Bowling, in cricket, is the action of propelling the ball toward the wicket defended by a batsman. A player skilled at bowling is called a bowler. Bowling the ball is distinguished from throwing the ball by a specified biomechanical definition, which restricts the angle of extension of the elbow. A single act of bowling the ball towards the batsman is called a delivery. Bowlers bowl deliveries in sets of six, called an over. Once a bowler has bowled an over, a teammate will bowl an over from the other end of the pitch; the Laws of Cricket govern. If a ball is bowled illegally, an umpire will rule it a no-ball. If a ball is bowled too wide of the striker for the batsman to be able to play at it with a proper cricket shot, the bowler's end umpire will rule it a wide. There are different types of bowlers, from fast bowlers, whose primary weapon is pace, through swing and seam bowlers who try to make the ball deviate in its course through the air or when it bounces, to slow bowlers, who will attempt to deceive the batsmen with a variety of flight and spin.
A spin bowler delivers the ball quite and puts spin on the ball, causing it to turn at an angle while bouncing off the pitch. In the early days of cricket, underarm bowling was the only method employed. Many theories exist about the origins of cricket. One suggests that the game began among shepherds hitting a stone or a ball of wool with their crooks and, at the same time, defending the wicket gate into the sheep-fold. A second theory suggests the name came from a low stool known as a'cricket' in England, which from the side looked like the long, low wicket used in the early days of the game. There is a reference to'criquet' in North-East France in 1478 and evidence that the game evolved in South-East England in the Middle Ages. In 1706 William Goldwyn published the first description of the game, he wrote that two teams were first seen carrying their curving bats to the venue, choosing a pitch and arguing over the rules to be played. They pitched two sets of wickets, each with a "milk-white" bail perched on two stumps.
They had four-ball overs, the umpires leant on their staves, the scorers sat on a mound making notches. The first written "Laws of Cricket" were drawn up in 1744, they stated, "the principals shall choose from amongst the gentlemen present two umpires who shall decide all disputes. The stumps must be 22 inches high and the bail across them six inches; the ball must be between 5 & 6 ounces, the two sets of stumps 22 yards apart". There were no limits on the size of the bat, it appears that 40 notches was viewed as a big score due to the bowlers bowling at shins unprotected by pads. The world's first cricket club was formed in Hambledon in the 1760s and the Marylebone Cricket Club was founded in 1787. During the 1760s and 1770s it became common to pitch the ball through the air, rather than roll it along the ground; this innovation gave bowlers the weapons of length, deception through the air, plus increased pace. It opened new possibilities for spin and swerve. In response, batters had to master shot selection.
One immediate consequence was the replacement of the curving bat with the straight one. All of this lessened the influence of rough ground and brute force, it was in the 1770s. The weight of the ball was limited to between five and a half and five and three-quarter ounces, the width of the bat to four inches; the latter ruling followed an innings by a batter called Thomas "Daddy" White, who appeared with a bat the width of the wicket. In 1774, the first leg before law was published. Around this time, a third stump became commonplace. By 1780, the duration of a first-class cricket match was three days, this year saw the creation of the first six-seam cricket ball. In 1788, the MCC published its first revision of the laws, which prohibited charging down an opponent and provided for mowing and covering the wicket in order to standardise conditions; the desire for standardisation reflected the massive increase in the popularity of cricket during the 18th century. Between 1730 and 1740, 150 cricket matches were recorded in the papers of the time.
