Côn Sơn Island
Côn Sơn known as Côn Lôn, is the largest island of the Côn Đảo archipelago, off the coast of southern Vietnam. Its French variant Grande-Condore was well-known during the times of French Indochina. Marco Polo mentioned the island in the description of his 1292 voyage from China to India under the name Sondur and Condur. In Ptolemy's Geography, they are referred to as the Isles of the Satyrs. In 1702, the English East India Company founded a settlement on this island off the south coast of southern Vietnam, in 1705 the garrison and settlement were destroyed. In 1787, through the Treaty of Versailles, Nguyễn Ánh promised to cede Poulo Condor to the French. In exchange Louis XVI promised to help Nguyễn Ánh to regain the throne, by supplying 1,650 troops on four frigates. In 1861, the French colonial government established Côn Đảo Prison on the island to house political prisoners. In 1954, it was turned over to the South Vietnamese government, who continued to use it for the same purpose. Notable prisoners held at Côn Sơn in the 1930s included Phạm Văn Đồng and Lê Đức Thọ.
Not far from the prison is Hàng Dương Cemetery, where some of the prisoners were buried. During the Vietnam War, prisoners, held at the prison in the 1960s were abused and tortured. In July 1970, two U. S. Congressional representatives, Augustus Hawkins and William Anderson, visited the prison, they were accompanied by Tom Harkin, translator Don Luce, USAID Office of Public Safety Director Frank Walton. When the delegation arrived at the prison, they departed from the planned tour, guided by a map drawn by a former detainee; the map led to the door of a building, opened from the inside by a guard when he heard the people outside the door talking. Inside they found prisoners were being shackled within cramped "tiger cages". Prisoners began crying out for water, they had sores and bruises, some were mutilated. Harkin took photos of the scene; the photos were published in Life magazine on July 17, 1970. Recreations of tiger cages can be seen today at the War Remnants Museum in Ho Chi Minh City. In response, Phil Crane, a Republican from Illinois, visited Côn Sơn and stated that the visit and photos were "distortions of truth."
The tiger cages, he said, were "cleaner than the average Vietnamese home."The prison on Côn Sơn Island was closed in 1975 after the Fall of Saigon. The facilities were reopened some years however, to temporarily incarcerate boat people captured by local coast guards until the late 1980s. At the request of Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, the U. S. Coast Guard started pre-construction plans for a chain of Loran-C radio stations to serve Southeast Asia 15 January 1966 in support of Operation Tight Reign during the Vietnam War; the actual construction of Station Con Son began during April with the delivery of construction materials by USCGC Nettle and award of construction contracts to Morrison-Knudsen Corp. and Brown and Root Company. Station Con Son was designated SH-3 Yankee, it consisted of a 625 foot tower, transmitter equipment buildings, fuel tanks and barracks for personnel located on the north end of Con Son Island. The personnel complement for the station was 23 enlisted men. After commissioning on 2 September 1966 the station began the testing phase of operations and the five station chain was operational by 0400 on 28 October, just nine months after the initial request from the Department of Defense.
The station provided, along with its sister stations in the chain, signals that allowed aircraft and ships to receive accurate all-weather positioning data for navigation purposes. During January 1973 the operation of the station was turned over to civilian contractors who were responsible to the United States Coast Guard for all functions of the station; the Coast Guard continued to supply technical support on an as needed basis. When the fall of the South Vietnamese government was imminent, Station Con Son was directed to stay on the air until the last possible minute to provide navigation signals to aircraft and ships fleeing South Vietnam. Station Con Son stayed on the air until 1246 local time on 29 April 1975 after the crew oversped the generators and damaged critical pieces of electronic gear. Citations References cited Brown and Don Luce. Hostages of War. Indochina Mobile Education Project. Valentine, Douglas; the Phoenix Program. Backinprint.com. ISBN 978-0-595-00738-7; the Con Dao Archipelago The Tiger Cages of Con Son THEN THE AMERICANS CAME – Mrs. Truong My Hoa The Kun Lun Shan islands are shown on sheet 11 of the Mao Kun map Wu Bei Zhi at the Library of Congress
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
Indiana University Bloomington
Indiana University Bloomington is a public research university in Bloomington, Indiana. It is the flagship institution of the Indiana University system and, with over 40,000 students, its largest university. Indiana University is a "Public Ivy" university and ranks in the top 100 national universities in the U. S. and among the top 50 public universities. It is a member of the Association of American Universities and has numerous schools and programs, including the Jacobs School of Music, the School of Informatics and Engineering, the O'Neill School of Public and Environmental Affairs, the Kelley School of Business, the School of Public Health, the School of Nursing, the School of Optometry, the Maurer School of Law, the School of Education, the Media School, the Hamilton Lugar School of Global and International Studies; as of Fall 2017, 43,710 students attend Indiana University. While 55.1% of the student body was from Indiana, students from all 50 states, Washington, D. C. Puerto Rico and 165 countries were enrolled.
