Dan Slott is an American comic book writer, the current writer on Marvel Comics' Tony Stark: Iron Man and Fantastic Four. He is best known for his long run on The Amazing Spider-Man, as well as Arkham Asylum: Living Hell, She-Hulk, Silver Surfer, The Superior Spider-Man, Ren & Stimpy. Dan Slott's first published work for Marvel was "Survival of the Hippest" in Mighty Mouse #10 and "To Bounce Or Not To Bounce", an eight-page backup story in New Warriors Annual #1 both cover dated July 1991, he became the regular writer for Marvel's Ren & Stimpy comic book series with that series debut issue and first wrote Spider-Man in an issue of Ren and Stimpy that saw Spider-Man in battle against the Powdered Toast Man. Following this, Slott wrote other children's comics, including DC's Scooby-Doo, Looney Tunes, Powerpuff Girls. After work on Batman Adventures and Justice League Adventures, Slott was given the chance to pitch a series for DC; the resulting miniseries was Arkham Asylum: Living Hell with artist Ryan Sook in 2003.
In 2004 he wrote the "4th Parallel" storyline for the Justice League. Arkham Asylum's success led to Slott's return to Marvel in 2004 to launch a new She-Hulk series; the title focused on She-Hulk as a "superhuman lawyer" in the Marvel Universe. After relaunching in October 2005, the second series met with higher sales, after tie-ins with crossover storylines "Civil War" and "World War Hulk", reached its highest numbers yet. In 2007 Slott left the title with volume 2 #21, became one of the writers on The Amazing Spider-Man. While She-Hulk was on hiatus in 2005, Slott penned the Spider-Man/Human Torch miniseries, which chronicled the friendship of the two characters over the years, with each issue paying tribute to a different era of Marvel Comics. Slott gave the team the Great Lakes Avengers their first solo miniseries in GLA: Misassembled, which featured a character being killed in each issue, he made the first roster changes to the team since its inception by creating a new character and reviving an obscure one, Squirrel Girl.
During this period, Slott signed an exclusive contract with Marvel. He has since returned to the GLA twice, first with the 2005 GLX-Mas Special, following a name change to the Great Lakes X-Men, again in the 2007 Deadpool/GLI Summer Fun Spectacular with co-writer Fabian Nicieza, to coincide with Marvel's Civil War: The Initiative branding. At the end of 2005, Slott was assigned to write The Thing's first solo series in 20 years, it was not a sales success, was canceled with issue #8, despite Slott's attempts to rally readers in a campaign he called "Pull My Thing." The eight issues have been released in a trade paperback entitled Idol of Millions, which sees the Thing and other heroes fighting deadly roller-coasters and other machines in Arcade's Murderworld. Slott was the writer of Marvel's Avengers: The Initiative, which launched following the conclusion of the 2006–07 "Civil War" storyline, he was one of the four writers of the thrice-monthly The Amazing Spider-Man, a schedule which began in January 2008 following the controversial storyline "One More Day".
His first three issues placed in the top ten highest selling comics for January, with the first issue taking the number two spot that month, selling around 128,000 copies, a 3% jump from the previous month. Slott took over writing duties on The Mighty Avengers after writer Brian Michael Bendis' departure, starting with issue #21 and finishing with issue #36, he wrote the story for the Spider-Man: Shattered Dimensions video game, released in September 2010. In November 2010, Slott took over The Amazing Spider-Man as the sole writer, marking the comic book's change to a twice–monthly schedule, beginning with Slott's "Big Time" storyline; the "Big Time" storyline ended with The Amazing Spider-Man its final issue. While that issue's story, which involved the switching of Peter Parker's mind with that of Doctor Octopus, ended with the death of Parker in Doctor Octopus' body and Octopus remaining in Parker's, generated controversy among fans, including death threats for Slott, it won the 2012 Diamond Gem Award for Top Dollar Comic of the Year.
