Philadelphia 76ers

The Philadelphia 76ers are an American professional basketball team based in Philadelphia. The 76ers compete in the National Basketball Association as a member of the league's Eastern Conference Atlantic Division and play at Wells Fargo Center. Founded in 1946 and known as the Syracuse Nationals, they are one of the oldest franchises in the NBA, one of only eight to survive the league's first decade; the 76ers have had a prominent history, with many of the greatest players in NBA history having played for the organization, including Wilt Chamberlain, Hal Greer, Billy Cunningham, Julius Erving, Andrew Toney, Moses Malone, Charles Barkley, Allen Iverson. They have won three NBA championships, with their first coming as the Syracuse Nationals in 1955; the second title came in 1967, a team, led by Chamberlain. The third title came in 1983, won by a team led by Malone; the 76ers have only been back to the NBA Finals once since then: in 2001, where they were led by Iverson and lost to the Los Angeles Lakers in five games.

In 1946, Italian immigrant Daniel Biasone sent a $5,000 check to the National Basketball League offices in Chicago, the Syracuse Nationals became the Midwest-based league's easternmost team, based in the Upstate New York city of Syracuse. The Syracuse Nationals began play in the NBL in the same year professional basketball was gaining some legitimacy with the rival Basketball Association of America, based in large cities like New York and Philadelphia. While in the NBL with teams consisting of small Midwestern towns, the Nationals put together a 21–23 record, finishing in fourth place. In the playoffs, the Nationals would be beaten by the fellow upstate neighbor Rochester Royals in four games. In their second season, 1947–48, the Nationals struggled, finishing in fifth place with a 24–36 record. Despite their record they made the playoffs, were swept by the Anderson Duffey Packers in 3 straight games. Several teams began to leave the NBL for the BAA; the Nationals "recipe for success" began by recruiting Leo Ferris.

Staying in the NBL, Ferris signed Al Cervi to be player coach and outbid the New York Knicks for the services of Dolph Schayes who made his professional debut, leading the Nationals to a winning record for the first time with a record of 40–23. In the playoffs the Nationals would make quick work of the Hammond Calumet Buccaneers, winning the series in 2 straight games. However, in the semifinals the Nationals would fall to the Anderson Duffey Packers for the second straight season in four games. In 1949, the Nationals were one of seven NBL teams that were absorbed by the Basketball Association of America to form the NBA; the Nationals were an instant success in the NBA, winning the Eastern Division in the 1949–50 season, with a league best record of 51–13. In the playoffs the Nationals continued to play solid basketball, beating the Philadelphia Warriors in 2 straight. Moving on to the Eastern Finals, the Nationals battled the New York Knickerbockers, beating their big city rivals in a 3-game series.

In the NBA Finals, the Nationals faced. In Game 1 of the Finals the Nationals lost just their second home game of the season 68–66; the Nationals did not recover. Despite several teams leaving the NBA for the National Professional Basketball League before the 1950–51 season, the Nationals decided to stay put. In their second NBA season, 1950–51, the Nationals played mediocre basketball all season, finishing in fourth place with a record of 32–34. However, in the playoffs the Nationals played their best basketball of the season as they stunned the first place Warriors in two straight, taking Game 1 on the road in overtime 91–89. In the Eastern Finals the Nationals were beaten by the New York Knickerbockers in a hard-fought 5-game series, losing the finale by just 2 points. Cervi, playing less and coaching more, emphasized a patient offense and a scrappy defense, which led the league in the 1951–52 season by yielding a stingy 79.5 points per game as the Nationals won the Eastern Division with a solid 40–26 record.

In the playoffs the Nationals knocked off the Warriors again in a 3-game series. However, in the Eastern Finals the Nationals fell to the Knickerbockers again, dropping the series in four games; the Nationals would finish in second place in a hard-fought 3-way battle for first place in the Eastern Division for the 1952–53 season, with a record of 47–24. In the playoffs the Nationals would face the Boston Celtics dropping Game 1 at home 87–81. Needing a win in Boston to keep their hopes alive, the Nationals would take the Celtics deep into overtime before losing in quadruple OT 111–105, in what remains the longest playoff game in NBA history; the Nationals acquired Alex Groza, Ralph Beard as the Indianapolis Olympians folded leaving the NBA with just 9 teams for the 1953–54 season. Once again the Nationals would battle for the Division title falling two games short with a 42–30 record. In the playoffs the Nationals would win all four games of a round robin tournament involving the three playoff teams from the East.