As of 2018, the average ACT score is a 28 and an SAT score of 1276. The university is home to an extensive student life program, with more than 750 student organizations on campus and with around 17 percent of undergraduates joining the Greek system. Indiana athletic teams are known as the Indiana Hoosiers; the university is a member of the Big Ten Conference. Indiana's faculty and alumni include nine Nobel laureates, 17 Rhodes Scholars, 17 Marshall Scholars, five MacArthur Fellows. In addition and alumni have won six Academy Awards, 49 Grammy Awards, 32 Emmy Awards, 20 Pulitzer Prizes, four Tony Awards, 104 Olympic medals. Notable Indiana alumni include James Watson, one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Indiana's state government in Corydon established Indiana University on January 20, 1820, as the "State Seminary." Construction began in 1822 at what is now called Seminary Square Park near the intersection of Second Street and College Avenue. The first professor was Baynard Rush Hall, a Presbyterian minister who taught all of the classes in 1825–27.
In the first year, he taught twelve students and was paid $250. Hall was a classicist who focused on Greek and Latin and believed that the study of classical philosophy and languages formed the basis of the best education; the first class graduated in 1830. From 1820 to 1889 a legal-political battle was fought between IU and Vincennes University as to, the legitimate state university. In 1829, Andrew Wylie became the first president, serving until his death in 1851; the school's name was changed to "Indiana College" in 1829, to "Indiana University" in 1839. Wylie and David Maxwell, president of the board of trustees, were devout Presbyterians, they spoke of the nonsectarian status of the school but hired fellow Presbyterians. Presidents and professors were expected to set a moral example for their charges. After six ministers in a row, the first non-clergyman to become president was the young biology professor David Starr Jordan, in 1885. Jordan followed Baptist theologian Lemuel Moss, who resigned after a scandal broke regarding his involvement with a female professor.
Jordan improved the university's finances and public image, doubled its enrollment, instituted an elective system along the lines of his alma mater, Cornell University. Jordan became president of Stanford University in June 1891. Growth of the college was slow. In 1851, IU had seven professors. IU admitted its first woman student, Sarah Parke Morrison, in 1867, making IU the fourth public university to admit women on an equal basis with men. Morrison went on to become the first female professor at IU in 1873. Mathematician Joseph Swain was IU's first Hoosier-born president, 1893 to 1902, he established Kirkwood Hall in 1894. He began construction for Science Hall in 1901. During his presidency, student enrollment increased from 524 to 1,285. In 1883, IU awarded its first Ph. D. and played its first intercollegiate sport, prefiguring the school's future status as a major research institution and a power in collegiate athletics. But another incident that year was of more immediate concern: the original campus in Seminary Square burned to the ground.
The college was rebuilt between 1884 and 1908 at the far eastern edge of Bloomington. One challenge was that Bloomington's limited water supply was inadequate for its population of 12,000 and could not handle university expansion; the University commissioned a study. In 1902, IU enrolled 1203 undergraduates. There were 82 graduate students including ten from out-of-state; the curriculum emphasized the classics, as befitted a gentleman, stood in contrast to the service-oriented curriculum at Purdue, which presented itself as of direct benefit to farmers and businessmen. The first extension office of IU was opened in Indianapolis in 1916. In 1920/1921 the School of Music and the School of Commerce and Finance (what becam
Illinois's 13th congressional district
The 13th congressional district of Illinois is represented by Republican Rodney L. Davis; the congressional district covers parts of Bond, Madison, McLean and Sangamon counties, all of Christian, Calhoun, De Witt, Jersey, Macoupin and Piatt counties, as of the 2011 redistricting which followed the 2010 census. All or parts of Bloomington, Decatur, Godfrey and Urbana are included; the representatives for these districts were elected in the 2012 primary and general elections, the boundaries became effective on January 5, 2013. The Republican and Democratic primaries took place on March 18, 2014. In the Republican primary, incumbent Rodney L. Davis defeated fellow Republicans Erika Harold and Michael Firsching. In the Democratic primary, Ann Callis defeated David Green. Bill Byrnes had withdrawn from the Democratic primary. Josh Dill ran in the district as an Independent. In the 2004 U. S. General Election, this district voted for George W. Bush with 55% to 45% for John Kerry. However, in 2008, the district voted for Barack Obama.
