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Phase transition

The term phase transition is most used to describe transitions between solid and gaseous states of matter, as well as plasma in rare cases. A phase of a thermodynamic system and the states of matter have uniform physical properties. During a phase transition of a given medium, certain properties of the medium change discontinuously, as a result of the change of external conditions, such as temperature, pressure, or others. For example, a liquid may become gas upon heating to the boiling point, resulting in an abrupt change in volume; the measurement of the external conditions at which the transformation occurs is termed the phase transition. Phase transitions occur in nature and are used today in many technologies. Examples of phase transitions include: The transitions between the solid and gaseous phases of a single component, due to the effects of temperature and/or pressure: A eutectic transformation, in which a two-component single-phase liquid is cooled and transforms into two solid phases.

The same process, but beginning with a solid instead of a liquid is called a eutectoid transformation. A metastable to equilibrium phase transformation. A metastable polymorph which forms due to lower surface energy will transform to an equilibrium phase given sufficient thermal input to overcome an energetic barrier. A peritectic transformation, in which a two-component single-phase solid is heated and transforms into a solid phase and a liquid phase. A spinodal decomposition, in which a single phase is cooled and separates into two different compositions of that same phase. Transition to a mesophase between solid and liquid, such as one of the "liquid crystal" phases; the transition between the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases of magnetic materials at the Curie point. The transition between differently ordered, commensurate or incommensurate, magnetic structures, such as in cerium antimonide; the martensitic transformation which occurs as one of the many phase transformations in carbon steel and stands as a model for displacive phase transformations.

Changes in the crystallographic structure such as between ferrite and austenite of iron. Order-disorder transitions such as in alpha-titanium aluminides; the dependence of the adsorption geometry on coverage and temperature, such as for hydrogen on iron. The emergence of superconductivity in certain metals and ceramics when cooled below a critical temperature; the transition between different molecular structures of solids, such as between an amorphous structure and a crystal structure, between two different crystal structures, or between two amorphous structures. Quantum condensation of bosonic fluids; the superfluid transition in liquid helium is an example of this. The breaking of symmetries in the laws of physics during the early history of the universe as its temperature cooled. Isotope fractionation occurs during a phase transition, the ratio of light to heavy isotopes in the involved molecules changes; when water vapor condenses, the heavier water isotopes become enriched in the liquid phase while the lighter isotopes tend toward the vapor phase.

Phase transitions occur when the thermodynamic free energy of a system is non-analytic for some choice of thermodynamic variables. This condition stems from the interactions of a large number of particles in a system, does not appear in systems that are too small, it is important to note that phase transitions can occur and are defined for non-thermodynamic systems, where temperature is not a parameter. Examples include: quantum phase transitions, dynamic phase transitions, topological phase transitions. In these types of systems other parameters take the place of temperature. For instance, connection probability replaces temperature for percolating networks. At the phase transition point the two phases of a substance and vapor, have identical free energies and therefore are likely to exist. Below the boiling point, the liquid is the more stable state of the two, whereas above the gaseous form is preferred, it is sometimes possible to change the state of a system diabatically in such a way that it can be brought past a phase transition point without undergoing a phase transition.

The resulting state is metastable, i.e. less stable than the phase to which the transition would have occurred, but not unstable either. This occurs in superheating and supersaturation, for example. Paul Ehrenfest classified phase transitions based on the behavior of the thermodynamic free energy as a function of other thermodynamic variables. Under this scheme, phase transitions were labeled by the lowest derivative of the free energy, discontinuous at the transition. First-order phase transitions exhibit a discontinuity in the first derivative of the free energy with respect to some thermodynamic variable; the various solid/liquid/gas transitions are classified as first-order transitions because they involve a discontinuous change in density, the first derivative of the free energy with respect to pressure. Second-order phase transitions are continuous in the first derivative but exhibit discontinuity in a second derivative of the free energy; these include the ferromagnetic phase transition in materials such as iron, where the magnetization, the first derivative of the free energy with respect to the applied magnetic field strength, increases continu

Ecclesiastical ring

An ecclesiastical ring is a finger ring worn by clergy, such as a bishop's ring. In Western Christianity, rings are worn by bishops as well as other clerics who are given the privilege of wearing pontifical vestments. A bishop is given a ring at his consecration by his consecrator, he is free to subsequently obtain and wear his own episcopal rings. The style of the episcopal ring has always been large, stone-set ring. Roman Catholic bishops traditionally have their episcopal ring set with an amethyst. Aside from the rings a bishop purchases or is given by others, his rings belong to the Church. While all hierarchs are accorded the honor of being buried wearing a ring, all rings belonging to the Church will be returned to the Church upon the retirement or death of any hierarch. In a decree of Pope Boniface IV it describes monks raised to the episcopal dignity as anulo pontificali subarrhatis, while at the Fourth Council of Toledo, in 633, it was stated that if a bishop has been deposed from his office and afterwards reinstated, he is to receive back stole and crosier.