Between 1750 and 1760, this figure rose to 230, between 1770 and 1790 over 500. The 19th century saw a series of significant changes. Wide deliveries were outlawed in 1811; the circumference of the ball was specified for the first time in 1838. Pads, made of cork, became available for the first time in 1841, these were further developed following the invention of vulcanised rubber, used to introduce protective gloves in 1848. In the 1870s, boundaries were introduced – all hits had to be run; the biggest change, was in how the ball was delivered by the bowler. At the start of the century, all bowlers were still delivering the ball under-arm. However, so the story goes, John Willes became the first bowler to use a "round-arm" technique after practising with his sister Christina, who had used the technique, as she was unable to bowl underarm due to her wide dress impeding her delivery of the ball; the round-arm action came to be employed in matches but was determined to be illegal and banned by the MCC
Southgate School is a state comprehensive secondary school in the London Borough of Enfield. It has 1574 pupils; the school is situated just east of the Cat Hill roundabout of the A111 and A110, between Cockfosters and Oakwood tube stations. The Trent Park campus of Middlesex University is nearby to the north, on the northern fringe of Greater London's conurbation. Middlesex University has its Cat Hill campus nearby to the east. Although once in Southgate, the school is now in the parish of St Thomas, Oakwood, on the boundary with Cockfosters to the west, on the western edge of Enfield borough, 500 metres east of the Barnet boundary. Founded in 1907 as Southgate County School, the school was housed within Broomfield House, Palmers Green; the school subsequently moved to Fox Lane. In 1960, the Fox Lane site was closed and a new site, in Sussex Way, was purchased. In 1967, the school merged with Oakwood Secondary Modern School, located in Chase Road, Southgate; the Chase Road site became the lower school, for children in their first three years of secondary education.
In 1991, the Lower School moved to the Sussex Way site, with the Chase Road site being sold for housing and to a private school. The school was awarded Specialist Science Status in September 2004, which it gained through raising £50,000 and being provided with the necessary funding for a science specialist school, it used the funding to improve science facilities purchasing new equipment and renewing laboratories as well as building a hanging laboratory in the middle of the East Wing building. In the Summer of 2007 Southgate celebrated its centenary. In 2015, after 15 years as headteacher, Anthony Wilde left Southgate School and was replaced by Martin Lavelle. Lavelle doubts over the marking of exams; the head of Southgate sixth form between 1991-2014 was Richard Tunnadine and throughout this era Southgate had a number of successful academic years. 2009 was Southgate's most memorable academic year with students achieving the highest grades in a number of years. There were remarkable individual successes such as Maria Kiliaris and Adam Ioannou who went on to study medicine at Cambridge and University College London.
Since 2013 John Carrigy has been head of sixth form. In 2014 Southgate sixth form established a student leadership team with Alex Ioannou awarded the position of Chairman and Helena Stylianou awarded the position of Vice-Chair. Southgate has always been competitive in football having enjoyed remarkable success under the managerial expertise of Mr Lane, Mr Martin's and most of all Mr Robinson, in charge of the sixth form team. In 2014 the Southgate sixth form team won the treble, with forward Danilo Orsi-Dadomo becoming Southgate's highest scoring player; the following season under the captaincy of Alex Ioannou, Southgate retained the Enfield Cup in a sensational final winning 4-3. In 2016 following the departure of key players Southgate did not win any honours. Samuel Taylor 2012-2013 Danilo Orsi-Dadomo 2013-2014 Alex Ioannou 2014-2015 Alfie Deller 2015-2016 On 11 February 2009, Southgate was awarded Outstanding Status, one of only two in the London Borough of Enfield. Air Vice Marshal Jonathan Lamonte, Station Commander from 2002-4 of RAF Brize Norton Jake Hook Multi-Platinum songwriter and producer 1991 - 1998 Victoria Shalet 1993-2000 Adam Ioannou 2002-2009 Author of 320 Questions Phil Dyer Lottery Winner 1993-2000 Phil Tufnell Stephen Twigg, Member of Parliament for Liverpool West Derby Matt Di Angelo actor and singer best known for his role as Dean Wicks in the BBC soap opera, Eastenders.
