Phenomenology (philosophy)

Phenomenology is the philosophical study of the structures of experience and consciousness. As a philosophical movement it was founded in the early years of the 20th century by Edmund Husserl and was expanded upon by a circle of his followers at the universities of Göttingen and Munich in Germany, it spread to France, the United States, elsewhere in contexts far removed from Husserl's early work. Phenomenology is not a unitary movement. Gabriella Farina states:A unique and final definition of phenomenology is dangerous and even paradoxical as it lacks a thematic focus. In fact, it is not a doctrine, nor a philosophical school, but rather a style of thought, a method, an open and ever-renewed experience having different results, this may disorient anyone wishing to define the meaning of phenomenology. Phenomenology, in Husserl's conception, is concerned with the systematic reflection on and study of the structures of consciousness and the phenomena that appear in acts of consciousness. Phenomenology can be differentiated from the Cartesian method of analysis which sees the world as objects, sets of objects, objects acting and reacting upon one another.

Husserl's conception of phenomenology has been criticized and developed not only by himself but by students such as Edith Stein and Roman Ingarden, by hermeneutic philosophers such as Martin Heidegger, by existentialists such as Nicolai Hartmann, Gabriel Marcel, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Jean-Paul Sartre, by other philosophers such as Max Scheler, Paul Ricoeur, Jean-Luc Marion, Michel Henry, Emmanuel Levinas, Jacques Derrida, by sociologists such as Alfred Schütz and Eric Voegelin. In its most basic form, phenomenology attempts to create conditions for the objective study of topics regarded as subjective: consciousness and the content of conscious experiences such as judgements and emotions. Although phenomenology seeks to be scientific, it does not attempt to study consciousness from the perspective of clinical psychology or neurology. Instead, it seeks through systematic reflection to determine the essential properties and structures of experience. There are several assumptions behind phenomenology that help explain its foundations: Phenomenologists reject the concept of objective research.

They prefer grouping assumptions through a process called phenomenological epoché. They believe that analyzing daily human behavior can provide one with a greater understanding of nature, they assert that persons should be explored. This is because persons can be understood through the unique ways they reflect the society they live in. Phenomenologists prefer to gather "capta", or conscious experience, rather than traditional data, they consider phenomenology to be oriented toward discovery, therefore they research using methods that are far less restrictive than in other sciences. Husserl derived many important concepts central to phenomenology from the works and lectures of his teachers, the philosophers and psychologists Franz Brentano and Carl Stumpf. An important element of phenomenology that Husserl borrowed from Brentano is intentionality, the notion that consciousness is always consciousness of something; the object of consciousness is called the intentional object, this object is constituted for consciousness in many different ways, for instance, memory and protention, etc.

Throughout these different intentionalities, though they have different structures and different ways of being "about" the object, an object is still constituted as the identical object. Though many of the phenomenological methods involve various reductions, phenomenology is, in essence, anti-reductionistic. In other words, when a reference is made to a thing's essence or idea, or when the constitution of an identical coherent thing is specified by describing what one "really" sees as being only these sides and aspects, these surfaces, it does not mean that the thing is only and what is described here: the ultimate goal of these reductions is to understand how these different aspects are constituted into the actual thing as experienced by the person experiencing it. Phenomenology is a direct reaction to the psychologism and physicalism of Husserl's time. Although employed by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in his Phenomenology of Spirit, it was Husserl's adoption of this term that propelled it into becoming the designation of a philosophical school.

As a philosophical perspective, phenomenology is its method, though the specific meaning of the term varies according to how it is conceived by a given philosopher. As envisioned by Husserl, phenomenology is a method of philosophical inquiry that rejects the rationalist bias that has dominated Western thought since Plato in favor of a method of reflective attentiveness that discloses the individual's "lived experience." Loosely rooted in an epistemological device, with Sceptic roots, called epoché, Husserl's method entails the suspension of judgment while relying on the intuitive grasp of knowledge, free of presuppositions and intellectualizing. Sometimes depicted as the "science of experience," the phenomenological method is rooted in intentionality, i.e. Husserl's theory of consciousness. Intentionality represents a

Joseph Maria Pernicone

Joseph Maria Pernicone was an American clergyman of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as an auxiliary bishop of the Archdiocese of New York from 1954 to 1978. Joseph Pernicone was born in Sicily, to Salvatore and Petronilla Pernicone, he received his early training at the seminaries in Catania. He came to the United States in 1920, he continued his studies at Cathedral College in St. Joseph's Seminary in Yonkers, he was ordained to the priesthood on December 18, 1926. His first assignment was as a curate at Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church in Yonkers. In 1932, he earned a Doctor of Canon Law degree from the Catholic University of America in Washington, D. C, he was pastor of Our Lady of Carmel Church in Poughkeepsie from 1932 to 1944, served as master of ceremonies at the Requiem Mass for Marchese Guglielmo Marconi, the inventor of wireless telegraphy, in 1937. From 1944 to 1966, he was pastor of Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church in the Bronx. During his tenure in the Bronx, he oversaw the construction of a parochial school which opened in 1949.

He was named a papal chamberlain in 1945, raised to the rank of domestic prelate in 1952. On April 6, 1954, Pernicone was appointed auxiliary bishop of the New York and titular bishop of Hadrianopolis in Honoriade by Pope Pius XII, he received his episcopal consecration on the following May 5 from Cardinal Francis Spellman, with Bishops Joseph Francis Flannelly and Edward Vincent Dargin serving as co-consecrators, at St. Patrick's Cathedral. During his tenure as an auxiliary bishop, he served as pastor of Holy Trinity Church in Poughkeepsie and episcopal vicar of Dutchess and Putnam Counties. After reaching the mandatory retirement age of 75, he retired as auxiliary bishop on November 28, 1978, he died from a stroke at Jacobi Hospital in the Bronx, aged 81

School District of Osceola County, Florida

The School District of Osceola County, Florida is a school district serving all of Osceola County, Florida. As of the 2011-12 school year, the district had 71 schools; the district has its headquarters in an unincorporated area. The school opened in January, 1975. There was only one other middle school in Kissimmee at the time, it was called Beaumont Middle School and students began the year at that one in August 1974. Student volunteers helped ready the school for opening the first day back from Christmas break. Harmony Middle School K-8 Celebration School Harmony Community School Osceola County School For The Arts Osceola Virtual School Osceola Virtual Secondary School Westside K-8 School Challenger Learning Center New Beginnings Education Center Oasis Residential Center Osceola Regional Juvenile Commitment Facility Zenith School Adult Learning Center Osceola Challenger Learning Center Endeavor Technical Education Center Osceola Osceola Virtual School Osceola Virtual Secondary School Florida Virtual Academy at Osceola County iVirtual League Academy The School District of Osceola County, Florida