click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Phil Anderson (cyclist)

Philip Grant Anderson OAM is an Australian former professional racing cyclist, the first non-European to wear the yellow jersey of the Tour de France. Phil Anderson was born in London but moved to Melbourne, when he was young, he grew up in the suburb of Kew and graduated from Trinity Grammar School in 1975. He first raced with Hawthorn Cycling Club, where Allan Peiper, another future professional, was a member. Peiper said: "Phil joined the club with his mate, Peter Darbyshire. My best friend was Tom Sawyer a six-day racer in Europe, we were the two rough nuts, while Phil and Darbs were the two upper-class boys". Anderson won the 1977 Dulux Tour of the North Island in New Zealand and the Australian team time-trial championship at Brisbane in 1978. In that year he won the Commonwealth Games road race in Edmonton, Canada, he was 19. He moved to France in 1979 to join the ACBB, a club at Boulogne-Billancourt in the suburbs of Paris with a reputation of placing riders in professional teams Peugeot.

Whilst he was with the ACBB he lived and raced alongside Robert Millar and Mark Bell. That season he won the Tour de l'Essonne, the Tour de l'Hérault and the amateur version of the unofficial world time-trial championship, the Grand Prix des Nations, in Cannes. Anderson turned professional for Peugeot, one of the oldest French teams, he won two races in his first season - the Prix de Wetteren and a stage in the Étoile des Espoirs, came second in two others. He moved to Belgium, to ride criteriums, it was a big change. It's difficult because I was on a French team, I felt that the French riders got priority, I had to go a bit deeper or had to be a little better than some of my colleagues on the team, but that hardened me, put pressure on me, I think became part of my make-up in the end. He came fifth in the 1982 Tour de France, in which he held the white jersey of best young rider, again fifth in 1985, the year he won the Tour de Suisse; that same season he finished second in the Super Prestige Pernod International, forerunner of the UCI points championship.

His highlights were wearing the yellow jersey of the 1981 Tour de France and again for nine days of 1982. He was the first rider from outside Europe to lead the race. Anderson described what it meant in 1981: It happened in the Pyrenees; this was my first Tour de France. I didn't have aspirations of becoming the wearer of the yellow anything like that. I was given my instructions and I was supposed to look after a rider on my team, the team leader, a Frenchman, I forgot my instructions and just sort of went into survival mode over a number of mountain passes, just staying up with some of the top riders, before I knew it, my team director came up beside me in his car and told me,'Listen, what happened to your leader, the guy that you've been instructed to watch today?' you know. And to help if he has any troubles, or just pace him back if he's having some troubles, and I said, ` Oh gee. Where is he?' And he said,'he's five or ten minutes back, in the next group.' I said,'No worries I'll wait up for him.'

He said,'No, no, stay up here, you're doing OK, just stay out of trouble and try and hang on as long as possible.'So hang on I did, whistled down the next mountain and got to the last climb and I stayed up with Bernard Hinault. But you're sort of at the highest level of the sport, his best year was 1985, when he won the Tour Méditerranéen, Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré and the Tour de Suisse, as well as finishing second in the Tour of Flanders and Gent–Wevelgem. He continued to ride the Tour until 1989, when he came 38th, but by he had arthritis. In 1990 he joined 7-Eleven - "Speculation has it that he took a big pay cut, he won the Tour of Britain in 1991 and 1993. Anderson retired to a farm he bought in Jamieson and has what he calls the life of a gentleman farmer, he was given the Medal of the Order of Australia in 1987 for service to cycling. In 2000, he received the Australian Sports Medal and in 2001 he received a Centenary Medal for service to society through cycling, he was inducted into the Sport Australia Hall of Fame in 2010.

In 2015, he was an inaugural Cycling Australia Hall of Fame inductee. Anderson has married twice, first to Anne, whom he married just after turning professional, Christi Valentine, who in 1999 wrote Anderson's biography, Phil Anderson: Cycling Legend. Anderson and Valentine married on 29 April 1994 and separated in 2005. Anderson has been in a relationship with Anne Newell since 2006. List of Australians who have led the Tour de France general classification Official website Phil Anderson at Cycling Archives Sports Factor 1999 Interview

Bruce Dick

Bruce Dick is a Scottish rugby union player who plays for Melrose RFC. He can play at Centre. Dick played for Gala before moving to Melrose. On the back of his performances with Melrose, it was announced on 28 May 2012 that Dick had secured an Elite Development Place with Glasgow Warriors for the upcoming season 2012-13; as part of his EDP contract with Glasgow Warriors he could still play for Melrose. He helped Melrose beat Doncaster Knights in the British and Irish Cup in October 2012, he played for Glasgow Warriors as part of their 7s squad in the Melrose Sevens in May 2013. He played in the Warriors 7s squad that won the Glasgow City Sevens in May 2013, they beat Glasgow Hawks 26-17 in the final. He was with Glasgow Warriors in the 2012-13 season, he moved from Glasgow Warriors in 2013 to Edinburgh Rugby for the season 2013-14. Again as an EDP, with Edinburgh he was still allowed to play for Melrose. For Dick he was out for two years from rugby before returning with Melrose in August 2015, After coming back from time on the side lines during a match for Melrose away to Stirling County in the premiership, his desire to play had been lost, Sadly the physical and emotional effects from this had taken its toll, Dick retired at the age of just 25..