Paul Collins-Reddin DJ Kerrang! Radio Peter Baker, Tottenham Hotspur footballer Sir John Bourn and Auditor General 1998–2008 Alexander Dalgarno, Phillips Professor of Astronomy at Harvard University since 1977 Alan Dumayne, historian of north London. Leofranc Holford-Strevens, classical scholar Cecil Hunt Lena Jeger, Baroness Jeger, Labour member of parliament for Holborn and St Pancras South George Mitchell, musician Warren Mitchell, actor known for playing Alf Garnett Ron Moody, film actor, who played the part of Fagin in the British musical Oliver! L. J. K. Setright, motoring journalist EduBase Former school
The Oval referred to for sponsorship purposes as the Kia Oval, is an international cricket ground in Kennington, in the London Borough of Lambeth, in south London. The Oval has been the home ground of Surrey County Cricket Club since it was opened in 1845, it was the first ground in England to host international Test cricket in September 1880. The final Test match of the English season is traditionally played there. In addition to cricket, The Oval has hosted a number of other significant sporting events. In 1870, it staged England's first international football match, versus Scotland, it hosted the first FA Cup final in 1872, as well as those between 1874 and 1892. In 1876, it held both the England v Wales and England v Scotland rugby international matches and, in 1877, rugby's first Varsity match, it hosted the final of the 2017 ICC Champions Trophy. The Oval is built on part of the former Kennington Common. Cricket matches were played on the common throughout the early 18th century; the earliest recorded first-class match was the London v Dartford match on 18 June 1724.
However, as the common was used for public executions of those convicted at the Surrey Assizes, cricket matches had moved away to the Artillery Ground by the 1740s. Kennington Common was enclosed in the mid 19th century under a scheme sponsored by the Royal Family. In 1844, the site of the Kennington Oval was a market garden owned by the Duchy of Cornwall; the Duchy was willing to lease the land for the purpose of a cricket ground, on 10 March 1845 the first lease, which the club assumed, was issued to Mr. William Houghton by the Otter Trustees who held the land from the Duchy "to convert it into a subscription cricket ground", for 31 years at a rent of £120 per annum plus taxes amounting to £20; the original contract for turfing The Oval cost £300. Hence, Surrey County Cricket Club was established in 1845; the popularity of the ground was immediate and the strength of the SCCC grew. On 3 May 1875 the club acquired the remainder of the leasehold for a further term of 31 years from the Otter Trustees for the sum of £2,800.
In 1868, 20,000 spectators gathered at The Oval for the first game of the 1868 Aboriginal cricket tour of England, the first tour of England by any foreign side. Thanks to C. W. Alcock, the Secretary of Surrey from 1872 to 1907, the first Test match in England was played at The Oval in 1880 between England and Australia; the Oval, became the second ground to stage a Test, after Melbourne Cricket Ground. In 1882, Australia won the Test by seven runs within two days; the Sporting Times printed a mocking obituary notice for English cricket, which led to the creation of the Ashes trophy, still contested whenever England plays Australia. The first Test double century was scored at The Oval in 1884 by Australia's Billy Murdoch. Surrey's ground is noted as having the first artificial lighting at a sports arena, in the form of gas-lamps, dating to 1889; the current pavilion was completed in time for the 1898 season. In 1907, South Africa became the second visiting Test team to play a Test match at the ground.
In 1928, the West Indies played its first Test match at The Oval, followed by New Zealand in 1931. In 1936, India became the fifth foreign visiting Test side to play at The Oval, followed by Pakistan in 1954 and Sri Lanka in 1998. Zimbabwe and Bangladesh have yet to play a Test match at The Oval; the Oval is referenced by the poet Philip Larkin in his poem about the First World War, "MCMXIV". During World War II, The Oval was requisitioned housing anti-aircraft searchlights, it was turned into a prisoner-of-war camp, intended to hold enemy parachutists. However, as they never came, The Oval was never used for this purpose; the first One Day International match at this venue was played on 7 September 1973 between England and West Indies. It hosted matches of the 1975, 1979, 1983, 1999 World Cups, it hosted five of the fifteen matches in the 2004 ICC Champions Trophy, including the final. The Oval once held the record for the largest playing area of any Test venue in the world; that record has since been surpassed by Gaddafi Stadium in Pakistan, although The Oval remains the largest in Great Britain.
Billionaire Paul Getty, who had a great affinity for cricket and was at one time SCCC President, built a replica of The Oval on his Wormsley Park estate. The famous gasholders just outside the ground were built around 1853. With the gasholders long disused, there was much speculation as to whether they should be demolished. In 2016 the main gasholder was given official protected status as a important industrial structure. On 20 August 2006, The Oval saw the first time a team forfeited a Test match. Pakistan were upset after umpires Darrell Hair and Billy Doctrove docked them five runs and changed the ball after ruling that the team had tampered with it on the fourth day of the final Test against England. Pakistan debated the matter during the tea break and refused to come out for the final session in protest. By the time they relented and decided to resume, the umpires had called time on the match and awarded the game to England by default; the Oval hosted its hundredth Test, against South Africa, on 27 July, 2017, becoming the fourth Test venue in the world after Lord's, MCG and SCG to do so.
