A pheromone is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species. Pheromones are chemicals capable of acting like hormones outside the body of the secreting individual, to impact the behavior of the receiving individuals. There are alarm pheromones, food trail pheromones, sex pheromones, many others that affect behavior or physiology. Pheromones are used from basic unicellular prokaryotes to complex multicellular eukaryotes, their use among insects has been well documented. In addition, some vertebrates and ciliates communicate by using pheromones; the portmanteau word "pheromone" was coined by Peter Karlson and Martin Lüscher in 1959, based on the Greek φερω pheroo and ὁρμων hormon. Pheromones are sometimes classified as ecto-hormones, they were researched earlier by various scientists, including Jean-Henri Fabre, Joseph A. Lintner, Adolf Butenandt, ethologist Karl von Frisch who called them various names, like for instance "alarm substances".
These chemical messengers are transported outside of the body and affect neurocircuits, including the autonomous nervous system with hormone or cytokine mediated physiological changes, inflammatory signaling, immune system changes and/or behavioral change in the recipient. They proposed the term to describe chemical signals from conspecifics that elicit innate behaviors soon after the German biochemist Adolf Butenandt had characterized the first such chemical, bombykol, a chemically well-characterized pheromone released by the female silkworm to attract mates. Aggregation pheromones function in mate selection, overcoming host resistance by mass attack, defense against predators. A group of individuals at one location is referred to as an aggregation, whether consisting of one sex or both sexes. Male-produced sex attractants have been called aggregation pheromones, because they result in the arrival of both sexes at a calling site and increase the density of conspecifics surrounding the pheromone source.
Most sex pheromones are produced by the females. Aggregation pheromones have been found in members of the Coleoptera, Hemiptera and Orthoptera. In recent decades, the importance of applying aggregation pheromones in the management of the boll weevil, stored product weevils, Sitophilus granarius, Sitophilus oryzae, pea and bean weevil has been demonstrated. Aggregation pheromones are among the most ecologically selective pest suppression methods, they are nontoxic and effective at low concentrations. Some species release a volatile substance when attacked by a predator that can trigger flight or aggression in members of the same species. For example, Vespula squamosa use alarm pheromones to alert others to a threat. In Polistes exclamans, alarm pheromones are used as an alert to incoming predators. Pheromones exist in plants: Certain plants emit alarm pheromones when grazed upon, resulting in tannin production in neighboring plants; these tannins make the plants less appetizing for the herbivore.
Epideictic pheromones are different from territory pheromones. Fabre observed and noted how "females who lay their eggs in these fruits deposit these mysterious substances in the vicinity of their clutch to signal to other females of the same species they should clutch elsewhere." It may be helpful to note that the word epideictic, having to do with display or show, has a different but related meaning in rhetoric, the human art of persuasion by means of words. Releaser pheromones are pheromones. For example, some organisms use powerful attractant molecules to attract mates from a distance of two miles or more. In general, this type of pheromone elicits a rapid response, but is degraded. In contrast, a primer pheromone has a longer duration. For example, rabbit release mammary pheromones that trigger immediate nursing behavior by their babies. Signal pheromones cause short-term changes, such as the neurotransmitter release that activates a response. For instance, GnRH molecule functions as a neurotransmitter in rats to elicit lordosis behavior.
Primer pheromones trigger a change of developmental events. Laid down in the environment, territorial pheromones mark the boundaries and identity of an organism's territory. In cats and dogs, these hormones are present in the urine, which they deposit on landmarks serving to mark the perimeter of the claimed territory. In social seabirds, the preen gland is used to mark nests, nuptial gifts, territory boundaries with behavior described as'displacement activity'. Social insects use trail pheromones. For example, ants mark their paths with pheromones consisting of volatile hydrocarbons. Certain ants lay down an initial trail of pheromones; this trail serves as a guide. As long as the food source remains available, visiting ants will continuously renew the pheromone trail; the pheromone requires continuous renewal. When the food supply begins to dwindle, the trail-making ceases. Pharaoh ants mark trails that no longer lead to food with a repellent pheromone, which causes avoidance behaviour in ants.
The pheromone trail of ants can be seen as communicating cloud providing each single ant with informations. The Eciton burchellii species provides an example of using pheromones t
Social networking is one of the most active web-based activities in the Philippines, with Filipinos being declared as the most active users on a number of web-based social network sites such as Facebook, Instagram and Twitter. The use of social networking website has become so extensive in the Philippines that the country has been tagged as "The Social Networking Capital of the World," and has become part of Filipino cyberculture. Social networking is used in the Philippines as a form of election campaign material, as well as tools to aid criminal investigation. Friendster is one of the first social networking websites in the World Wide Web when it was introduced in 2002. However, its popularity in the United States plummeted in 2004 due to massive technical problems and server delays, but as it was losing its American audience, Friendster gained users from Southeast Asia starting in the Philippines. Friendster director of engineering Chris Lunt wondered why its web traffic was spiking in the middle of the night, noticed that the traffic was coming from the Philippines.