As of May 2015, three former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from Illinois's 13th congressional district are alive; the most recent representative to die was Phil Crane on November 8, 2014. The most serving representative to die was John N. Erlenborn on October 30, 2005. Illinois's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present U. S. Census Bureau – 13th District Fact Sheet Ann Callis 2014 Democratic candidate – Campaign Site David Green 2014 Democratic candidate – Campaign Site Rodney Davis Incumbent Republican – Campaign Site "United States House of Representatives elections in Illinois, 2014". Ballotpedia
Danny Lee Burton is an American politician. Burton is the former U. S. Representative for Indiana's 5th congressional district, the 6th district, serving from 1983 until 2013, he is a member of the Tea Party Caucus. Burton was born in the son of Bonnie L. and Charles W. Burton, his father, a former policeman, was abusive to his mother, never held a job for long. The family moved living in trailer parks and motels. In June 1950, some years after the couple divorced, his mother went to the police and got a restraining order against his father, he responded by kidnapping Burton's mother. Burton and his younger brother and sister were sent to the Marion County Children's Guardian Home. After his mother escaped, Burton's father went to jail for two years. Burton's mother remarried, Burton and his younger brother and sister had happier teenage years. Burton worked as a caddy at a local country club in order to make ends meet, where he learned the golf skills that led to his winning a statewide golf championship in high school.
He graduated from Shortridge High School in 1957, attended Indiana University and the Cincinnati Bible Seminary. He served in the United States Army from 1956 to 1957, before leaving active duty to return to college but remained in the Army Reserves from 1957 to 1962. After school, Burton became a real estate broker and he founded the Dan Burton Insurance Agency in 1968. Burton was a member of the Indiana House of Representatives from 1967 to 1968 and again from 1977 to 1980 and the Indiana State Senate from 1969 to 1970 and again from 1981 to 1982. Burton first ran for Congress in 1970, losing to Democratic incumbent Andy Jacobs in Indiana's 11th congressional district. Burton ran again in 1972. After the 1980 census, the Republican-controlled state legislature reconfigured the 6th District into a Republican district focused on the suburbs north of Indianapolis; the district's four-term Democratic incumbent, David W. Evans, opted to challenge Jacobs in the Democratic primary rather than face certain defeat.
Burton jumped into the Republican primary halfway into his second stint in the state senate, won a five-way Republican primary with 37% of the vote. He defeated Democrat George Grabianowski in the general election 65%–35%, he would be reelected 14 times. His district was renumbered as the 5th District after the 2000 census. 2008 In 2008, Burton faced a reasonably well-funded challenger in the Republican primary for the first time since his initial run for the seat in former Marion County Coroner Brigadier General Dr. John McGoff. Burton defeated McGoff 52% to 45% in the closest Republican primary election of his career. 2010In 2010, he faced six challengers in the Republican primary. He won the primary with a plurality of 30%, he defeated State Representative Luke Messer, McGoff, State Representative Mike Murphy, Brose McVey, Andy Lyons, Ann Adcock. Burton only carried a majority in one county: Huntington. 2012In 2012, Burton was due to face a number of challengers in the Republican primary including McGoff, former U.
S. Attorney Susan Brooks, former U. S. Congressman David McIntosh, attorney Jack Lugar. On the Democratic side, State Representative Scott Reske and labor activist Tony Long entered the race. While the reconfigured 5th is still a Republican stronghold, it is said to be more Democratic than its predecessor. In January 2012, Burton abruptly announced his retirement, saying, "I don't want to get into it, it's about personal problems with family health." Brooks won the election. Helms–Burton billIn 1995, Burton authored legislation targeting foreign companies that did business with Cuba; the bill allowed foreign companies to be sued in American courts if, in dealings with the government of Fidel Castro, they acquired assets owned by Americans. In February 1996, Cuba shot down two small Brothers to the Rescue planes piloted by anti-Castro Cuban-Americans; as part of the White House response to crack down on Cuba, President Clinton signed the Helms–Burton Act into law. Conservative voting recordBurton was a conservative vote in the US House.
In the 109th Congress, he had a 100% rating from the National Right to Life Committee. He has an A rating with the Gun Owners of America. Burton has received a number of awards from conservative groups, including a Friend of the Farm Bureau Award in 2004 from the American Farm Bureau Federation, a True Blue Award in 2006 the Family Research Council, eight Guardian of Small Business Awards from the National Federation of Independent Business and twenty-two Spirit of Enterprise Awards from the U. S. Chamber of Commerce. Government Performance and Results ActBurton was the primary sponsor for a 1998 effort, opposed by the Clinton administration, to require federal government agencies to do more strategic planning, establish more accountability measurements, do more reporting on their performance. H. R. 2883, the "Government Performance and Results Act Amendments", was not enacted into law. Exposing the Winter Hill Gang/FBI CorruptionIn his role as chairman of the House Government Oversight Committee, Burton helped expose FBI corruption that led to the wrongful conviction of Joseph Salvati, Peter Limone, Henry Tameleo and Louis Greco for the murder of Edward "Teddy" Deegan.