Moeen Ali became the first player to take a Test hat-trick at The Oval, bowling out South Afri
Chipping Barnet or High Barnet is a market town in the London Borough of Barnet, England. In Hertfordshire, it is a suburban development built around a 12th-century settlement, is located 10 1⁄2 miles north north-west of Charing Cross, east from Borehamwood, west from Enfield and south from Potters Bar, its name is often abbreviated to just Barnet, the name of the borough of which it forms a part. Chipping Barnet is the name of the Parliamentary constituency covering the local area – the word "Chipping" denotes the presence of a market, one, established here at the end of the 12th century and persists to this day. Chipping Barnet is one of the highest-lying urban settlements in London, with the town centre having an elevation of about 427 feet; the town's name derives from an ancient settlement, recorded as Barneto c. 1070, Barnet 1197, La Barnette 1248, that is'the land cleared by burning', from Old English bærnet, referring to the clearing of this once densely forested area in early times.
This was the site of the Battle of Barnet in 1471, where Yorkist troops led by King Edward IV killed the rebellious "Kingmaker" Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick and Warwick's brother, John Neville, 1st Marquess of Montagu. This was one of the most important battles of the Wars of the Roses. Barnet Hill is said to be the hill mentioned in the nursery rhyme "The Grand Old Duke of York", it is the site of an ancient and well-known horse fair, whence comes the rhyming slang of Barnet Fair or barnet for'hair'. The fair dates back to 1588 when Queen Elizabeth I granted a charter to the Lord of the Manor of Barnet to hold a twice yearly fair; the famous Barnet Market is now nearly 820 years old. On 23 August 1199 King John issued a charter for a market at Barnet to the Lord of the Manor, the Abbot of St. Albans, John de Cella. Chipping Barnet was a civil parish of Hertfordshire and formed part of the Barnet Urban District from 1894; the parish was abolished in 1965 and the Chipping Barnet section of its former area was transferred from Hertfordshire to Greater London and the newly created London Borough of Barnet.
In 1801 the parish covered an area of 1,440 acres. By 1901 the parish was reduced to 380 acres and had a population of 2,893. In 1951 the population was 7,062. In Saxon times the site was part of an extensive wood called Southaw, belonging to the Abbey of St Albans; the name of the town appears in early deeds as'Bergnet' – the Saxon word'Bergnet' meant a little hill. Barnet's elevated position is indicated in one of its alternative names, which appears in many old books and maps, which the railway company restored; the area was a common resting point on the traditional Great North Road between the City of London and York and Edinburgh. Barnet belonged to the County of Hertfordshire until 1965, when under the London Government Act 1963, East Barnet Urban District and Barnet Urban District were abolished and their area was transferred to Greater London to form part of the present-day London Borough of Barnet. At the beginning of the 21st century, a tongue-in-cheek movement calling for the name Barnet to be changed to "Barnét" began to gain the attention of the public and the national media, with many public road signs in the area being altered to contain the accented character.
Barnet Council has been treating any such alterations to public road signs as vandalism. St John the Baptist Church, is a landmark for miles around and stands in what was the centre of the town, was erected by John de la Moote, abbot of St Albans, about 1400, the architect being Beauchamp. Playing on its antiquity, it continues to call itself "Barnet Church", although this is not an official title, it is in fact the parish church of Chipping Barnet only, whilst Christ Church is the parish church of High Barnet, St Mark's is the parish church of Barnet Vale, St James's is the parish church of New Barnet, St Mary the Virgin is the parish church of East Barnet. The parish church of St Mary the Virgin, Monken Hadley has parish boundaries that include a significant part of High Barnet, including much of Barnet High Street; the living of Barnet is a curacy, held with the rectory of East Barnet till the death of the last incumbent in 1866, when the livings were separated. The parish of Chipping Barnet, served by St John's Church, was provided with a chapel-of-ease in Victorian times.
