Theta is the eighth letter of the Greek alphabet, derived from the Phoenician letter Teth. In the system of Greek numerals it has the value 9. In Ancient Greek, θ represented the aspirated voiceless dental plosive /t̪ʰ/, but in Modern Greek it represents the voiceless dental fricative /θ/. In its archaic form, θ was written as a cross within a circle, as a line or point in circle. Archaic crossed forms of theta are seen in the wheel letters of Linear A and Linear B; the cursive form ϑ was retained by Unicode as U+03D1 ϑ "GREEK THETA SYMBOL", separate from U+03B8 θ "GREEK SMALL LETTER THETA". For the purpose of writing Greek text, the two can be font variants of a single character, but θ and ϑ are used as distinct symbols in technical and mathematical contexts. In Latin script used for the Gaulish language, theta developed into the tau gallicum, conventionally transliterated as Ð, although the bar extends across the centre of the letter; the phonetic value of the tau gallicum is thought to have been.
The early Cyrillic letter fita developed from θ. This letter existed in the Russian alphabet until the 1918 Russian orthography reform. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, represents the voiceless dental fricative, as in thick or thin, it does not represent the consonant in the, the voiced dental fricative. A similar-looking symbol, described as a lowercase barred o, indicates in the IPA a close-mid central rounded vowel; the lowercase letter θ is used as a symbol for: A plane angle in geometry An unknown variable in trigonometry A special function of several complex variables One of the Chebyshev functions in prime number theory The potential temperature in meteorology The score of a test taker in item response theory Theta Type Replication: a type of bacterial DNA replication specific to circular chromosomes Threshold value of an artificial neuron A Bayer designation letter applied to a star in a constellation. According to Porphyry of Tyros, the Egyptians used an X within a circle as a symbol of the soul.
Johannes Lydus says that the Egyptians used a symbol for Kosmos in the form of theta, with a fiery circle representing the world, a snake spanning the middle representing Agathos Daimon. The Egyptians used the symbol of a point within a circle to represent the sun, which might be a possible origin of its use as the Sun's astrological glyph, it is worthwhile to note that θῆτα has the same numerical value in isopsephy as Ηλιος: 318. In classical Athens, it was used as an abbreviation for the Greek θάνατος and as it vaguely resembles a human skull, theta was used as a warning symbol of death, in the same way that skull and crossbones are used in modern times, it survives on potsherds used by Athenians. Petrus de Dacia in a document from 1291 relates the idea that theta was used to brand criminals as empty ciphers, the branding rod was affixed to the crossbar spanning the circle. For this reason, use of the number theta was sometimes avoided where the connotation was felt to be unlucky—the mint marks of some Late Imperial Roman coins famously have the sum ΔΕ or ΕΔ substituted as a euphemism where a Θ would otherwise be expected.
Greek ThetaCoptic ThetheCyrillic FitaMathematical ThetaThese characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup and formatting to indicate text style. Ѳ, ѳ—Fita, a letter of the early Cyrillic alphabet derived from the Greek theta ʘ—Bilabial click Voiceless dental fricative Theta nigrum
In the United States, an honor society is a rank organization that recognizes excellence among peers. Numerous societies recognize various circumstances; the Order of the Arrow, for example, is the national honor society of the Boy Scouts of America. Chiefly, the term refers to scholastic honor societies, those that recognize students who excel academically or as leaders among their peers within a specific academic discipline. Many honor societies invite students to become members based on the scholastic rank and/or grade point averages of those students, either overall, or for classes taken within the discipline for which the honor society provides recognition. In cases where academic achievement would not be an appropriate criterion for membership, other standards are required for membership, it is common for a scholastic honor society to add a criterion relating to the character of the student. Some honor societies are invitation. Membership in an honor society might be considered exclusive, i.e. a member of such an organization cannot join other honor societies representing the same field.