The comic book went through five printings, The next month saw the premiere of a new series, The Superior Spider-Man, written by Slott, featuring the adventures of Spider-Man, now inhabited by the mind of Doctor Octopus. The first issue won the 2013 Diamond Gem Award for Comic Book of the Year Over $3.00. The Superior Spider-Man ended with issue #31, with Peter Parker back as Spider-Man, lead to a relaunch of The Amazing Spider-Man in April 2014; the first issue of this new version of The Amazing Spider-Man is, according to Diamond Comics Distributors, "The Best Selling Comic of the 21st Century."Slott and artist Mike Allred launched a new Silver Surfer series in May 2014. In 2016, Slott and Allred's Silver Surfer #11 won the Eisner Award for "Best Single Issue of the Year". In 2018, Slott finished his ten year-plus run on The Amazing Spider-Man, he wrote his last major storyline, titled Go Down Swinging, from issue #797-800, which detailed Spider-Man fighting a Carnage-bonded Green Goblin. After that, he finished his run with his final issue being #801.
After finishing his run on The Amazing Spider-Man, Slott is writing Tony Stark: Iron Man and Fantastic Four. 2018 ended with Slott writing four of the Top 10 selling issues for the entire industry, taking the #2, #4, #8, #10 spots. 2099 Unlimited #7, Marvel Comics, 1995 A+X #1, Marvel Comics, 2012 collected in A+X Equals Awesome AVX: Versus #6, Marvel Comics, 2012 collected in Avengers Vs. X-Men collected in AVX: Versus Acclaim Adventure Zone Digests #1–3, Acclaim Comics, 1997 Age of Heroes #1–4, Marvel Comics, 201
Midtown Comics is a New York City comic book retailer with three shops in Manhattan and an e-commerce website. The largest comic book store in the United States, the company opened its first store in the Times Square area in 1997, its second was opened on Lexington Avenue in 2004, is known as the Grand Central store for its proximity to Grand Central Terminal. Its Downtown store was opened on Fulton Street in the Financial District in November 2010, it used to operate a boutique inside Manhattan's Times Square Toys R Us. The store is noted for appearances by celebrities known outside the comic book industry, for its friendly and energetic staff, for being the most media-friendly comic store in the United States, it was named by The Village Voice in 2012 as the Best Comic Book Store in New York, has been hailed by Comic Book Resources as "the industry’s leading retailer of comic books, graphic novels and manga." On July 13, 2012, the National Geographic Channel premiered Comic Store Heroes, a reality television program set at Midtown Comics.
Due to its geographic proximity to the headquarters of the "Big Two" of the American comic book publishing industry, Marvel Comics and DC Comics, the relationship between the store and industry professionals, it was ranked number 44 on Bleeding Cool magazine's 2013 Top 100 Power List of Comic Books. Midtown was founded by partners Gerry Gladston, Angelo Chantly, Thomas Galitos and Robert Mileta, who met as teenagers in Astoria and sold comics in their video stores in Brooklyn and Queens before opening the flagship Midtown Comics in Manhattan, on West 40th Street and Seventh Avenue; the store houses 500,000 books in its collection. According to The New York Times: The stereotypical view of comics stores is that they are dim and dusty places with a no-girls-allowed clubhouse atmosphere. In reality, they run the gamut. For instance, the West Side Midtown store is bright and welcoming to all, with two floors and 5,000 square feet of space; the main floor, one story above street level, has a long wall with countless racks of new and released comics.
The rest of the space offers DVDs, trading cards, back issues and trade paperbacks. Toys and other collectibles are upstairs; the second Midtown store, on Lexington Avenue and 45th Street, though smaller than the first one, is just as inviting. Midtown Comics is the official retail sponsor of New York Comic Con, has performed this role since the NYCC's inception in 2006; each year, Midtown creates a "show-within-a-show", featuring round-the-clock appearances by comics creators and variant comic books by publishers like Marvel Comics and Top Cow. On November 10, 2010, Midtown Comics opened a third Manhattan store. Known as their Downtown store, it is located in the Financial District, at 64 Fulton Street, in the southernmost section of the borough. Inaugural book signings were held for that branch featuring Jim Lee and Jonathan Layman, creator of Chew; as of June 2012, Midtown is the largest comic book store in the United States. The store is a sponsor of Artists Assemble!, a comics festival in Union City, New Jersey that began in February 2013.