St. Isidore of Seville, at about the same period, couples the ring with the crosier and declares that the former is conferred as "an emblem of the pontifical dignity or of the sealing of secrets"; the ring is speaking an episcopal ornament conferred in the rite of consecration, that it was regarded as emblematic of the mystical betrothal of the bishop to his church. In the eighth and ninth centuries in manuscripts of the Gregorian sacramentary and in a few early pontificals we meet with various formulae for the delivery of the ring; the Gregorian form, which survives in substance to the present, runs in these terms: "Receive the ring, to say, the seal of faith, whereby thou, being thyself adorned with spotless faith, mayst keep unsullied the troth which thou hast pledged to the spouse of God, His Holy Church."Royal as well as religious seals, indicative of discretion and conjugal fidelity, dominate the symbolism of the ring. In the case of bishops, "a bishop deserting the Church to which he was consecrated and transferring himself to another is to be held guilty of adultery, is to be visited with the same penalties as a man who, forsaking his own wife, goes to live with another woman."

This idea of espousals helped to establish the rule, mentioned first in the ninth century, that the episcopal ring was to be placed on the fourth finger of the right hand. Since episcopal rings had to be worn on ceremonial occasions on the outside of the pontifical glove and prelates' gloves, it is common to find medieval specimens large in size and disproportionately heavy; the inconvenience of the looseness was corrected by placing another smaller ring just above it as a ring guard. It was quite common for popes to wear other rings along with the episcopal ring. Custom prescribed that a layman or a cleric of inferior grade on being presented to a bishop should kiss his hand, to say, an obligation to kiss the episcopal ring. Before the promulgation of the new Enchiridion Indulgentiarum, an indulgence of 50 days resulted from this act, it is still arguable that an indulgence may be received if the ring is considered an object of piety, as kissing an object of piety carries a partial indulgence.

Episcopal rings, both at an earlier and period, were sometimes used as receptacles for relics. Traditionally, three rings were bestowed: the'pontifical', the gemmed, the'ordinary'. In recent decades, most bishops have only received one ring for the sake of reducing costs. Cardinals have suffered a reduction in the number of rings they own. Modern episcopal rings have a special sliding-band inner mechanism that allows them to be sized and locked into place, eliminating the need to have rings sized or resized. Ludovic Taurin-Cahagne, Bishop of Adramythe in Ethiopia, Apostolic Vicar of the Gallas, ca. 1875, had a unique ring that locked and unlocked an early form of adjustability. Cardinal O'Malley's ring, conferred by Pope John Paul II, could be resized. There are times when a bishop may be awarded an episcopal ring with a form of a coat of arms or specific Catholic symbol, such as the ring given to Bp. Henessy of Boston. Cardinals have the privilege of wearing pontifical vestments, including the ring if they are not themselves consecrated as bishops.

The privilege of wearing a ring has belonged to cardinal-priests at least since the time of Innocent III. Cardinal bishops and cardinal priests are conferred a ring by the pope himself in the consistory, in which the new cardinal is named to a particular titular church or suburbicarian diocese and elevated to the cardinalate; the pope determines the style of this ring. In the past, a cardinal's ring could be set with a sapphire, while it bore on the inner side of the bezel the arms of the pope conferring it; the solid gold cardinal's ring chosen by John Paul II bears an oblong crucifixion scene. Pope Benedict XVI used the same at first, but chose a new design from the consistory of 2012; the episcopal ring of the pope is known as the "Ring of the Fisherman". The pope's episcopal ring as the Bishop of Rome, it has since become a symbol of papal authority; the origin of the ring design is inspired by Jesus telling St. Peter, by tra


Süderoog is one of the Halligen, a group of islands in the North Frisian Wadden Sea, off the west coast of Schleswig-Holstein in north Germany. It is a bird reserve. Before the Burchardi flood in 1634 there were three houses on the island, one of, inhabited by the beach lookout, he was the caretaker of the beacon, destroyed during the storm surge of 1634. In this storm tide, two houses were destroyed and ten people were drowned. In the February flood of 1825 the last remaining house was destroyed, it was rebuilt and served again as the residence of the lookout. Today the Hallig has an area of 62 hectares and is farmed organically by a husband and wife; the most famous resident of the island was Hermann Paulsen Neuton who, from 1927 until his death in 1951, ran an international youth meeting place, the "Island of Boys.". It was continued after his death by his wife, in 1960, converted into a foundation, whose aim was "on the basis of Hermann Neuton Paulsen's work and in the interests of international understanding, to give young people from different countries the opportunity to meet on the island of Süderoog in an atmosphere of freedom borne out of responsibility, to get to know one another as friends, to live together in ways that are to match the development of psychology and pedagogy at any time.