Academic robes and regalia identifying by color the degree and other distinction, are controlled under rules of a voluntary Intercollegiate Code. In addition, various colored devices such as stoles, cords and medallions are used to indicate membership in a student's honor society. Of these and mortarboard tassels are most used to indicate membership. Most institutions allow honor cords, tassels and/or medallions for honor society members. Stoles are less common. All, if not all honor societies have chosen such colors, may sell these items of accessory regalia as a service or fundraiser. Many fraternities and sororities are referred to by their membership or by non-members as honor societies, vice versa, though this is not always the case. Honor societies exist at the high school, collegiate/university, postgraduate levels, although university honor societies are by far the most prevalent. In America, the oldest academic society, Phi Beta Kappa, was founded as a social and literary fraternity in 1776 at the College of William and Mary and organized as an honor society in 1898, following the establishment of the honor societies Tau Beta Pi for Engineering, Sigma Xi for Scientific Research, Phi Kappa Phi for all disciplines.
February 15, 1918 the first national honor society for senior women was established, Mortar Board, with chapters at four institutions Cornell University, The University of Michigan, The Ohio State University and Swarthmore College the society became coed. The Association of College Honor Societies is a predominantly American, voluntary association of national collegiate and post-graduate honor societies. ACHS was formed in 1925 to maintain desirable standards for honor societies. While ACHS membership is a certification that the member societies meet these standards, not all legitimate honor societies apply for membership in ACHS. Notable national and international honor societies based in or at schools include the following: Alpha Chi, ΑΧ, colors: Emerald Green and Sapphire blue Alpha Kappa Mu, ΑΚΜ Alpha Lambda Delta, ΑΛΔ Alpha Sigma Lambda, ΑΣΛ Alpha Sigma Nu, ΑΣΝ, colors: Maroon and Gold Delta Epsilon Sigma, ΔΕΣ Delta Epsilon Tau, ΔΕΤ Golden Key International Honour Society Mortar Board National College Senior Honor Society, Mortar Board National Society of Collegiate Scholars, NSCS, colors: Burgundy and Gold Phi Eta Sigma, ΦΗΣ Phi Kappa Phi, ΦΚΦ Phi Sigma Pi, ΦΣΠ, colors: Purple and Gold Phi Tau Phi, ΦΤΦ Tau Sigma, ΤΣ Lambda Sigma, ΛΣ Order of Omega Sigma Alpha Lambda, ΣΑΛ Eta Sigma Delta Alpha Kappa Delta, ΑΚΔ, color: Teal Alpha Upsilon Alpha, ΑΥΑ Beta Beta Beta, ΒΒΒ, color: Blood red and Leaf green Beta Kappa Chi, ΒΚΧ Gamma Theta Upsilon, ΓΘΥ Eta Sigma Phi, ΗΣΦ Theta Alpha Kappa, ΘΑΚ Theta Chi Beta, ΘΧΒ Iota Sigma Pi, ΙΣΠ Kappa Mu Epsilon, ΚΜΕ Kappa Omicron Nu, KON, colors: Burgundy and Cream Lambda Alpha, ΛΑ Lambda Iota Tau, ΛΙΤ Mu Alpha Theta, ΜΑΘ Mu Sigma Rho, ΜΣΡ Pi Gamma Mu, ΠΓΜ Pi Mu Epsilon, ΠΜΕ Pi Sigma Alpha, ΠΣΑ Sigma Zeta, ΣΖ Sigma Pi Sigma, ΣΠΣ, colors: Forest Green and Ivory Sigma Tau Delta, ΣΤΔ Upsilon Pi Epsilon, ΥΠΕ Phi Alpha Theta, ΦΑΘ Phi Beta Kappa, ΦΒΚ, Colors: Pink and Sky blue Phi Lambda Upsilon, ΦΛΥ Phi Sigma, ΦΣ Phi Sigma Tau, ΦΣΤ Ch
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
United States Environmental Protection Agency
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection. President Richard Nixon proposed the establishment of EPA on July 9, 1970 and it began operation on December 2, 1970, after Nixon signed an executive order; the order establishing the EPA was ratified by committee hearings in the Senate. The agency is led by its Administrator, appointed by the President and approved by Congress; the current Administrator is former Deputy Administrator Andrew R. Wheeler, acting administrator since July 2018; the EPA is not a Cabinet department, but the Administrator is given cabinet rank. The EPA has its headquarters in Washington, D. C. regional offices for each of the agency's ten regions, 27 laboratories. The agency conducts environmental assessment and education, it has the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in consultation with state and local governments. It delegates some permitting and enforcement responsibility to U.