Chipping Barnet is designated as a Neighbourhood Centre in the London Plan. The tower of Barnet parish church – St John the Baptist – at the top of Barnet Hill claims to be the highest point between itself and the Ural Mountains 2,000 miles to the east. However, the same has been said of numerous other points. Since the opening of the railway, development has increased especially in the west of the area near Arkley. For a London town, Barnet lies high; the High Street lies 427 feet above sea level and the surrounding southern land no less than 295 feet. Chipping Barnet town centre is covered by the High Barnet ward. According to the 2011 census, the population was 82% white. Indians made up 4% of the population, all black groups made up 3%; the whole town is defined as the Chipping Barnet parliamentary constituency, which takes up the eastern third of the wider borough. This data does not represent the town as a whole due to the fact. Barnet Hill is a major hill on the historic Great North Road
Middlesex University London is a public university in Hendon, north-west London, England. It is a member of the Million + working group; the name of the University is taken from its location within the historic county boundaries of Middlesex. The university's history can be traced back to 1878 when its founding institute, St Katherine's College, was established in Tottenham as a teacher training college for women. Having merged with several other institutes, the university was consolidated in its current form in 1992. More than 140 nationalities are represented at the university's Hendon campus alone; the university has campuses in Malta and Mauritius as well as a number of local offices across the globe. In 2012, the university re-structured its academic schools to faculties to align them more with the needs of the industry. Courses are delivered by the Faculty of Science and Technology, Faculty of Professional and Social Sciences, the Faculty of the Arts and Creative Industries. Middlesex University was awarded Silver in the Teaching Excellence Framework 2017 for the quality of its teaching and outcomes for students, was judged to have ‘consistently exceeded the rigorous national quality requirements’ for UK higher education.
For 140 years, Middlesex University has been based in North London. The university grew out of mergers between different schools and colleges in the area beginning in 1878 when St. Katherine's College, a female teacher training college, was created in Tottenham, it was joined by Hornsey College of Art, founded in 1882, Ponders End Technical Institute, founded in 1901, Hendon Technical Institute, opened in 1939. In 1973 these colleges and further institutions around North London formed Middlesex Polytechnic. In 1992 Middlesex University was established from Middlesex Polytechnic by Royal Assent as part of the Further and Higher Education Act. More institutions joined at this time. From the 1990s, the university began to develop its international presence with their first overseas regional office in Kuala Lumpur. In 1995, a network of regional offices opened across Europe. In 2005, Middlesex opened its first overseas campus in Dubai followed by a campuses in Mauritius in 2009 and Malta in 2013; the university has partnerships with other educational institutions around the world.
The university has now consolidated its many London campuses into one Hendon campus where it now accommodates all its London-based teaching. Timeline 1878 – St Katherine's College opens in Tottenham 1882 – Hornsey College of Art founded 1901 – Ponders End Technical Institute begins 1939 – Hendon Technical Institute opens 1947 – Trent Park College of Education opens 1962 – New College of Speech and Drama opens 1962 – Ponders End Technical Institute is renamed Enfield College of Technology by the Ministry of Education. 1964 – St Katherine's College unites with Berridge House to form The College of All Saints 1973 – Middlesex Polytechnic formed 1974 – Trent Park College of Education and New College of Speech and Drama join Middlesex Polytechnic 1978 – The College of All Saints closes, with the buildings transferred to Middlesex Polytechnic 1991 – David Melville becomes the first Vice-Chancellor 1992 – Middlesex University formed. 200 redundancies to make £10m of savings 2012 – Trent Park campus closed and programmes relocated to flagship campus in Hendon.