He obtained a degree in Business Management from Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh and is now the Commercial Manager of Dick Brothers, Timber Harvesting Merchants in Galashiels

Old Town Hall Historic District (Huntington, New York)

Old Town Hall Historic District is a national historic district located at Huntington in Suffolk County, New York. The district has eight contributing buildings, it includes civic buildings, a church, a cemetery, residential buildings. Properties date from initial settlement in 1653 to the early 20th century. Located in the district are sites such as the Old Huntington Town Hall itself on the northeast corner of Main Street and Stewart Avenue, the Fort Golgotha and the Old Burial Hill Cemetery across from there, the former Huntington Sewing and Trade School, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1985. Media related to Old Town Hall Historic District at Wikimedia Commons Photograph of the Old Huntington Town Hall, by Dominick Kosciuk Old Huntington Town Hall image Old Town Hall Historic District

Rockingham Whigs

The Rockingham Whigs in 18th century British politics were a faction of the Whigs led by Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, from about 1762 until his death in 1782. The Rockingham Whigs held power from 1765 to 1766 and again in 1782, otherwise were in opposition to the various ministries of the period; the faction came into existence in 1762, following the dismissal of the Duke of Newcastle's government and the dismissal of many of Newcastle's supporters from their posts by his successor, Lord Bute, in the so-called "Massacre of the Pelhamite Innocents". For many years Newcastle and his late brother Henry Pelham had dominated parliament and government through their mastery of patronage and the "old corruption", to the point where King George II had proved incapable of dispensing with their services when he desired to; when the new king, George III, came to the throne in 1760, he was determined to reassert royal power and take the patronage mechanism away from Newcastle and his faction.

After their fall from power Newcastle and his remaining loyalists came together to oppose Bute and assert what they believed to be Whig principles dating back to the political conflicts of the previous century. The faction was dominated by wealthy aristocrats, because of Newcastle's advanced age, effective leadership soon came into the hands of the wealthy young aristocrat the Marquess of Rockingham, who soon gave his name to the group. Although the Rockingham Whigs were brought into power in 1765, following the fall of the ministry of George Grenville, this ministry was based on an always uneasy relationship with the crown, collapsed a year later. In fact, the faction showed less interest in holding office than in preventing a reassertion of royal power, they were prepared to unite with reformers of all kinds to preserve the constitutional settlement of 1689. But their aristocratic and oligarchic character prevented them from collaborating with "Country Party" reformers advocating radical or populistic measures.

They opposed the British position which led to the American Revolution and sought reconciliation after it. The writer and philosopher Edmund Burke, who served as Rockingham's private secretary, was one of the faction's leading spokesmen in the House of Commons, they did not favor Irish constitutional goals but when out of power they used Irish problems to embarrass the government. During Rockingham's government in 1765–66, his faction was hostile to the Irish Patriot Party, but during the administration of Lord North in 1770–82, it supported the Patriots' charges of mismanagement of Irish affairs. In power again in 1782, the Rockinghamites made concessions to the Patriots' demand for Irish legislative independence, they sought and failed to obtain a permanent solution that would have involved British control over external legislation and Irish control over internal affairs. They failed to implement British party models in Ireland. Rockinghamites Charles James Fox and Burke were involved in Irish issues, says Powell, the former opportunistically and the latter with a genuine interest in reform.

In 1782 they joined forces with other members of the Opposition to bring down the North government which had overseen the American War since the beginning, was blamed for the surrender of the British army at Yorktown. The new government was led by Rockingham and began to seek peace terms, laying the foundations for the Treaty of Paris agreed in 1783. Rockingham's unexpected death in July 1782 led to a split in the new government with some Rockingham Whigs remaining in office under the new government of Lord Shelburne, others going into opposition led by Charles James Fox and Edmund Burke. After Rockingham's death, the Duke of Portland became the head of the Rockingham Whig party. Elofson, W. M. "The Rockingham Whigs and the Country Tradition", Parliamentary History, 8: 90–115 O'Gorman, Frank, "Party and Burke: The Rockingham Whigs", Government & Opposition, 3: 92–110 Elofson, W. M. "The Rockingham Whigs in Transition: The East India Company Issue 1772–1773", English Historical Review, 104: 947–974, JSTOR 572789 Powell, Martyn J.