". Difficult sanitary conditions, which could not be sufficiently improved, damage caused by the flood of 1962 led to the gradual decline of Süderoog's holiday work; the Hallig, in the private ownership of the Paulsen family for centuries was sold in 1971 to the state of Schleswig-Holstein. In 1974 the foundation was dissolved. Süderoog is inhabited by a couple. Both look after the preservation of the island. Access to Süderoog is only possible as part of a guided tour from Pellworm. Media related to Hallig Süderoog at Wikimedia Commons Information on Süderoog

Nyctemera coleta

Nyctemera coleta, the marbled white moth or white tiger moth, is a moth found from India to the Philippines, from Japan to Papua New Guinea. It is classified under the subgenus Coleta of the genus Nyctemera in the family Arctiidae; the species was first described by Caspar Stoll in 1782. It contains four subspecies; the male has a large tuft of hair arising from the base of the tibia of the foreleg. It differs from Nyctemera tripunctaria in the lower three spots of the post-medial band of forewing being separated and having another spot below them towards outer angle. Cilia white at outer angle. Hindwing with the cilia white below the apex, in most specimens at anal angle; the Sri Lankan subspecies has black veins 3 and 4 of hindwing and the spots of the postmedial band of forewing are smaller than other subspecies. The larva are hairy. Anterior somites yellowish; each somite is marked with short dorsal and lateral white streaks. Pupa spotted with black. Nyctemera coleta coleta Nyctemera coleta melaneura Nyctemera coleta melas Röber, 1891 Nyctemera coleta nigrovenosa Moore, 1879

Please Pass the Guilt

Please Pass the Guilt is a Nero Wolfe detective novel by Rex Stout, published by the Viking Press in 1973. Unusually for a Nero Wolfe story, which take place near the time of publication, this novel is set in 1969, though it was published in 1973. Wolfe held it out. "Take it. You have wasted your mine. You want a miracle, miracles are not in my repertory. Give me the receipt.""My god," she said, "you are highhanded. What can they tell you?""I don't know, I need to know. If there is a fact that will help me to do what you want done, I want it. If you think that I may inadvertently disclose what you have told me a hint of it, if you think me capable of such ineptitude, you were a ninny to come to me at all." As a favor to Dr. Edwin Vollmer, Wolfe agrees to find information about a case from Vollmer's friend's crisis intervention center. A man with the alias "Ronald Seaver" has attended the clinic, given no information, but spoken of having blood on his hands no one can see. Through trickery and Goodwin learn that this man is Kenneth Meer, an employee at the CAN broadcast network.

An executive at the network, Peter Odell, has been killed in a bomb attack. Odell's widow believes that one of his rivals murdered him, hires Wolfe to find proof. 1973, New York: The Viking Press, September 1973, hardcoverIn his limited-edition pamphlet, Collecting Mystery Fiction #10, Rex Stout's Nero Wolfe Part II, Otto Penzler describes the first edition of Please Pass the Guilt: "Black boards, red cloth spine. Issued in a black and brown pictorial dust wrapper." In April 2006, Firsts: The Book Collector's Magazine estimated that the first edition of Please Pass the Guilt had a value of between $60 and $100. The estimate is for a copy in good to fine condition in a like dustjacket.1973, New York: Viking, November 1973, hardcoverThe far less valuable Viking book club edition may be distinguished from the first edition in three ways: The dust jacket has "Book Club Edition" printed on the inside front flap, the price is absent. Book club editions are always taller than first editions. Book club editions are bound in cardboard, first editions are bound in cloth.1974, New York: Bantam #Q-8472, October 1974, paperback 1974, London: Collins Crime Club, 1974, hardcover 1974, London: Book Club Associates, 1972 1975, Glasgow: Fontana #3668, 1975, paperback 1995, New York: Bantam Books ISBN 0-553-76308-3 January 2, 1995, paperback 1999, Newport Beach, California: Books on Tape, Inc.

ISBN 0-7366-4456-3 March 8, 1999, audio cassette 2010, New York: Bantam ISBN 978-0-307-75610-7 July 21, 2010, e-book "Nero Wolfe talks in a way that no human being on the face of the earth has spoken, with the possible exception of Rex Stout after he had a gin and tonic," said Michael Jaffe, executive producer of the A&E TV series, A Nero Wolfe Mystery. "Readers of the Wolfe saga have to turn to the dictionary because of the erudite vocabulary of Wolfe and sometimes of Archie," wrote Rev. Frederick G. Gotwald. Nero Wolfe's vocabulary is one of the hallmarks of the character. Examples of unfamiliar words — or unfamiliar uses of words that some would otherwise consider familiar — are found throughout the corpus in the give-and-take between Wolfe and Archie. Amphigoric, chapter 12. Subreption, chapter 18. Cynosure, chapter 18. Concupiscence, chapter 19. Quotations related to Please Pass the Guilt at Wikiquote

Nemacladus twisselmannii

Nemacladus twisselmannii is a rare species of flowering plant in the bellflower family known by the common names Twisselmann's threadplant and Twisselmann's nemacladus. It is endemic to California. There is one occurrence each in Tulare Counties; this is a small annual herb forming cushions of foliage at ground level, the stems no more than a centimeter long. The hairy, spoon-shaped leaves are 2 to 3 millimeters long; the inflorescence is a headlike cluster of flowers on hairlike pedicels. The flower has a white corolla up to 3 millimeters long; the fruit is a tiny capsule with a pointed tip. The plant grows in coniferous forest with granite sand at over 7000 feet in elevation. There are each containing about 400 plants, they are located in remote wilderness in the Sequoia National Forest. The plant is named for botanist Ernest Christian Twisselmann. California Native Plant Society Rare Plant Profile