S. states and the federally recognized tribes. EPA enforcement powers include fines and other measures; the agency works with industries and all levels of government in a wide variety of voluntary pollution prevention programs and energy conservation efforts. In 2018, the agency had 14,172 full-time employees. More than half of EPA's employees are engineers and environmental protection specialists; the Environmental Protection Agency can only act under statutes, which are the authority of laws passed by Congress. Congress must approve the statute and they have the power to authorize or prohibit certain actions, which the EPA has to implement and enforce. Appropriations statutes authorize how much money the agency can spend each year to carry out the approved statutes; the Environmental Protection Agency has the power to issue regulations. A regulation is a standard or rule written by the agency to interpret the statute, apply it in situations and enforce it. Congress allows the EPA to write regulations in order to solve a problem, but the agency must include a rationale of why the regulations need to be implemented.
The regulations can be challenged by the Courts, where the regulation is confirmed. Many public health and environmental groups advocate for the agency and believe that it is creating a better world. Other critics believe that the agency commits government overreach by adding unnecessary regulations on business and property owners. Beginning in the late 1950s and through the 1960s, Congress reacted to increasing public concern about the impact that human activity could have on the environment. Senator James E. Murray introduced a bill, the Resources and Conservation Act of 1959, in the 86th Congress; the 1962 publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson alerted the public about the detrimental effects on the environment of the indiscriminate use of pesticides. In the years following, similar bills were introduced and hearings were held to discuss the state of the environment and Congress's potential responses. In 1968, a joint House–Senate colloquium was convened by the chairmen of the Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Senator Henry M. Jackson, the House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Representative George P. Miller, to discuss the need for and means of implementing a national environmental policy.
In the colloquium, some members of Congress expressed a continuing concern over federal agency actions affecting the environment. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 was modeled on the Resources and Conservation Act of 1959. RCA would have established a Council on Environmental Quality in the office of the President, declared a national environmental policy, required the preparation of an annual environmental report. President Nixon signed NEPA into law on January 1, 1970; the law created the Council on Environmental Quality in the Executive Office of the President. NEPA required that a detailed statement of environmental impacts be prepared for all major federal actions affecting the environment; the "detailed statement" would be referred to as an environmental impact statement. On July 9, 1970, Nixon proposed an executive reorganization that consolidated many environmental responsibilities of the federal government under one agency, a new Environmental Protection Agency; this proposal included merging antipollution programs from a number of departments, such as the combination of pesticide programs from the United States Department of Agriculture, Department of Interior, U.
S. Department of Interior. After conducting hearings during that summer, the House and Senate approved the proposal; the EPA was created 90 days before it had to operate, opened its doors on December 2, 1970. The agency's first Administrator, William Ruckelshaus, took the oath of office on December 4, 1970. In its first year, the EPA had 5,800 employees. At its start, the EPA was a technical assistance agency that set goals and standards. Soon, new acts and amendments passed by Congress gave the agency its regulatory authority. EPA staff recall that in the early days there was "an enormous sense of purpose and excitement" and the expectation that "there was this agency, going to do something about a problem, on the minds of a lot of people in this country," leading to tens of thousands of resumes from those eager to participate in the mighty effort to clean up America's environment; when EPA first began operation, members of the private sector felt that the environ
Laurus nobilis is an aromatic evergreen tree or large shrub with green, glabrous leaves, in the flowering plant family Lauraceae. It is used as bay leaf for seasoning in cooking, its common names include bay tree, bay laurel, sweet bay, true laurel, Grecian laurel, or laurel. Laurus nobilis figures prominently in classical Greco-Roman culture. Worldwide, many other kinds of plants in diverse families are called "bay" or "laurel" due to similarity of foliage or aroma to Laurus nobilis, the full name is used for the California bay laurel in the family Lauraceae; the Laurel is an evergreen small tree, variable in size and sometimes reaching 7 -- 18 m tall. The genus Laurus includes four accepted species, whose diagnostic key characters overlap; the Bay Laurel is dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate plants. Each flower is pale yellow-green, about 1 cm diameter, they are borne in pairs beside a leaf; the leaves are 6 -- 12 cm long and 2 -- 4 cm broad, with an entire margin. On some leaves the margin undulates.