"British Party Politics and Imperial Control: The Rockingham Whigs and Ireland 1765–1782", Parliamentary History, 21: 325–50

Synods of Aachen (816–819)

The Synods of Aachen between 816 and 819 were a landmark in regulations for the monastic life in the Frankish realm. The Benedictine Rule was declared the universally valid norm for communities of monks and nuns, while canonical orders were distinguished from monastic communities and unique regulations were laid down for them: the Institutio canonicorum Aquisgranensis; the synods of 817 and 818/819 completed the reforms. Among other things, the relationship of church properties to the king was clarified; the monastic life played an important role in intellectual life in the Frankish realm. The orders had important tasks in church life, but they were significant for the economic and intellectual integration of new territories, such as Saxony into the empire. However, the orders were not uniformly organised. In the previous centuries, mixed rules dominated; such a mixed rule was imported to Monte Cassino after its refoundation in the eighth century. In the Frankish realm the Benedictine Rule was mixed with the Columbine Rule.

Furthermore, orders of canons and canonesses had developed alongside the orders of nuns. There were mixtures between these two basic types of holy order. Charlemagne began to regulate the monastic life in 789, with the Admonitio generalis. Among other things, it declared that obedience to the Benedictine Rule should be central for the orders; the decisions of a synod in Aachen in 802 built on that. Visitations to the orders followed. A court day held in the second half of the year ruled, that in future the Benedictine Rule should be the sole binding rule for monastic orders. There continued to be a number of orders following other regulations. Louis the Pious appointed Benedict of Aniane to enforce the Benedictine Rule throughout the empire, shortly after his accession; the Emperor summoned an imperial synod at Aachen in August 816. The main issues of this synod were the reform of the monastic life and the regulation of the canonical life; the synods were preceded by intensive preparations, including a list of the issues to be addressed which Benedict of Aniane had collated.

According to the imperial capitulary in which the results were published, the discussion took place in the Royal Palace of Aachen. Abbots and monks participated and the Emperor himself was present intervening in the debates. Bishops and important secular officials took part as well. A list of the participants does not exist. Among them was Hetto of Adalhoh of Strassbourg. Hildebold of Cologne, as archchaplain, was present. Magnus of Sens and Agobard of Lyon left early; the Abbots in attendance included Ando of Malmedy Stablo in Aachen and Helysacher of St Maximin in Trier, in charge of the Imperial chancellary. Ratgar of Fulda might have been present as well, since his abbey was well informed on the results of the synod. Only minimal notes exist about the course of the synod. A central point was the orientation of the monastic life along the lines of the Benedictine Rule; as important as Benedict of Aniane's role was, he was not always been able to prevail despite his position. An important point was the plan to force monasteries' to conform to the liturgical practice of the Benedictines.

The bishops who would not tolerate any deviation from the Roman rite, opposed this. A compromise was reached on this point. There was controversy about whether the property of novices should be taken by the monastery or returned to their families. There was discussion on other technical issues as well, but in the core matters, Benedict of Aniane took on an authoritative role. He explained the Benedictine Rule to the participants, clarified doubts, refuted errors of interpretation, he said. He succeeded in making the Benedictine Rule the general norm for the monastic life in the Frankish realm; the decisions made in Aachen deviated from the original rule only in minor details. These were traditions built up over the preceding centuries. Benedict of Aniane himself did not dare to make a radical break with tradition and, as a result, some non-Benedictine elements were maintained, but he tried to make the regulations enacted come as close to the original Rule as possible. Overall, the regulation of the Benedictine Rule was a significant step.

This is sometimes seen as the real beginning of the Benedictine order. All orders founded in the following centuries were organised in accordance with the principles of this rule; the rules of the mendicant orders founded in the thirteenth century were the first to diverge from this basis. Another important aspect was to define monks and canons in relation to one another and to end the mixing of the two lifestyles which had begun in the eighth century. There had been attempts at this for some time - the rule of Chrodegang of Metz issued around 755 had anticipated this standardisation - but there had been only limited success. In Aachen, Louis the Pious demanded that the rules for the communal life of canons should be collected from the old books; some bishops were not convinced of the necessity of this, but such a collection was created, agreed to by the council. This consisted of a rule for one for canonesses; the canons were required to celebrate general services and the liturgy of the hours and to maintain a communal life in an enclosed area, required to include a common dormitory and a common dining hall.