In May 2012, Midtown Comics opened a boutique inside the flagship FAO Schwarz toy store in Manhattan's Fifth Avenue shopping district. The boutique offered graphic novels, hardcover books and collectibles; the boutique ceased operations when FAO Schwartz closed in July 2015. In October 2013, Midtown opened a shop inside the Toys R Us store in Manhattan's Times Square; the shop, located next to the second floor animatronic Tyrannosaurus that forms the centerpiece of the Jurassic Park display, offers items similar to that offered in the FAO Schwarz boutique. In 2013, Midtown was ranked number 44 on Bleeding Cool magazine's Top 100 Power List of Comic Books, due to its geographic proximity to the headquarters of the "Big Two" of the American comic book publishing industry, Marvel and DC, the fact that industry professionals both shop there and are privy to reaction from Midtown staffers and owners. Midtown's website was at first purely informational, but has developed into a full-scale retail website.
The stores and website are supported by a warehouse in Queens, a staff of around 150 who are described by New York Magazine as "a rare mix of nerd knowledge and chummy confidence – who foster an atmosphere where browsing is more than just a means to a badly needed social end."Midtown produces a weekly podcast that covers the comic book industry, with a different comic book creator interviewed each week. Midtown Comics has developed a reputation for being the most media-friendly comic store in the United States; as Manhattan is the location of the Big Two of the American comic book publishing industry, Marvel Comics and DC Comics, the setting for much of the former's stories, Midtown Comics Times Square and its staff have been utilized for local news reporting relating to comic books and popular culture. Midtown Comics co-owner Gerry Gladston has been interviewed for comment on such stories, including a 2006 story on vintage comics selling for large amounts of money at auction, a 2009 story on the return of Captain America after Marvel Comics had killed him off two years prior, a 2014 Marvel storyline that introduced a female Thor.
Midtown's staff were consulted by major media outlets in 2009 regarding the appearance of President Barack Obama in an issue of Spider-Man, again that year regarding the anticipation of the release of the film Avatar. The media rely on Midtown as a source for reaction to industry news and events. Publishers Weekly relies on them for their annual survey about the state of the comics and graphic novel marketplace and for their coverage of Free Comic Book Day, while Comic Book Resour
George Pérez is a retired American comic book artist and writer, whose titles include The Avengers, Teen Titans, Wonder Woman. Writer Peter David has named Pérez his favorite artistic collaborator. George Pérez was born in the South Bronx, New York City, on June 9, 1954, to Jorge Guzman Pérez and Luz Maria Izquierdo, who were both from Caguas, Puerto Rico, but who did not meet until 1949 or 1950, after both had settled in New Jersey while searching for job opportunities, they married in October 26, 1954 and subsequently moved to New York, where Jorge worked in the meat packing industry while Luz was a homemaker. George's younger brother David was born May 28, 1955. Both brothers aspired at a young age to be artists. With George Pérez beginning to draw at the age of five. Pérez's first involvement with the professional comics industry was as artist Rich Buckler's assistant in 1973, he made his professional debut in Marvel Comics' Astonishing Tales #25 as penciler of an untitled two-page satire of Buckler's character Deathlok, star of that comic's main feature.
Soon Pérez became a Marvel regular, penciling a run of "Sons of the Tiger", a serialized action-adventure strip published in Marvel's long-running Deadly Hands of Kung Fu magazine and authored by Bill Mantlo. He and Mantlo co-created the White Tiger a character that soon appeared in Marvel's color comics, most notably the Spider-Man titles. Pérez came to prominence with Marvel's superhero-team comic The Avengers, starting with issue #141. In the 1970s, Pérez illustrated several other Marvel titles, including Creatures on the Loose, featuring the Man-Wolf. Writer Roy Thomas and Pérez crafted a metafictional story for Fantastic Four #176 in which the Impossible Man visited the offices of Marvel Comics and met numerous comics creators. Whilst most of Pérez' Fantastic Four issues were written by Roy Thomas or Len Wein, it would be a Fantastic Four Annual where he would have his first major collaboration with writer Marv Wolfman. Pérez drew the first part of writer Jim Shooter's "The Korvac Saga", which featured nearly every Avenger who joined the team up to that point.