The three-year investigation that Burton spearheaded helped exonerate the four, who were awarded $102 million by Judge Nancy Gertner of the District of Massachusetts. Republican Study Committee Burton served as chairman of the Republican S
University of Michigan
The University of Michigan simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The university is Michigan's oldest; the school was moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 onto 40 acres of. Since its establishment in Ann Arbor, the university campus has expanded to include more than 584 major buildings with a combined area of more than 34 million gross square feet spread out over a Central Campus and North Campus, two regional campuses in Flint and Dearborn, a Center in Detroit; the university is a founding member of the Association of American Universities. Considered one of the foremost research universities in the United States with annual research expenditures approaching $1.5 billion, Michigan is classified as one of 115 Doctoral Universities with Very High Research by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. As of October 2018, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 25 Nobel Prize winners, 6 Turing Award winners and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with University of Michigan.
Its comprehensive graduate program offers doctoral degrees in the humanities, social sciences, STEM fields as well as professional degrees in architecture, medicine, pharmacy, social work, public health, dentistry. Michigan's body of living alumni comprises more than 540,000 people, one of the largest alumni bases of any university in the world. Michigan's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Wolverines, they are members of the Big Ten Conference. More than 250 Michigan athletes or coaches have participated in Olympic events, winning more than 150 medals; the University of Michigan was established in Detroit on August 26, 1817 as the Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania, by the governor and judges of Michigan Territory. Judge Augustus B. Woodward invited The Rev. John Monteith and Father Gabriel Richard, a Catholic priest, to establish the institution. Monteith became its first president and held seven of the professorships, Richard was vice president and held the other six professorships.
Concurrently, Ann Arbor had set aside 40 acres in the hopes of being selected as the state capital. But when Lansing was chosen as the state capital, the city offered the land for a university. What would become the university moved to Ann Arbor in 1837 thanks to Governor Stevens T. Mason; the original 40 acres was the basis of the present Central Campus. This land was once inhabited by the Ojibwe and Bodewadimi Native tribes and was obtained through the Treaty of Fort Meigs. In 1821, the university was renamed the University of Michigan; the first classes in Ann Arbor were held in 1841, with six freshmen and a sophomore, taught by two professors. Eleven students graduated in the first commencement in 1845. By 1866, enrollment had increased to 1,205 students. Women were first admitted in 1870, although Alice Robinson Boise Wood had become the first woman to attend classes in 1866-7. James Burrill Angell, who served as the university's president from 1871 to 1909, aggressively expanded U-M's curriculum to include professional studies in dentistry, engineering and medicine.
U-M became the first American university to use the seminar method of study. Among the early students in the School of Medicine was Jose Celso Barbosa, who in 1880 graduated as valedictorian and the first Puerto Rican to get a university degree in the United States, he returned to Puerto Rico to practice medicine and served in high-ranking posts in the government. From 1900 to 1920, the university constructed many new facilities, including buildings for the dental and pharmacy programs, natural sciences, Hill Auditorium, large hospital and library complexes, two residence halls. In 1920 the university reorganized the College of Engineering and formed an advisory committee of 100 industrialists to guide academic research initiatives; the university became a favored choice for bright Jewish students from New York in the 1920s and 1930s, when the Ivy League schools had quotas restricting the number of Jews to be admitted. Because of its high standards, U-M gained the nickname "Harvard of the West."
During World War II, U-M's research supported military efforts, such as U. S. Navy projects in proximity fuzes, PT boats, radar jamming. After the war, enrollment expanded and by 1950, it reached 21,000, of which more than one third were veterans supported by the G. I. Bill; as the Cold War and the Space Race took hold, U-M received numerous government grants for strategic research and helped to develop peacetime uses for nuclear energy. Much of that work, as well as research into alternative energy sources, is pursued via the Memorial Phoenix Project. In the 1960 Presidential campaign, U. S. Senator John F. Kennedy jokingly referred to himself as "a graduate of the Michigan of the East, Harvard University" in his speech proposing the formation of the Peace Corps speaking to a crowd from the front steps of the Michigan Union. Lyndon B. Johnson gave his speech outlining his Great Society program as the lead speaker during U-M's 1964 spring commencement ceremony. During the 1960s, the university campus was the site of numerous protests against the Vietnam War and university administration.