The fruit is a shiny black berry-like drupe about 1 cm long that contains one seed. A recent study found considerable genetic diversity within L. nobilis, that L. azorica is not genetically or morphologically distinct. Laurus nobilis is a widespread relic of the laurel forests that covered much of the Mediterranean Basin when the climate of the region was more humid. With the drying of the Mediterranean during the Pliocene era, the laurel forests retreated, were replaced by the more drought-tolerant sclerophyll plant communities familiar today. Most of the last remaining laurel forests around the Mediterranean are believed to have disappeared ten thousand years ago, although some remnants still persist in the mountains of southern Turkey, northern Syria, southern Spain, north-central Portugal, northern Morocco, the Canary Islands and in Madeira; the plant is the source of several popular herbs and one spice used in a wide variety of recipes among Mediterranean cuisines. Most the aromatic leaves are added whole to Italian pasta sauces.
They are removed from dishes before serving, unless used as a simple garnish. Whole bay leaves have a long shelf life of about one year, under normal humidity. Whole bay leaves are used exclusively as flavor agents during the food preparation stage. Ground bay leaves, can be ingested safely and are used in soups and stocks, as well as being a common addition to a Bloody Mary. Dried laurel berries and pressed leaf oil can both be used as robust spices, the wood can be burnt for strong smoke flavoring. Laurus nobilis is cultivated as an ornamental plant in regions with Mediterranean or oceanic climates, as a house plant or greenhouse plant in colder regions, it is used in topiary to create single erect stems with box-shaped or twisted crowns. However it may take several years to reach the desired height. Together with a gold form, L. nobilis'Aurea' and a willow-leaved form L. nobilis f. angustifolia it has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. In herbal medicine, aqueous extracts of bay laurel have been used as an astringent and salve for open wounds.
It is used in massage therapy and aromatherapy. A traditional folk remedy for rashes caused by poison ivy, poison oak, stinging nettle is a poultice soaked in boiled bay leaves; the Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder listed a variety of conditions which laurel oil was supposed to treat: paralysis, sciatica, headaches, ear infections, rheumatism. Laurel oil is a main ingredient, the distinguishing characteristic of Aleppo soap. In Ancient Greece, the plant was called daphne, after the mythic mountain nymph of the same name. In the myth of Apollo and Daphne, the god Apollo fell in love with Daphne, a priestess of Gaia, when he tried to seduce her she pled for help to Gaia, who transported her to Crete. In Daphne's place Gaia left a laurel tree. Other versions of the myth, including that of the Roman poet Ovid, state that Daphne was transformed directly into a laurel tree. Bay laurel was used to fashion a symbol of highest status. A wreath of bay laurels was given as the prize at the Pythian Games because the games were in honor of Apollo, the laurel was one of his symbols.