Shooter and Pérez introduced the character of Henry Peter Gyrich, the Avengers' liaison to the United States National Security Council in the second chapter of that same storyline. Writer David Michelinie and Pérez created the Taskmaster in The Avengers #195. In 1980, while still drawing The Avengers for Marvel, Pérez began working for their rival DC Comics. Offered the art chores for the launch of The New Teen Titans, written by Wolfman, Pérez' real incentive was the opportunity to draw Justice League of America. Long-time Justice League artist Dick Dillin died right around that time, providing an opportunity for Pérez to step in as regular artist. While Pérez's stint on the JLA was popular with fans, his career took off with the New Teen Titans; the New Teen Titans was launched in a special preview in DC Comics Presents #26. This incarnation of the Titans was intended to be DC's answer to Marvel's popular X-Men comic, Wolfman and Pérez indeed struck gold. A New Teen Titans drug awareness comic book sponsored by the Keebler Company, drawn by Pérez was published in cooperation with The President's Drug Awareness Campaign in 1983.
In August 1984, a second series of The New Teen Titans was launched by Pérez. Moreover, Pérez's facility with layouts and faces improved enormously during his four years on the book, making him one of the most popular artists in comics as evidenced by the numerous industry awards he would receive during this time. Pérez took a leave of absence from The New Teen Titans in 1984 to focus on his next project with Marv Wolfman, DC's 1985 50th-anniversary event, Crisis on Infinite Earths. Crisis purportedly featured every single character DC owned, in a story which radically restructured the DC universe's continuity. Pérez was inked on the series by Dick Giordano, Mike DeCarlo, Jerry Ordway. After Crisis, Pérez inked the final issue of Superman in September 1986, over Curt Swan's pencils for part one of the two-part story "Whatever Happened to the Man of Tomorrow?" by writer Alan Moore. The following month, Pérez was one of the artists on Batman #400 Wolfman and Pérez teamed again to produce the History of the DC Universe limited series to summarize the company's new history.
Pérez drew the cover for the DC Heroes roleplaying game from Mayfair Games as well as the cover for the fourth edition of the Champions roleplaying game from Hero Games. Wonder Woman was rebooted in 1987. Writer Greg Potter spent several months working with editor Janice Race on new concepts for the character, before being joined by Pérez. Inspired by John Byrne and Frank Miller's work on refashioning Superman and Batman, Pérez came in as the plotter and penciler of Wonder Woman; the relaunch tied the character more to the Greek gods and jettisoned many of the extraneous elements of her history. Pérez at first worked with Potter and Len Wein on the stories, but took over the full scripting chores. Mindy Newell joined Pérez as co-writer for nearly a year. While not as popular as either Titans or Crisis, the series was a successful relaunch of one of DC's flagship characters. Pérez would work on the title for five years, leaving as artist after issue #24, but remaining as writer up to issue #62, leaving in 1992.
In 2001, Pérez returned to the character, co-writing a two-part story in issues #168–169 with writer/artist Phil Jimenez. Pérez drew the cover for Wonder Woman #600 a
The Amazing Spider-Man
The Amazing Spider-Man is an American comic book series published by Marvel Comics, featuring the fictional superhero Spider-Man as its main protagonist. Being in the mainstream continuity of the franchise, it began publication in 1963 as a monthly periodical and was published continuously, with a brief interruption in 1995, until its relaunch with a new numbering order in 1999. In 2003 the series reverted to the numbering order of the first volume; the title has been published biweekly, was published three times a month from 2008 to 2010. A video game based on the comic book series was released in 2000 and a film named after the comic book series was released July 3, 2012. After DC Comics' relaunch of Action Comics and Detective Comics with new #1 issues in 2011, it had been the highest-numbered American comic still in circulation until it was cancelled; the title ended its 50-year run as a continuously published comic with issue #700 in December 2012. It was replaced by The Superior Spider-Man as part of the Marvel NOW! relaunch of Marvel's comic lines.
The title was relaunched in April 2014, starting fresh from issue #1, after the "Goblin Nation" story arc published in The Superior Spider-Man and Superior Spider-Man Team-Up. In late 2015, The Amazing Spider-Man was relaunched again with a new volume with issue #1 following the 2015 Secret Wars event; the character was created by writer-editor Stan Lee and artist and co-plotter Steve Ditko, the pair produced 38 issues from March 1963 to July 1966. Ditko left after the 38th issue, while Lee remained as writer until issue 100. Since many writers and artists have taken over the monthly comic through the years, chronicling the adventures of Marvel's most identifiable hero; the Amazing Spider-Man has been the character's flagship series for his first fifty years in publication, was the only monthly series to star Spider-Man until Peter Parker, The Spectacular Spider-Man in 1976, although 1972 saw the debut of Marvel Team-Up, with the vast majority of issues featuring Spider-Man along with a rotating cast of other Marvel characters.