2013 – Closure of Archway campus and transfer of programmes to Hendon. All UK teaching at Hendon. Third international campus opens in Malta 2015 – Professor Tim Blackman becomes the Vice-Chancellor 2016 – Inauguration of the new hall of residence "Unite Olympic Way" at London Campus with 700 new rooms for Middlesex University students. 2016 – Inauguration of the new building "Forum North". "Forum North" houses Art & Design, Media & Performing Arts and Science & Technology facilities in an impressive eco-friendly buildi
In cricket, a player's bowling average is the number of runs they have conceded per wicket taken. The lower the bowling average is, the better the bowler is performing, it is one of a number of statistics used to compare bowlers used alongside the economy rate and the strike rate to judge the overall performance of a bowler. When a bowler has taken only a small number of wickets, their bowling average can be artificially high or low, unstable, with further wickets taken or runs conceded resulting in large changes to their bowling average. Due to this, qualification restrictions are applied when determining which players have the best bowling averages. After applying these criteria, George Lohmann holds the record for the lowest average in Test cricket, having claimed 112 wickets at an average of 10.75 runs per wicket. A cricketer's bowling average is calculated by dividing the numbers of runs they have conceded by the number of wickets they have taken; the number of runs conceded by a bowler is determined as the total number of runs that the opposing side have scored while the bowler was bowling, excluding any byes, leg byes, or penalty runs.
The bowler receives credit for any wickets taken during their bowling that are either bowled, hit wicket, leg before wicket or stumped. B o w l i n g a v e r a g e = R u n s c o n c e d e d W i c k e t s t a k e n A number of flaws have been identified for the statistic, most notable among these the fact that a bowler who has taken no wickets can not have a bowling average, as dividing by zero does not give a result; the effect of this is that the bowling average can not distinguish between a bowler who has taken no wickets and conceded one run, a bowler who has taken no wickets and conceded one hundred runs. The bowling average does not tend to give a true reflection of the bowler's ability when the number of wickets they have taken is small in comparison to the number of runs they have conceded. In his paper proposing an alternative method of judging batsmen and bowlers, Paul van Staden gives an example of this: Suppose a bowler has bowled a total of 80 balls, conceded 60 runs and has taken only 2 wickets so that..
30. If the bowler takes a wicket with the next ball bowled 20. Due to this, when establishing records for bowling averages, qualification criteria are set. For Test cricket, the Wisden Cricketers' Almanack sets this as 75 wickets, while ESPNcricinfo requires 2,000 deliveries. Similar restrictions are set for one-day cricket. A number of factors other than purely the ability level of the bowler have an effect on a player's bowling average. Most significant among these are the different eras; the bowling average tables in Test and first-class cricket are headed by players who competed in the nineteenth century, a period when pitches were uncovered and some were so badly looked after that they had rocks on them. The bowlers competing in the Howa Bowl, a competition played in South African during the apartheid-era, restricted to non-white players, during which time, according to Vincent Barnes: "Most of the wickets we played on were underprepared. For me, as a bowler, it was great." Other factors which provided an advantage to bowlers in that era was the lack of significant safety equipment.
Other variations are caused by frequent matches against stronger or weaker opposition, changes in the laws of cricket and the length of matches. Due to the varying qualifying restrictions placed on the records by different statisticians, the record for the lowest career bowling average can be different from publication to publication. In Test cricket, George Lohmann is listed as having the superior average by each of the Wisden Cricketers' Almanack, ESPNcricinfo and CricketArchive. Though all three use different restrictions, Lohmann's average of 10.75 is considered the best. If no qualification criteria were applied at all, three players—Wilf Barber, A. N. Hornby and Bruce Murray—would tie for the best average, all having claimed just one wicket in Test matches, without conceding any runs, thus averaging zero. ESPNcricinfo list Betty Wilson as having the best Women's Test cricket average with 11.80, while CricketArchive accept Mary Spear's average of 5.78. In One Day Internationals, the varying criteria set by ESPNcricinfo and CricketArchive result in different players being listed as holding the record.
