist Britney Spears. In 2001, Britney Spears released her album Britney featuring the lead single "I'm a Slave 4 U", produced by The Neptunes; the song was a defining hit in both of their careers, it was The Neptunes' first time having helped create an album that debuted number one in the Billboard 200. The same year, N*E*R*D, consisting of Williams and Haley, released their first album, In Search of... in Europe, where the first Kelis album was better received. The album sounded much like their previous production work.
In 2002 their re-produced album was released worldwide, the Neptunes reached number one in the U. S. with Nelly's single, "Hot in Herre". In August of the same year, the Neptunes were named "Producers of the Year" at both the Source Awards and the Billboard Music Awards. Clipse released their commercial debut album Lord Willin' in August 2002; the album started at number one on the Billboard Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums chart and number four on the Billboard 200, fueled by its first two singles, "Grindin'" and "When the Last Time", which peaked at number 34 and number 19 on the Billboard Hot 100. The Neptunes released a self-credited album called The Neptunes Present... Clones in 2003, with songs and remixes from various artists; this topped the U. S. Billboard 200 Albums Chart; the Neptunes and Williams were kept in public eye due to ties with Jay Z, producing several hit singles for him and two tracks on his The Black Album. The track "Frontin'" was a big hit. A survey in August 2003 found the Neptunes produced 20 percent o
Hurry Sundown is the third album by American southern rock band Outlaws, released in 1977. The title track became a concert fan favorite. Four members of the band, Hughie Thomasson, Henry Paul, Billy Jones, Harvey Dalton Arnold contributed songwriting and lead vocals. Paul would leave the band after the album's release. With this album, the Outlaws dived deeper into a country sound. Thomasson plays pedal steel on some tracks, banjo on the bluegrass track "So Afraid". "Gunsmoke" – 4:18 "Hearin' My Heart Talkin'" – 4:11 "So Afraid" – 3:17 "Holiday" – 4:02 "Hurry Sundown" – 4:05 "Cold and Lonesome" – 3:19 "Night Wines" – 4:50 "Heavenly Blues" – 3:47 "Man of the Hour" – 6:12 Harvey Dalton Arnold - bass, vocals Billy Jones - electric guitar, vocals Henry Paul - guitar, vocals Hughie Thomasson - acoustic and pedal steel guitars.
The Airbus A330 is a wide-body airliner made by Airbus. In the mid-1970s, Airbus conceived several derivatives of the A300, its first airliner, developed the A330 twinjet in parallel with the A340 quadjet. In June 1987, Airbus launched both designs with their first orders; the A330-300, the first variant, took its maiden flight in November 1992 and entered service with Air Inter in January 1994. The shorter A330-200 variant followed in 1998. In 2014, Airbus launched the A330neo, re-engined with Trent 7000 turbofans, which entered service in November 2018; the A330 has a similar airframe to early A340, except for the number of engines: two instead of four, landing gear and weights. Both airliners have fly-by-wire controls, first introduced on the A320, as well as a similar glass cockpit; the A330 was Airbus's first airliner to offer a choice of three engines: the General Electric CF6, Pratt & Whitney PW4000, or the Rolls-Royce Trent 700. The A330-300 has a range of 11,750 km or 6,350 nmi with 277 passengers, while the shorter A330-200 can cover 13,450 km or 7,250 nmi with 247 passengers.
Variants include the A330-200F dedicated freighter, the A330 MRTT military tanker, the ACJ330 corporate jet. The A330 MRTT was proposed as the EADS/Northrop Grumman KC-45 for the US Air Force's KC-X competition, but lost to the Boeing KC-46 in appeal after an initial win; as of December 2019, A330 orders stand at 1,823 of which 1,492 have been delivered and 1,443 remain in operation. Its largest operator is Turkish Airlines with 68 aircraft; the A330 has allowed Airbus to expand its wide-body market share. It competes with the Boeing 767 and smaller variants of the 777 and the 787, it is complemented by the larger Airbus A350 XWB which succeeded the A340. Airbus's first airliner, the A300, was envisioned as part of a diverse family of commercial aircraft. Pursuing this goal, studies began in the early 1970s into derivatives of the A300. Before introducing the A300, Airbus identified nine possible variations designated B1 through B9. A tenth variant, the A300B10, was conceived in 1973 and developed into the longer-range Airbus A310.
Airbus focused its efforts on single-aisle studies, conceiving a family of airliners known as the Airbus A320 family, the first commercial aircraft with digital fly-by-wire controls. During these studies Airbus turned its focus back to the wide-body aircraft market working on both projects. In the mid-1970s, Airbus began development of the A300B9, a larger derivative of the A300, which would become the A330; the B9 was a lengthened A300 with the same wing, coupled with the most powerful turbofan engines available. It was targeted at the growing demand for high-capacity, medium-range, transcontinental trunk routes. Offering the same range and payload as the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 but with 25 per cent more fuel efficiency, the B9 was seen as a viable replacement for the DC-10 and the Lockheed L-1011 TriStar trijets, it was considered as a medium-ranged successor to the A300. At the same time, a 200-seat four-engine version, the B11 was under development; the B11 was planned to take the place of narrow-body Boeing 707s and Douglas DC-8s in commercial use, but would evolve to target the long-range, wide-body trijet replacement market.
To differentiate from the SA series, the B9 and B11 were re-designated as the TA9 and TA11, with TA standing for "twin aisle". Development costs were reduced by the two aircraft using the same fuselage and wing, with projected savings of US$500 million. Another factor was the split preference of those within Airbus and, more those of prospective customers. Airbus found that most potential customers favoured four engines due to their exemption from existing twinjet range restrictions and their ability to be ferried with one inactive engine; as a result, development plans prioritised the four-engined TA11 ahead of the TA9. The first specifications for the TA9 and TA11, aircraft that could accommodate 410 passengers in a one-class layout, emerged in 1982, they showed a large underfloor cargo area that could hold five cargo pallets or sixteen LD3 cargo containers in the forward, four pallets or fourteen LD3s in the aft hold—double the capacity of the Lockheed L-1011 TriStar or DC-10, 8.46 metres longer than the Airbus A300.
By June 1985, the TA9 and TA11 had received more improvements, including the adoption of the A320 flight deck, digital fly-by-wire control system, side-stick control. Airbus had developed a common cockpit for their aircraft models to allow quick transition by pilots; the flight crews could transition from one type to another after only one week's training, which reduces operator costs. The two TAs would use the vertical stabiliser and circular fuselage sections of the A300-600, extended by two barrel sections. Airbus considered the variable camber wing, a concept that requires changing the wing profile for a given phase of flight. Studies were carried out at Hatfield and Bristol. Airbus estimated this would yield a two per cent improvement in aerodynamic efficiency, but the feature was rejected because of cost and difficulty of development. A true laminar flow wing was considered but rejected. With necessary funding available, the Airbus Supervisory Board approved the development of the A330 and A340 with potential customers on 27 January 1986.