Most of the major characters and villains of the Spider-Man saga have been introduced in Amazing, with few exceptions, it is where most key events in the character's history have occurred. The title was published continuously until #441 when Marvel Comics relaunched it as vol. 2 #1, but on Spider-Man's 40th anniversary, this new title reverted to using the numbering of the original series, beginning again with issue #500 and lasting until the final issue, #700. Due to strong sales on the character's first appearance in Amazing Fantasy #15, Spider-Man was given his own ongoing series in March 1963; the initial years of the series, under Lee and Ditko, chronicled Spider-Man's nascent career with his civilian life as hard-luck yet perpetually good-humored teenager Peter Parker. Peter balanced his career as Spider-Man with his job as a freelance photographer for The Daily Bugle under the bombastic editor-publisher J. Jonah Jameson to support himself and his frail Aunt May. At the same time, Peter dealt with public hostility towards Spider-Man and the antagonism of his classmates Flash Thompson and Liz Allan at Midtown High School, while embarking on a tentative, ill-fated romance with Jameson's secretary, Betty Brant.
By focusing on Parker's everyday problems and Ditko created a groundbreakingly flawed, self-doubting superhero, the first major teenaged superhero to be a protagonist and not a sidekick. Ditko's quirky art provided a stark contrast to the more cleanly dynamic stylings of Marvel's most prominent artist, Jack Kirby, combined with the humor and pathos of Lee's writing to lay the foundation for what became an enduring mythos. Most of Spider-Man's key villains and supporting characters were introduced during this time. Issue #1 featured the first appearances of J. Jonah Jameson and his astronaut son John Jameson, the supervillain the Chameleon, it included the hero's first encounter with the superhero team the Fantastic Four. Issue #2 featured the first appearance of the Vulture and the Tinkerer as well as the beginning of Parker's freelance photography career at the newspaper The Daily Bugle; the Lee-Ditko era continued to usher in a significant number of villains and supporting characters, including Doctor Octopus in #3.
The Molten Man was introduced in #28 which featured Parker's graduation from high school. Peter began attending Empire State University in #31, the issue which featured the first appearances of friends and classmates Gwen Stacy and Harry Osborn. Harry's father, Norman Osborn first appeared in #23 as a member of Jameson's country club but is not named nor revealed as Harry's father until #37. One of the most celebrated issues of the Lee-Ditko run is #33, the third part of the story arc "If This Be My Destiny...!", which features the dramatic scene of Spider-Man, through force of will and thoughts of family, escaping from being pinned by heavy machinery. Comics historian Les Daniels noted that "Steve Ditko squeezes every ounce of anguish out of Spider-Man's predicament, complete with visions of the uncle he failed and the aunt he has sworn to save." Peter David observed that "After his origin, this two-page sequence from Amazing Spider-Man #33 is the best-loved sequence from the Stan Lee/Steve Ditko era."
Steve Saffel stated the "full page Ditko image from The Amazing
Orange County, California
Orange County is located in the Los Angeles metropolitan area in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,010,232, making it the third-most populous county in California, the sixth-most populous in the United States, more populous than 21 U. S. states. Its county seat is Santa Ana, it is the second most densely populated county behind San Francisco County. The county's four largest cities by population, Santa Ana and Huntington Beach, each have a population exceeding 200,000. Several of Orange County's cities are on the Pacific Ocean western coast, including Huntington Beach, Newport Beach, Laguna Beach, Dana Point, San Clemente. Orange County is included in Metropolitan Statistical Area. Thirty-four incorporated towns and cities are in the county. Anaheim was the first city, incorporated in 1870 when the region was still part of neighboring Los Angeles County. Whereas most population centers in the United States tend to be identified by a major city with a large downtown central business district, Orange County has no single major downtown / CBD or dominant urban center.
