The Tour de France is an annual men's multiple stage bicycle race held in France, while occasionally passing through nearby countries. Like the other Grand Tours, it consists of 21 day-long stages over the course of 23 days, it has been described as "the world’s most prestigious and most difficult bicycle race". The race was first organized in 1903 to increase sales for the newspaper L'Auto and is run by the Amaury Sport Organisation; the race has been held annually since its first edition in 1903 except when it was stopped for the two World Wars. As the Tour gained prominence and popularity, the race was lengthened and its reach began to extend around the globe. Participation expanded from a French field, as riders from all over the world began to participate in the race each year; the Tour is a UCI World Tour event, which means that the teams that compete in the race are UCI WorldTeams, with the exception of the teams that the organizers invite. It has become "the world's biggest annual sporting event."
A women's Tour de France was held under different names between 1984 and 2009. Since 2014, the La Course by Le Tour de France is held for women in a one- or two-day format during the men's race. Traditionally, the race is held in the month of July. While the route changes each year, the format of the race stays the same with the appearance of time trials, the passage through the mountain chains of the Pyrenees and the Alps, the finish on the Champs-Élysées in Paris; the modern editions of the Tour de France consist of 21 day-long segments over a 23-day period and cover around 3,500 kilometres. The race alternates between counterclockwise circuits of France. There are between 20 and 22 teams, with eight riders in each. All of the stages are timed to the finish; the rider with the lowest cumulative finishing times is the leader of the race and wears the yellow jersey. While the general classification garners the most attention, there are other contests held within the Tour: the points classification for the sprinters, the mountains classification for the climbers, young rider classification for riders under the age of 26, the team classification, based on the first three finishers from each team on each stage.
Achieving a stage win provides prestige accomplished by a team's sprint specialist or a rider taking part in a breakaway. The Tour de France was created in 1903; the roots of the Tour de France trace back to the emergence of two rival sports newspapers in the country. On one hand was Le Vélo, the first and the largest daily sports newspaper in France which sold 80,000 copies a day. On the other was L'Auto, set-up by journalists and business-people including Comte Jules-Albert de Dion, Adolphe Clément, Édouard Michelin in 1899; the rival paper emerged following disagreements over the Dreyfus Affair, a cause célèbre that divided France at the end of the 19th century over the innocence of Alfred Dreyfus, a French army officer convicted—though exonerated—of selling military secrets to the Germans. The new newspaper appointed Henri Desgrange as the editor, he was a prominent owner with Victor Goddet of the velodrome at the Parc des Princes. De Dion knew him through his cycling reputation, through the books and cycling articles that he had written, through press articles he had written for the Clément tyre company.
L'Auto was not the success. Stagnating sales lower than the rival it was intended to surpass led to a crisis meeting on 20 November 1902 on the middle floor of L'Auto's office at 10 Rue du Faubourg Montmartre, Paris; the last to speak was the most junior there, the chief cycling journalist, a 26-year-old named Géo Lefèvre. Desgrange had poached him from Giffard's paper. Lefèvre suggested a six-day race of the sort popular on the track but all around France. Long-distance cycle races were a popular means to sell more newspapers, but nothing of the length that Lefèvre suggested had been attempted. If it succeeded, it would help L'Auto match its rival and put it out of business, it could, as Desgrange said, "nail Giffard's beak shut." Desgrange and Lefèvre discussed it after lunch. Desgrange was doubtful but the paper's financial director, Victor Goddet, was enthusiastic, he handed Desgrange the keys to the company safe and said: "Take whatever you need." L'Auto announced the race on 19 January 1903.
The first Tour de France was staged in 1903. The plan was a five-stage race from 31 May to 5 July, starting in Paris and stopping in Lyon, Marseille and Nantes before returning to Paris. Toulouse was added to break the long haul across southern France from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic. Stages would go through the night and finish next afternoon, with rest days before riders set off again, but this proved too daunting and the costs too great for most and only 15 competitors had entered. Desgrange had never been wholly convinced and he came close to dropping the idea. Instead, he cut the length to 19 days, changed the dates to 1 to 19 July, offered a daily allowance to those who averaged at least 20 kilometres per hour on all the stages, equivalent to what a rider would have expected to earn each day had he worked in a factory, he cut the entry fee from 20 to 10 francs and set the first prize at 12,000 francs and the prize for each day's winner at 3,000 francs. The winner would thereby win six times.