On March 24, 1965, a group of U-M faculty members and 3,000 students held the nation's first faculty-led "teach-in" to protest against American policy in
Republican National Committee
The Republican National Committee is a U. S. political committee that provides national leadership for the Republican Party of the United States. It is responsible for developing and promoting the Republican political platform, as well as coordinating fundraising and election strategy, it is responsible for organizing and running the Republican National Convention. Similar committees exist in every U. S. state and most U. S. counties, although in some states party organization is structured by congressional district, allied campaign organizations being governed by a national committee. Ronna Romney McDaniel is the current committee chairwoman; the RNC's main counterpart is the Democratic National Committee. The 1856 Republican National Convention appointed the first RNC, it consisted of one member from each territory to serve for four years. Each national convention since has followed the precedent of equal representation for each state or territory, regardless of population. From 1924 to 1952, there was a national committeeman and national committeewoman from each state and U.
S. possession, from Washington, D. C.. In 1952, committee membership was expanded to include the state party chairs of states that voted Republican in the preceding presidential election, have a Republican majority in their congressional delegation, or have Republican governors. By 1968, membership reached 145; as of 2011, the RNC has 168 members. The only person to have chaired the RNC and become U. S. president is George H. W. Bush. A number of the chairs of the RNC have been state governors. In 2013, the RNC began an outreach campaign toward American youth and minority voters, after studies showed these groups perceived that the Republican Party did not care about their concerns. Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrew Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrewMerrill and Norcross both dropped out after the fifth round, giving the chairmanship to Nicholson by acclamation.
On November 24, 2008, Steele launched his campaign for the RNC chairmanship with the launching of his website. On January 30, 2009, Steele won the chairmanship of the RNC in the sixth round, with 91 votes to Dawson's 77. Source: CQPolitics, Poll Pundit. Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrewOn announcing his candidacy to succeed RNC Chairman Duncan, former Maryland Lt. Gov. Michael Steele described the party as being at a crossroads and not knowing what to do. "I think I may have some keys to open the door, some juice to turn on the lights," he said. Six people ran for the 2009 RNC Chairmanship: Steele, Ken Blackwell, Mike Duncan, Saul Anuzis, Katon Dawson and Chip Saltsman. After Saltsman's withdrawal, there were only five candidates during the hotly contested balloting January 30, 2009. After the third round of balloting that day, Steele held a small lead over incumbent Mike Duncan of Kentucky, with 51 votes to Duncan's 44.
Shortly after the announcement of the standings, Duncan dropped out of contention without endorsing a candidate. Ken Blackwell, the only other African-American candidate, dropped out after the fourth ballot and endorsed Steele, though Blackwell had been the most conservative of the candidates and Steele had been accused of not being "sufficiently conservative." Steele picked up Blackwell's votes. After the fifth round, Steele held a ten-vote lead over Katon Dawson, with 79 votes, Saul Anuzis dropped out. After the sixth vote, he won the chairmanship of the RNC over Dawson by a vote of 91 to 77. Mississippi Governor and former RNC chair Haley Barbour has suggested the party will focus its efforts on congressional and gubernatorial elections in the coming years rather than the next presidential election. "When I was chairman of the Republican National Committee the last time we lost the White House in 1992 we focused on 1993 and 1994. And at the end of that time, we had both houses of Congress with Republican majorities, we'd gone from 17 Republican governors to 31.
So anyone talking about 2012 today doesn't have their eye on the ball. What we ought to worry about is rebuilding our party over the next year and in 2010," Barbour said at the November 2008 Republican Governors conference. Michael Steele ran for re-election at the 2011 RNC winter meeting. Other candidates were Reince Priebus, Republican Party of Wisconsin Chairman, Ann Wagner, former Ambassador to Luxembourg, Saul Anuzis, former Republican Party Chairman of Michigan, Maria Cino, former acting Secretary of Transportation under George W. Bush. Steele's critics called on him to step down as RNC Chair when his term ended in 2011. A debate for Chairman hosted by Americans for Tax Reform took place on January 3 at the National Press Club; the election for Chairman took place January 14 at the RNC's winter meeting with Reince Priebus winning on the seventh ballot after Steele and Wagner withdrew. Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrew Priebus won re-election with near unanimity in the party's 2013 meeting in Charlotte, North Carolina.
He was re-elected to a third term in 2015, setting him up to become the longest serving head of the party ever. After winning in November 2016, President-Elect Donald Trump designated Priebus as his White House Chief of Staff, to begin upon his taking office in January 2017. Trump recommended Ronna Romney McDaniel as RNC Chairwoman and she was elected to that role by the RNC