Santa Ana, Costa Mesa, Irvine all have smaller high-rise CBDs, other, older cities like Anaheim, Huntington Beach, Orange have traditional American downtowns without high-rises. The county's northern and central portions are urbanized and dense, despite the prevalence of the single-family home as a dominant land use, its southern portion is more suburban, with limited urbanization. There are several "edge city"-style developments, such as Irvine Business Center, Newport Center, South Coast Metro. Orange County is part of the "Tech Coast"; the county is a tourist center, with attractions like Disneyland, Knott's Berry Farm, several popular beaches along its more than 40 miles of coastline. Throughout the 20th century and up until 2016, it was known for its political conservatism and for being a bastion for the Republican Party, with a 2005 academic study listing three Orange County cities as among America's 25 most conservative. However, the county's changing demographics have resulted in a shift in political alignments.
In 2016, Hillary Clinton became the first Democrat since 1936 to carry Orange County in a presidential election and in the 2018 midterm elections the Democratic Party gained control of every Congressional seat in the county. Members of the Tongva, Juaneño, Luiseño Native American groups long inhabited the area. After the 1769 expedition of Gaspar de Portolà, a Spanish expedition led by Junipero Serra named the area Valle de Santa Ana. On November 1, 1776, Mission San Juan Capistrano became the area's first permanent European settlement. Among those who came with Portolá were José Manuel Nieto and José Antonio Yorba. Both these men were given land grants—Rancho Los Nietos and Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, respectively; the Nieto heirs were granted land in 1834. The Nieto ranches were known as Rancho Los Alamitos, Rancho Las Bolsas, Rancho Los Coyotes. Yorba heirs Bernardo Yorba and Teodosio Yorba were granted Rancho Cañón de Santa Ana and Rancho Lomas de Santiago, respectively. Other ranchos in Orange County were granted by the Mexican government during the Mexican period in Alta California.
A severe drought in the 1860s devastated the prevailing industry, cattle ranching, much land came into the possession of Richard O'Neill, Sr. James Irvine and other land barons. In 1887, silver was discovered in the Santa Ana Mountains, attracting settlers via the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific Railroads. After several failed attempts in previous sessions, the California legislature passed a bill authorizing the portion of Los Angeles County south of Coyote Creek to hold a referendum on whether to remain part of Los Angeles County or to secede and form a new county to be named “Orange” as directed by the legislature; such referendum required a 2/3 vote for secession to take place, subsequently on June 4th, 1889, the residents south of Coyote Creek voted 2,509 to 500 in favor of secession. After such referendum, Los Angeles County filed three lawsuits in the courts to stall and stop the secession from occurring, but such attempts were futile. On July 17, 1889, a second referendum was held south of the Coyote Creek to determine if the county seat of the to-be county to be in either Anaheim or Santa Ana, along with an election for every county officer.
In the end, Santa Ana defeated Anaheim in such referendum and elected right leaning officers, with some, including one of the primary lobbyists for the creation of the county, Henry W. Head, elected to the Board of Supervisors while being a member of the Ku Klux Klan, with Head’s son, Horace Head, elected as District Attorney of the soon to be county, known to, as stated by the OC Weekly, threaten “...any Mexicans who walked in front of their homes with shotguns when not burning crosses on front lawns,” along with Horace Head supporting and defending his fathers affiliation with the Ku Klux Klan. With the referendum taken place, the County of Orange was incorporated on August 1st, 1889, as prescribed by state law. Since the date of the incorporation of the county, the only geographical changes to have occurred which affected Orange County was when the County and Los Angeles County agreed to trade land around Coyote Creek to adjust the border of the two counties to conform with city blocks.
The county is said to have been named for the
Swamp Thing (comic book)
The fictional character Swamp Thing has appeared in five American comic book series to date, including several specials, has crossed over into other DC Comics titles. The series found immense popularity upon its 1970s debut and during the mid-late 1980s under Alan Moore, Steve Bissette, John Totleben; these eras were met with numerous awards. However, over the years, Swamp Thing comics have suffered from low sales which have resulted in numerous series cancellations and revivals; the first Swamp Thing series ran for 24 issues, from 1972 to 1976. Len Wein was the writer for the first 13 issues before David Michelinie and Gerry Conway finished up the series. Horror artist Berni Wrightson drew the first ten issues of the series while Nestor Redondo drew a further thirteen issues, the last issue being drawn by Fred Carrillo. Swamp Thing fought against evil as he sought the men who murdered his wife and caused his monstrous transformation, as well as searching for a means to transform back to human form.