He traced the trail to a Filipino-American marketing consultant and hypnotist named Carmen Leilani de Jesus as the first user to have introduced Friendster to the Philippines, where a number of her friends live. A study released by Universal McCann entitled "Power To The People - Wave3" declared the Philippines as "the social networking capital of the world," with 83 percent of Filipinos surveyed are members of a social network, they are regarded as the top photo uploaders and web video viewers, while they are second when it comes to the number of blog readers and video uploaders. With over 7.9 million Filipinos using the Internet, 6.9 million of them visit a social networking site at least once a month. At times, Friendster has been the most visited website in the Philippines, as well as in Indonesia, according to web tracking site Alexa. David Jones, vice president for global marketing of Friendster, said that "the biggest percentage of users is from the Philippines, clocking in with 39 percent of the site's traffic."
He further added that in March 2008 alone, Friendster recorded 39 million unique visitors, with 13.2 million of whom were from the Philippines. Meanwhile, Multiply president and founder Peter Pezaris said that the Filipino users of their site comprised the largest and most active group in terms of number of subscribers and of photographs being uploaded daily. About 2.2 million out of more than nine million registered users of Multiply are Filipinos, outnumbering nationalities with a bigger population base like the United States and Brazil. One million photographs are uploaded by Filipinos to Multiply every day, half of their total number worldwide. Sixty percent of Filipino users of Multiply are female, while 70 percent are under the age of 25. In comparison, Filipino Friendster users are between the ages 16 to 30, with 55 percent of them female; the popularity of social networking in the Philippines can be traced in the Filipinos' culture of "friends helping friends." For Filipinos, their friends and who they know can become more valuable than money when what they need can be achieved through nepotism and friendship among others.
Social networking has extensive uses in the Philippines. It was used to promote television programs like Pinoy Big Brother: Teen Edition Plus with its two profiles on Multiply. A call center company posted job openings on its Multiply community site and was able to attract recruits; the power of social networking was tested in the country's 2007 general elections when senatorial candidate Francis Escudero created his own Friendster profile to bolster support from Filipino users. He won a seat in the Senate. Local celebrities and politicians have since created their own profiles on Friendster as their medium to communicate with their fans and constituents. Friendster was used as a tool for police investigations. Local police in Cebu City were able to track down the suspects for the robbery and murder of a female nursing student on March 2008. After receiving information and tips from the public and other police operatives, the local police searched through the suspects' profiles in order to get a closer look at their faces.
The police printed the pictures of the suspects and launched a series of police operations, which led to their arrest. Meanwhile, Manila Police District arrested a suspect for the murder of two guest relations officers in Tondo on January 2007 after they were able to find the suspect's whereabouts through his Friendster profile. Social networks became a source of high-profile cyberwars, notably between actors Ynez Veneracion and Mon Confiado against Juliana Palermo; the two accused Palermo of creating a fake Friendster profile of her ex-boyfriend Confiado, uploaded with photos of Confiado and his girlfriend Veneracion but laden with profanities in each caption. For his bid for the Philippine Presidency in May 2010 Secretary of National Defense, Gilberto Teodoro launched an aggressive campaign via the social media, he capitalized on networks such as Facebook. He spent nearly a quarter of his campaign budget on the social media in the Philippines. Filipino-American Internet personality Christine Gambito known as HappySlip, criticized Friendster for displaying what she described as "inappropriate advertisements" that appear on her profile.
She posted a message on the site's bulletin board addressing her fans that she contemplated deleting her account. Gambito had earlier deleted her MySpace account because she objected to the Google-powered online advertisements that she said "were in direct conflict with the HappyS
Navizon, Inc. is a provider of location-based services and products. Navizon was an early developer of technology that makes it possible to determine the geographic position of a mobile device using as reference the location of cell phone towers and Wi-Fi-based wireless access points instead of GPS. Navizon developed technology for locating mobile devices indoors with room and floor-level accuracy. Navizon known as Mexens Technology, was founded by a team from the Internet Protocol geolocation market, its founder and CEO, Cyril Houri, was founder and CEO of Infosplit, a provider of IP address geolocation services started in 1999, acquired in 2004. In 2005, Mexens Technology, as Navizon, Inc. was named, introduced Navizon, a hybrid positioning system combining GPS, Wi-Fi and cellular positioning. Mobile device users obtain their position through the Navizon app, which calculates the locations of cell sites and Wi-Fi access points by analyzing the signal strength at different locations. Navizon's database of cellular tower and Wi-Fi access point locations was built by a global community of users through crowdsourcing.
The Navizon app provides access to features such as Buddy Finder, which allows users to find the location of other registered users, incentives through the Navizon Rewards System, which allows users to earn rewards for contributing data through Navizon's crowdsourcing initiative. Navizon's positioning products and services include the Navizon app, for individuals, wireless positioning systems for corporations. In March 2009, the Navizon Wi-Fi positioning system was licensed by Yahoo Mobile and in March 2010 Microsoft selected Navizon for Wi-Fi and Cellular positioning. In 2011, Navizon unveiled Indoor Triangulation System, a location based service for businesses that tracks Wi-Fi enabled smart phones and notebooks, gives a view of people traffic inside a building or throughout a campus with room-and floor-level accuracy. In 2006, Mexens Technology, Inc. received United States Patent No. 7,397,424 for its “System and Method for Enabling Continuous Geographic Location Estimation for Wireless Computing Devices”.
In 2008, Mexens Technology, Inc. received a second patent, United States Patent No. 7,696,923 for its “System and method for determining geographic location of wireless computing devices”. Official website