That attracted between 60 and 80 entrants – the higher number may have included serious inquiries and some who dropped out – among them not just professionals
Morton Joseph Gold was a United States Air Force brigadier general, staff judge advocate for Headquarters Pacific Air Forces, Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii. In this position he was responsible for advising the commander in chief, PACAF, on all legal matters and interpreting and administering military law and justice for the command. Gold was born in 1917 in New York City, he attended New York University, University of Iowa, received a bachelor of laws degree from Brooklyn Law School in 1949. He is a member of the bars of the Supreme Court of the United States, the New York State Court of Appeals, the U. S. Court of Military Appeals, the U. S. Customs Court, he entered active military service in February 1941 and served in all branches of the Armed Forces, beginning with the Army Reserve Officers Training Corps, the U. S. Marine Corps, U. S. Navy and, from 1949 until his death, the USAF. Upon the basis of his civilian pilot training prior to his entrance on active duty and subsequent aviation cadet training, he was assigned in October 1941 as a navigation instructor at the Naval Air Station, Florida.
He served as communications officer with the Carrier Aircraft Service Unit #1, as a flight navigator during 1944-1945 with the Naval Air Transport Service in the South Atlantic and Pacific. From December 1945 to September 1946, Gold was assigned as executive officer of the Naval Air Facility at the U. S. Naval Academy, Maryland, he next attended law school through January 1949. He resigned his commission as a line officer in the Navy in order to be commissioned in the Air Force as a judge advocate, he was recalled to active duty in March 1949 and named a member of the New Trial Board, Headquarters U. S. Air Force. In October 1952 Gold was assigned to Headquarters Air Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, as executive officer and as chief of the Appeals and Litigation Division of the Office of the Staff Judge Advocate, his second overseas tour of duty was served with the Spain Air Materiel Area from October 1953 to November 1956. During this period, he held the posts of staff judge advocate and acting legal adviser to the chief, Joint U.
S. Military Group and member of the Foreign Claims Commission, Spain. Gold returned to Headquarters USAF in November 1956 as special assistant to the judge advocate general and was assigned as chief of the Special Activities Group in the Office of the Judge Advocate General, he was transferred to McClellan Air Force Base, California, in July 1960 as the staff judge advocate, Sacramento Air Materiel Area. His primary duties were in the areas of procurement, civil law and military justice. In July 1963 Gold was reassigned to Headquarters Air Force Logistics Command as the deputy staff judge advocate and chief, Procurement Law Division; as the deputy staff judge advocate, he exercised general supervision over legal activities at Headquarters and its field installations. His duties in procurement law gave him responsibility for all AFLC and Aeronautical Systems Division legal areas concerned with procurement. In October 1965 Gold was assigned as the staff judge advocate, Second Air Division in the Republic of Vietnam.
For two months he had the additional duty of serving as staff judge advocate to General William Westmoreland, commander, U. S. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam, he established and supervised nine legal offices and formulated much of the legal policy, being used by U. S. military attorneys in Vietnam. In August 1966 he was assigned to duty as staff judge advocate, Air Force Contract Management Division, Los Angeles, California, his responsibilities encompassed the legal aspects of contract administration for more than 18,000 contracts. In 1968 he was the chairman of the Los Angeles County Combined Federal Campaign. In September 1969 Gold was reassigned to Headquarters Air Force Systems Command, Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland, as the deputy staff judge advocate, his next assignment, in February 1970, was as assistant judge advocate general, Headquarters U. S. Air Force. Gold assumed the position of PACAF staff judge advocate in August 1971. Special assignments during his 30-year military career include serving as a member of the Korean Armistice Ad Hoc Committee, Department of Defense.
N.. His military decorations and awards include the Legion of Merit with two oak leaf clusters, Air Force Commendation Medal with two oak leaf clusters, Distinguished Unit Citation Emblem, his hometown is New York. He was promoted to brigadier general effective February 6, 1970, with date of rank January 24, 1970, he retired May 1, 1973. Gold died at his home in Riverside, California on December 19, 2013, he is buried in Riverside National Cemetery, California. This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document ""
Risen is a 2016 American biblical drama film directed by Kevin Reynolds and written by Reynolds and Paul Aiello. The film stars Joseph Fiennes, Tom Felton, Peter Firth, Cliff Curtis, details a Roman soldier's search for Yeshua's body following his resurrection. Columbia Pictures released the film to theaters in the United States on February 19, 2016, it grossed $46 million worldwide. After crushing a Zealot revolt led by Barabbas, Clavius, a Roman Tribune, is sent by Pontius Pilate to expedite a crucifixion in progress. Three days he is appointed to investigate the rumors of a risen Jewish Messiah. Pilate orders him to locate the missing body of Yeshua, one of the crucified men. In doing so, Pilate seeks to quell an imminent uprising in Jerusalem. Failing to secure Yeshua's body, with the support of his loyal aide Lucius, attempts to locate and question the disciples of Yeshua and those involved in his crucifixion and burial for clues to his disappearance. Numerous leads are dug up, their accounts soon become miraculous and difficult to believe.