Swamp Thing has since fought many villains, most notably the mad Dr. Anton Arcane. Though they only met twice during the first series and his obsession with gaining immortality, aided by his nightmarish army of Un-Men and the tragic Patchwork Man, became Swamp Thing's nemesis as Swamp Thing developed a close bond with Arcane's niece Abigail Arcane. Involved in the conflict was Swamp Thing's close friend turned enemy Matthew Cable, a federal agent who mistakenly believed Swamp Thing responsible for the deaths of Alec and Linda Holland. Despite Wein's writing the first thirteen issues, only the first ten issues of the original Swamp Thing series had been collected in trade paperbacks or reprint comics due to the popularity of Wrightson's artwork, stopping rather than concluding the story arc. Wein ended his run as writer by having Swamp Thing reveal his identity to Matt Cable and avenging the death of his wife by defeating Nathan Ellery; the full Wein 13-issue run was released in hardback by DC in June 2009.
As sales figures plummeted towards the end of the series, the writers attempted to revive interest by introducing fantasy creatures, sci-fi aliens, Alec Holland's brother, into the picture. The appearance of Holland's brother toward the end of the series marked a series of plot developments, designed to provide the series with a happy ending, which generated much controversy. In Swamp Thing #23, Alec regains his humanity and while the creature was on the cover of the 24th and final issue of the series, Holland appeared as human throughout the interior story; the cover illustration showed a yellow muscular creature, beating up Swamp Thing. A battle between Swamp Thing and Hawkman was promised for the next issue, but no such battle occurred until vol. 2 #58. During the short-lived revival of Challengers of the Unknown by Gerry Conway, Swamp Thing returned as Alec Holland who, without continually producing and self-medicating with the bio-restorative formula, reverted into the form of Swamp Thing.
Holland, along with the Challengers of the Unknown, encountered the supernatural being known as Deadman, a fact that would confirm the post-Wein Swamp Thing stories existence in DCU continuity years when Deadman and Swamp Thing met again during Alan Moore's run as writer. Swamp Thing appeared with Batman in The Brave and the Bold and with Superman in DC Comics Presents. In the latter, by Steve Englehart, he tried in vain to stop Superman from committing what he perceived as genocide on sixty Solomon Grundys living in the sewers of Metropolis. In an issue dated May 1982, DC Comics revived the Swamp Thing series to try to capitalize on the summer 1982 release of the Wes Craven film of the same name; the title, called Saga of the Swamp Thing, featured in its first Annual the comic book adaptation of the Craven movie. Now written by Martin Pasko, the book loosely picked up after Swamp Thing's appearance in Challengers of the Unknown, with the character wandering around the swamps of Louisiana as something of an urban legend, feared by locals.
Martin Pasko's main arc depicted Swamp Thing roaming the globe, trying to stop a young girl named Karen Clancy from destroying the world. The series featured back-up stories involving the Phantom Stranger by Mike W. Barr, which led to a collaboration between Swamp Thing and the Stranger in a guest run by Dan Mishkin that featured a scientist who transformed himself into a silicon creature; the primary artist for the bulk of Pasko's run was Tom Yeates. Bissette and Totleben, who had known Yeates at the Joe Kubert School of Cartoon and Graphic Art, had been ghosting various pages for Yeates, were given the assignment on Pasko's recommendation. In issue #6, editor Len Wein declared, in response to a published letter, that Alec never had a brother and that every Swamp Thing series story after issue #21 of the original series never happened; the letter, questioned why Swamp Thing had reverted, explained in the Challengers of the Unknown run. A column pointed this out, so they said they would not deliberately cont
A superhero film, superhero movie, or superhero motion picture is a film, focused on the actions of one or more superheroes: individuals who possess superhuman abilities relative to a normal person and are dedicated to protecting the public. These films feature action, fantasy or science fiction elements, with the first film of a particular character including a focus on the origin of their special powers and their first confrontation with their most famous supervillain or archenemy. Most superhero films are based on superhero comics. By contrast, several films such as the RoboCop series, The Meteor Man, Unbreakable film series, The Incredibles and They Call Me Jeeg are original for the screen, while The Green Hornet is based on the original radio series and its 1960s television adaptation, both Underdog and The Powerpuff Girls are based on animated television series, Japanese tokusatsu and anime superhero films are based on manga and television shows. After a long series of flops, since the 2000s the film genre reversed its fortunes and grew to become a dominant mainstream film genre worldwide.