Unlike monks and nuns, canons were permitted to keep personal possessions, though personal poverty was to be the ideal for them too. They would not be allowed to lay aside

Robert Thorpe (Indian Army officer)

Lieutenant Robert Thorpe, an officer of the British Indian Army, visited Kashmir during the reign of Maharaja Ranbir Singh and wrote about the sufferings of the Kashmiri people. His writings were compiled into a book Cashmere Misgovernment and published in London in 1870. Thorpe appealed to the British soldiers, who raised funds for Christian Missionary Society to send medical help to the Kashmir Valley; this led to the founding of the British Mission Hospital in Srinagar. Historians state that Thorpe's life is shrouded in "myth and history", he is regarded in Kashmir as a martyr. According to Jane Strand, a surviving relative of Robert Thorpe, Robert Thorpe was born in 1838 to parents Thomas Thorp, a solicitor in Alnwick in Northumberland, Elizabeth Jane Tudor from Bath, Somerset. Robert had a brother William Tudor Thorp, a vicar and the great grandfather of Jane Strand. Other versions of his background are current in Kashmir. According to writer Fida Hassnain, Robert Thorpe's father was Lt. Col. R. Thorpe of the British Army.

On a holiday to Kashmir in 1833, Col. Thorpe is said to have fallen in love with a Kashmiri woman named Amiran, the daughter of a landlord in Shoguin, the two were married, they are said to have gone back to Britain, where Robert Thorpe was born. According to another version from Justice Yusuf Saraf, Robert Thorpe's mother was Jani, the daughter of Daim Rathore of Kishtwar. To get married to her, Col. Thorp had to convert to Islam. Robert Thorpe is said to have been the youngest of three children. Kumar and Dar note the inconsistencies in the various narratives. According to Jane Strand's information, Robert went to school first in Durham and in Surrey, he was commissioned in the 98th foot regiment of British Army in India in February 1858. He resigned from the Army in February 1867; when Thorpe entered Kashmir around 1865, he was a Lieutenant. Scholar Sheikh Showkat Hussain believes that Thorpe was sent to Kashmir on a mission, to prepare the case for British intervention in Kashmir. Between 1865 and 1868, Thorpe travelled extensively in the villages, collecting information about the living conditions, economy and the state apparatus.

He wrote scathing articles on the Dogra rule in Anglo-Indian newspapers. He wrote to the British officials at Calcutta, but his writings contained a strong political message. He was advocating the British annexation of Kashmir, a prevailing view among the British officials at that time, his attack on the Dogra rulers and the Treaty of Amritsar that transferred Kashmir to the Dogras were scathing:...by a government into whose hands British statesmen sold the people of Kashmir, by a government, therefore whose existence is a disgrace to the British name. It is at once a memorial of that foul act, his writings did not lead to annexation of Kashmir. However, the British government brought the state of Jammu and Kashmir into a subsidiary alliance, placing a British Resident in Kashmir. Other than the political messages, scholars find Thorpe's writings valuable for the detailed information they provide on the state of the early Dogra administration, they describe the patterns of land tenure and revenue administration, the tax administration of the shawl industry, transport of supplies for troops and the system of begar.

They bring to fore the "poverty and degradation" that characterised the early Dogra administration. The writings were compiled into a book Cashemre Misgovernment published by Longmans and Company in London in the year 1870; the book has been republished many times, two modern editions including those edited by S. N. Gadru and Fida Hassnain. Thorpe died in Srinagar on 22 November 1868 under mysterious circumstances; the cause of death was determined by the British doctor as a rupture of the heart. Poisoning was alleged and continues to be suspected though the doctor ruled it out. Cecil Tyndale-Biscoe, who went as a Christian missionary to Kashmir in 1890, informs us that prior to his death, Thorpe was ordered out of the state by the Maharaja; when he refused to leave, he was carried to the pass. Thorpe is said to have returned to Srinagar, his death occurred the following day. Fida Hassnain, on the other hand, states that the Maharaja's men attacked Thorpe when he went to the Shankaracharya Hill near the Dal Lake, he died on the spot.

The source of this information is not specified. Thorpe was buried at a Christian cemetery at Shaikh Bagh; the carving on the grave states, "He gave his life for Kashmir". Robert Thorpe's appeals for help mobilised other British officers such as Sir Robert Montgomery, the Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab, Sir Herbert Edwards, Colonel Martin and Colonel Urmston, who got together and raised funds for sending a medical missionary to Kashmir with the help of the Christian Missionary Society. Doctor William Jackson Elmslie went as a missionary doctor in 1864, his work is said to have been obstructed by the Maharaja's administration, but he continued until his death in 1872. Afterwards, the Society sent Doctor Theodore Maxwell, able to get land from the administration for building a basic Mission Hospital at Rustum Gari, close to the Takhat-i-Sulaiman. Dr. Arthur Neve, who succeeded him, built the present hospital. In 1967, Fida Hassnain wrote an article on Robert Thorpe in a local newspaper calling him "the first martyr" of Kashmir.

Major Afzal arranged the first anniver