Some of the followers, like a prostitute named Mary Magdalene and a man named Bartholomew speak only in riddles and refuse to betray any others. Clavius' intense investigation begins to disturb both Romans and Hebrews alike, Pilate, under pressure from many sides and fearful of Caesar's wrath, becomes distant and unsupportive. Running out of new leads, Clavius revisits a disgraced Roman soldier, assigned to guard Yeshua's cave tomb, now a drunkard, vehemently shakes the drunken man out of a lie that he had stuck to; the soldier recounts a fantastic story that, on the morning Yeshua disappeared, a blinding flash had appeared, during which the stone and ropes sealing the tomb disintegrated, a figure appeared, accompanied by a booming voice that sent him and a fellow soldier fleeing in fear. Clavius does not believe him. During a raid through a Jewish enclave, Clavius unexpectedly discovers a resurrected Yeshua with his apostles in a solitary abode. Stunned, he calls off barring Lucius and his men from finding Yeshua and the apostles.
That night, another Roman raid, led by Lucius and Pilate, attacks the building that Clavius had forbidden them from entering, finds it empty, save a note from Clavius, who has decided to continue the investigation on his own. Having abandoned Roman polytheism and the god Mars, Clavius, at first distrustful of the group, soon joins Yeshua and his followers on a journey to determine the validity of his mortal rejuvenation, during which he talks to and befriends both Yeshua and the apostle Peter. Pilate deduces that Clavius has betrayed him, dispatches a contingent of Roman troops, led by a promoted Lucius, to pursue him and Yeshua. Clavius assists the disciples in evading the Roman search party, when caught by Lucius, Clavius disarms him convinces him to let them pass quietly. Clavius witnesses Yeshua's miraculous healing of a leper, the ascension of Yeshua into Heaven. Communicating his travels to a stranger in a remote dwelling, Clavius acknowledges the strangeness of the tale and its veracity, feeling he will never be the same.
Joseph Fiennes as Clavius Aquila Valerius Niger Tom Felton as Lucius Tyco Ennius Peter Firth as Pontius Pilate Cliff Curtis as Yeshua María Botto as Mary Magdalene Luis Callejo as Joses Antonio Gil as Joseph of Arimathea Stephen Greif as Caiaphas Richard Atwill as Polybius Stewart Scudamore as Peter Andy Gathergood as Quintus Stephen Hagan as Bartholomew Mish Boyko as John Jan Cornet as Thomas Joe Manjón as Simon the Canaanite Pepe Lorente as Thaddeus Stavros Demetraki as Philip Selva Rasalingam as James Manu Fullola as Matthew Mario Tardon as Andrew Paco Manzanedo as Centurion Karim Saleh as Zealot Leader The film was shot in Malta and Spain between August and November 2015. The film held its world premiere on February 15, 2016 at the Highland Park Village Theatre in Dallas, Texas. Columbia Pictures released it in the United States on February 19, 2016. Risen was released on digital media on May 10, 2016 and was followed by a DVD, Blu-ray and 4K Ultra HD release on May 24, 2016 from AFFIRM Films and Sony Pictures Home Entertainment.
The film debuted in second place on home video sales charts behind Deadpool for the week ending May 29, 2016. Risen grossed $36.9 million in the United States and Canada, $9.2 million in other countries, for a worldwide total of $46.1 million, against a production budget of $20 million. In the United States and Canada, pre-release tracking suggested the film would gross $7–12 million from 2,915 theaters in its opening weekend, ahead of fellow newcomers Race and The Witch; the film grossed $4 million on its first day and $11.8 million in its opening weekend, finishing third at the box office behind Deadpool and Kung Fu Panda 3. On Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 52% based on 119 reviews, with an average rating of 5.5/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "Risen benefits from a lighter tone than many faith-based productions, as well as a unique take on the Greatest Story Ever Told and a terrific turn from star Joseph Fiennes." Metacritic reports a weighted average score of 52 out of 100, based on 28 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews".
Richard Roeper of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film two out of four stars, praising the different take on the story as well as the supporting actors, but criticizing Fiennes' stoic performance. Megan Basham of WORLD applauded the film, writing, "It's undeniably one of the higher