The most notable and successful superhero films since the year 2000 are Fox Studio's X-Men franchise, Sam Raimi's Spider-Man trilogy, Pixar's The Incredibles series, Christopher Nolan's The Dark Knight Trilogy, the films set in the Marvel Cinematic Universe starting with Iron Man and the films set in the DC Extended Universe starting with Man of Steel. This commercial dominance has been accompanied by enthusiastic critical support for many of these films, which includes major Academy Awards. Reflecting the fantasy subgenre's noted narrative flexibility in its original comic book publishing format, the film subgenre has been commercially successful in a wide variety of genres such as action, fantasy, comedy etc. After superheroes rose to prominence in comic books, they were adapted into Saturday film serials aimed at children, starting with Mandrake The Magician. Serials such as Adventures of Captain Marvel, The Phantom, Captain America, Superman followed. In the following decades, the decline of Saturday serials and turmoil in the comic book industry put an end to superhero motion pictures, with the exception of Superman and the Mole Men, starring George Reeves, a trial balloon for the television series Adventures of Superman, compilations of episodes of that same series released theatrically, Batman a big-screen extension of the Batman television series starring Adam West.
In 1957 Japan, Shintoho produced the first film serial featuring the tokusatsu superhero character Super Giant, signaling a shift in Japanese popular culture towards tokusatsu masked superheroes over kaiju giant monsters. Along with Astro Boy, the Super Giant film serials had a profound effect on the Japanese tokusatsu superhero genre. Another early superhero film was Ōgon Bat, a Japanese film starring Sonny Chiba based on the 1930 Kamishibai superhero Ōgon Bat. Original superhero characters emerged in other, more comedy oriented films such as the French political satire film Mr. Freedom and the American B movies Rat Pfink a Boo Boo and The Wild World of Batwoman. Riding a wave of a new interest in fantasy and science fiction films with the success of Star Wars, Richard Donner's Superman, the first major big-budget superhero feature film, proved a critical and commercial success. Other successful entries emerged throughout the 1980s, from Richard Lester's Superman II and Paul Verhoeven's Robocop to Tim Burton's Batman.
Other films were released during the 1980s and 1990s including Flash Gordon, Swamp Thing, Superman III, The Toxic Avenger, Superman IV: The Quest for Peace, Bollywood's Mr. India, The Punisher, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles and two sequels, Sgt. Kabukiman N. Y. P. D; the Rocketeer, Batman Returns, the animated Batman: Mask of the Phantasm, The Shadow, Batman Forever, Tank Girl, Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: The Movie on Sky Movies and a sequel, The Phantom and Mystery Men. Marvel Comics' Captain America did not have a theatrical release and Roger Corman's The Fantastic Four was released neither theatrically nor on home video. Alex Proyas' The Crow became the first independent comics superhero film that established a franchise; as Joel Schumacher's Batman & Robin was critically panned for being too jokey and tongue-in-cheek, The Crow brought in a new realm of violence absent in previous popular superhero films targeted at younger audiences and bridging a gap to the more modern action film. The success of The Crow catalyzed the release of a film version of Spawn, Image Comics' leading character.
The success of the "darker" Image Comics characters shifted the direction of comic book movies. Marvel soon released their films to become Men in Black and Blade. After Marvel bought Malibu Comics and Columbia Pictures released the Men in Black film and comics in 1997; the film became the first Marvel property to win an Oscar and the highest-grossing comic book adaptation until the release of Sam Raimi’s Spider-Man in 2002. Blade was a mix of a more traditional action film as well as darker superhero film with the title character having vampire powers as well as carrying an arsenal of weaponry; the success of Blade began Marvel's film success and set the stage for further comic book film adaptations. After the comic book boom and the success of several comic book adaptation films (includin