ESPNcricinfo has the stricter restriction, requiring 1,000 deliveries: by this measure, Joel Garner is the record-holder, having claimed his wickets at an average of 18.84. By CricketArchive's more relaxed requirement of 400 deliveries, John Snow leads the way, with an average of 16.57. In women's One Day International cricket, Caroline Barrs tops the CricketArchive list with an average of 9.52, but by ESPNcricinfo's stricter guidelines, the record is instead held by Gill Smith's 12.53. The record is again split for the two websites for Twenty20 International cricket. George O'Brien's average of 8.20 holds the record using those criteri
ITV (TV network)
ITV is a British free-to-air television network with its headquarters in London, it was launched in 1955 as Independent Television under the auspices of the Independent Television Authority to provide competition to BBC Television, established in 1932. ITV is the oldest commercial network in the UK. Since the passing of the Broadcasting Act 1990, its legal name has been Channel 3, to distinguish it from the other analogue channels at the time, namely BBC 1, BBC 2 and Channel 4. In part, the number 3 was assigned because television sets would be tuned so that the regional ITV station would be on the third button, with the other stations being allocated to the number within their name. ITV is a network of television channels that operate regional television services as well as sharing programmes between each other to be displayed on the entire network. In recent years, several of these companies have merged, so the fifteen franchises are in the hands of two companies; the ITV network is to be distinguished from ITV plc, the company that resulted from the merger of Granada plc and Carlton Communications in 2004 and which holds the Channel 3 broadcasting licences in England, southern Scotland, the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands and Northern Ireland.
With the exception of Northern Ireland, the ITV brand is the brand used by ITV plc for the Channel 3 service in these areas. In Northern Ireland, ITV plc uses the brand name UTV. STV Group plc uses the STV brand for its two franchises of northern Scotland; the origins of ITV lie in the passing of the Television Act 1954, designed to break the monopoly on television held by the BBC Television Service. The act created the Independent Television Authority to regulate the industry and to award franchises; the first six franchises were awarded in 1954 for London, the Midlands and the North of England, with separate franchises for Weekdays and Weekends. The first ITV network to launch was London's Associated-Rediffusion on 22 September 1955, with the Midlands and North services launching in February 1956 and May 1956 respectively. Following these launches, the ITA awarded more franchises until the whole country was covered by fourteen regional stations, all launched by 1962; the network has been modified several times through franchise reviews that have taken place in 1963, 1967, 1974, 1980 and 1991, during which broadcast regions have changed and service operators have been replaced.
Only one service operator has been declared bankrupt, WWN in 1963, with all other operators leaving the network as a result of a franchise review. Separate weekend franchises were removed in 1968 and over the years more services were added; the Broadcasting Act 1990 changed the nature of ITV. This criticised part of the review saw four operators replaced, the operators facing different annual payments to the Treasury: Central Television, for example, paid only £2000—despite holding a lucrative and large region—because it was unopposed, while Yorkshire Television paid £37.7 million for a region of the same size and status, owing to heavy competition. Following the 1993 changes, ITV as a network began to consolidate with several companies doing so to save money by ceasing the duplication of services present when they were all separate companies. By 2004, ITV was owned by five companies, of which two and Granada had become major players by owning between them all the franchises in England, the Scottish borders and the Isle of Man.
That same year, the two merged to form ITV plc with the only subsequent acquisitions being the takeover of Channel Television, the Channel Islands franchise, in 2011. and UTV, the franchise for Northern Ireland, in 2015. The ITV network is not owned or operated by one company, but by a number of licensees, which provide regional services while broadcasting programmes across the network. Since 2016, the fifteen licences are held by two companies, with the majority held by ITV Broadcasting Limited, part of ITV plc; the network is regulated by the media regulator Ofcom, responsible for awarding the broadcast licences. The last major review of the Channel 3 franchises was in 1991, with all operators' licences having been renewed between 1999 and 2002 and again from 2014 without a further contest. While this has been the longest period that the ITV Network has gone without a major review of its licence holders, Ofcom announced that it would split the Wales and West licence from 1 January 2014, creating a national licence for Wales and joining the newly separated West region to Westcountry Television, to form a new licence for the enlarged South West of England region.
All companies holding a licence were part of the non-profit body ITV Network Limited, which commissioned and scheduled network programming, with compliance handled by ITV plc and Channel Television. However, due to amalgamation of several of these companies since the creation of ITV Network Limited, it has been replaced by an affiliation system. Approved by Ofcom, this results in ITV plc commissioning and funding the network schedule, with STV and UTV paying a fee to broadcast it. All licensees have the right to opt out of network programming (except fo