According to the poet Lucian, the priestess of Apollo known as the Pythia reputedly chewed laurel leaves from a sacred tree growing inside the temple to induce the enthusiasmos from which she uttered the oracular prophecies which she was famous for. Some accounts starting in the fourth century BC describe her as shaking a laurel branch while delivering her prophecies; those who received promising omens from the Pythia were crowned with laurel wreaths as a symbol of Apollo's favor. The symbolism carried over to Roman culture, it was associated with immortality, with ritual purification and health. It is the source of the words baccalaureate and poet laureate, as well as the expressions "assume the laurel" and "resting on one's laurels". Pliny the Elder stated that the Laurel was not permitted for "profane" uses - lighting it on fire at altars "for the propitiation of divinities" was forbidden, because "...it is evident that the laurel protests against such usage by crackling as it does in the fire, thus, in a manner, giving expression
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus of the beech family, Fagaceae. There are 600 extant species of oaks; the common name "oak" appears in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus, as well as in those of unrelated species such as Grevillea robusta and the Casuarinaceae. The genus Quercus is native to the Northern Hemisphere, includes deciduous and evergreen species extending from cool temperate to tropical latitudes in the Americas, Asia and North Africa. North America contains the largest number of oak species, with 90 occurring in the United States, while Mexico has 160 species of which 109 are endemic; the second greatest center of oak diversity is China, which contains 100 species. Oaks have spirally arranged leaves, with lobate margins in many species. Many deciduous species are marcescent. In spring, a single oak tree produces small female flowers; the fruit is a nut called an oak nut borne in a cup-like structure known as a cupule. The acorns and leaves contain tannic acid, which helps to guard from insects.
The live oaks are distinguished for being evergreen, but are not a distinct group and instead are dispersed across the genus. The oak tree is a flowering plant. Oaks may be divided into two genera and a number of sections: The genus Quercus is divided into the following sections: Sect. Quercus, the white oaks of Europe and North America. Styles are short; the leaves lack a bristle on their lobe tips, which are rounded. The type species is Quercus robur. Sect. Mesobalanus, Hungarian oak and its relatives of Europe and Asia. Styles long; the section Mesobalanus is related to section Quercus and sometimes included in it. Sect. Cerris, the Turkey oak and its relatives of Europe and Asia. Styles long; the inside of the acorn's shell is hairless. Its leaves have sharp lobe tips, with bristles at the lobe tip. Sect. Protobalanus, the canyon live oak and its relatives, in southwest United States and northwest Mexico. Styles short, acorns mature in 18 months and taste bitter; the inside of the acorn shell appears woolly.
Leaves have sharp lobe tips, with bristles at the lobe tip. Sect. Lobatae, the red oaks of North America, Central America and northern South America. Styles long; the inside of the acorn shell appears woolly. The actual nut is encased in a thin, papery skin. Leaves have sharp lobe tips, with spiny bristles at the lobe; the ring-cupped oaks of eastern and southeastern Asia. Evergreen trees growing 10–40 m tall, they are distinct from subgenus Quercus in that they have acorns with distinctive cups bearing concrescent rings of scales. IUCN, ITIS, Encyclopedia of Life and Flora of China treats Cyclobalanopsis as a distinct genus, but some taxonomists consider it a subgenus of Quercus, it contains about 150 species. Species of Cyclobalanopsis are common in the evergreen subtropical laurel forests which extend from southern Japan, southern Korea, Taiwan across southern China and northern Indochina to the eastern Himalayas, in association with trees of genus Castanopsis and the laurel family. Interspecific hybridization is quite common among oaks but between species within the same section only and most common in the white oak group.
Inter-section hybrids, except between species of sections Mesobalanus, are unknown. Recent systematic studies appear to confirm a high tendency of Quercus species to hybridize because of a combination of factors. White oaks are unable to discriminate against pollination by other species in the same section; because they are wind pollinated and they have weak internal barriers to hybridization, hybridization produces functional seeds and fertile hybrid offspring. Ecological stresses near habitat margins, can cause a breakdown of mate recognition as well as a reduction of male function in one parent species. Frequent hybridization among oaks has consequences for oak populations around the world. Frequent hybridization and high levels of introgression have caused different species in the same populations to share up to 50% of their genetic information. Having high rates of hybridization and introgression produces genetic data that does not differentiate between two morphologically distinct species, but instead differentiates populations.
Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain how oak species are able to remain morphologically and ecologically distinct with such high levels of gene flow, but the phenomenon is still a mystery to botanists. The Fagaceae, or beech family, to which the oaks belong, is a slow evolving clade compared to other angiosperms, the patterns of hybridization and introgression in Quercus pose a gre
The Marshall Islands the Republic of the Marshall Islands, is an island country and a United States associated state near the equator in the Pacific Ocean west of the International Date Line. Geographically, the country is part of the larger island group of Micronesia; the country's population of 53,158 people is spread out over 29 coral atolls, comprising 1,156 individual islands and islets. The islands share maritime boundaries with the Federated States of Micronesia to the west, Wake Island to the north, Kiribati to the southeast, Nauru to the south. About 27,797 of the islanders live on Majuro. Data from the United Nations indicates an estimated population in 2016 of 53,066. In 2016, 73.3% of the population were defined as being "urban". The UN indicates a population density of 295 per km2 and its projected 2020 population is 53,263. Micronesian colonists reached the Marshall Islands using canoes circa 2nd millennium BC, with interisland navigation made possible using traditional stick charts.
They settled here. Islands in the archipelago were first explored by Europeans in the 1520s, starting with Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese at the service of Spain, Juan Sebastián Elcano and Miguel de Saavedra. Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar reported sighting an atoll in August 1526. Other expeditions by Spanish and English ships followed; the islands derive their name from British explorer John Marshall, who visited in 1788. The islands were known by the inhabitants as "jolet jen Anij". Spain claimed the islands in 1592, the European powers recognized its sovereignty over the islands in 1874, they had been part of the Spanish East Indies formally since 1528. Spain sold some of the islands to the German Empire in 1885, they became part of German New Guinea that year, run by the trading companies doing business in the islands the Jaluit Company. In World War I the Empire of Japan occupied the Marshall Islands, which in 1920, the League of Nations combined with other former German territories to form the South Pacific Mandate.
During World War II, the United States took control of the islands in the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign in 1944. Nuclear testing began in 1946 and concluded in 1958; the US government formed the Congress of Micronesia in 1965, a plan for increased self-governance of Pacific islands. The Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands in 1979 provided independence to the Marshall Islands, whose constitution and president were formally recognized by the US. Full sovereignty or Self-government was achieved in a Compact of Free Association with the United States. Marshall Islands has been a member of the Pacific Community since 1983 and a United Nations member state since 1991. Politically, the Marshall Islands is a presidential republic in free association with the United States, with the US providing defense and access to U. S.-based agencies such as the Federal Communications Commission and the United States Postal Service. With few natural resources, the islands' wealth is based on a service economy, as well as some fishing and agriculture.
The country uses the United States dollar as its currency. In 2018, it announced plans for a new cryptocurrency to be used as legal tender; the majority of the citizens of the Republic of Marshall Islands, formed in 1982, are of Marshallese descent, though there are small numbers of immigrants from the United States, China and other Pacific islands. The two official languages are Marshallese, one of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, English; the entire population of the islands practices some religion, with three-quarters of the country either following the United Church of Christ – Congregational in the Marshall Islands or the Assemblies of God. Evidence suggests that around 3,000 years ago successive waves of human migrants from Southeast Asia spread across the Western Pacific populating its many small islands; the Marshall Islands were settled by Micronesians in the 2nd millennium BC. Little is known of the islands' early history. Early settlers traveled between the islands by canoe using traditional stick charts.
The Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar landed there in 1526, the archipelago came to be known as "Los Pintados", "Las Hermanas" and "Los Jardines" within the Spanish Empire, first falling within the jurisdiction of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, to be administered directly by Madrid upon the independence of Latin America and the dissolution of New Spain starting in 1821. They were only formally possessed by Spain for much of their colonial history, were considered part of the "Carolines", or alternatively the "Nuevas Filipinas"; the islands were left to their own affairs except for short-lived religious missions during the 16th and 17th centuries. They were ignored by European powers except for cartographic demarcation treaties between the Iberian Empires in 1529, 1750 and 1777; the archipelago corresponding to the present-day country was independently named by Krusenstern, after British explorer John Marshall, who visited them together with Thomas Gilbert in 1788, en route from Botany Bay to Canton (two s