In the Eastern Finals the Nationals would stay hot beating the Celtics in 2 straight games. However, in the NBA Finals the Nationals would lose to the Lakers in a hard-fought 7-game series where the 2 teams alternated wins throughout. With the NBA struggling financially and down to just 8 teams Nationals owner during the 1954–55 season, Biasone suggested the league limit the amount of time taken for a shot thus speeding up a game that ended with long periods of teams just holding the ball and playing keep away. Biasone and Nationals' general manager Ferris calculated a 24-sec

1998 Winnipeg municipal election

The 1998 Winnipeg municipal election was held on October 28, 1998 to elect a mayor and school trustees in the city of Winnipeg. Centre-left candidate Glen Murray defeated populist right-winger Peter Kaufmann in the mayoral contest. Ed Pilbeam is a welder, was president of the Chalmers Community Club in the 1990s. Pilbeam was 39 years old during the 1998 election, made tax relief and crime his primary issues. Gerald Duguay was 59 years old in 1998, owned Duguay Pool Services, he first sought election to Winnipeg City Council in 1980 as a candidate of the centre-right Independent Citizens' Election Committee, finished second against Evelyne Reese in the Langevin ward. In 1998, he argued. After losing the election, he said. Electors could vote for three candidates. Percentages are determined in relation to the total number of votes. Ron Marshall was a St. James-Assiniboia School Trustee from 1992 to 2006, chaired the board's finance committee for a time. In 1993, he criticized as inaccurate a University of Manitoba report that suggested Winnipeg residents did not trust the city's public school system.

Two years he opposed his board's decision to close Jameswood School, saying that its low teacher-student ratio made it the envy of other schools in the city. In 2001, he supported a new theatre project for Sturgeon Creek Collegiate, he retired in 2006. Marshall supported the "consensus approach" of the St. James-Assiniboia board, said that trustees should avoid partisan politics. Sandra Paterson-Greene first campaigned for a seat on the St. James-Assiniboia School Board in 1986 under the name Sandra Paterson, was narrowly defeated for the final position, she was elected in 1995, re-elected in 1998, 2002 and 2006. Paterson-Greene has served as chair of the Assiniboia-St. James board's education and divisional multipurpose committees. In 2001-02, she spearheaded an effort to build a new theatre at Sturgeon Creek Collegiate; the board rejected the proposal in September 2002, by a vote of 6-3. In early 2003, she called on the federal government to toughen its laws against marijuana. Electors could vote for three candidates.

Percentages are determined in relation to the total number of votes. David George was first elected in 1998, opposed the contracting out of bus services in 2000, he did not seek re-election in 2002. Electors could vote for three candidates. Percentages are determined in relation to the total number of votes. Bill Lyons is a retired city clerk in Winnipeg, he was the city's planning committee clerk for many years, became the chair of its board of adjustment in 1992. By 2000, he was executive director of the Transcona Business Improvement Zone, he was a perennial candidate for public office, running for the Transcona ward on city council in 1989 and 1995, for the Transcona-Springfield School Board in 1986 and 1998. He was defeated each time. Lyons called for a solution to Transcona's flooding problems in 1995, supported the principle of having fewer managers and more front-line workers at city hall

Buffon's noodle

In geometric probability, the problem of Buffon's noodle is a variation on the well-known problem of Buffon's needle, named after Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon who lived in the 18th century. This approach to the problem was published by Joseph-Émile Barbier in 1860. Suppose there exist infinitely many spaced parallel lines, we were to randomly toss a needle whose length is less than or equal to the distance between adjacent lines. What is the probability that the needle will lie across a line upon landing? To solve this problem, let l be the length of the needle and D be the distance between two adjacent lines. Let θ be the acute angle the needle makes with the horizontal, let x be the distance from the center of the needle to the nearest line; the needle lies across the nearest line if and only if x < l cos ⁡ θ 2. We see this condition from the right triangle formed by the needle, the nearest line, the line of length x when the needle lies across the nearest line. Now, we assume that the values of x, θ are randomly determined when they land, where 0 < x < D 2, since 0 < l < D, 0 < θ < π 2.

The sample space for x, θ is thus a rectangle of side lengths D 2 and π 2. The probability of the event that the needle lies across the nearest line is the fraction of the sample space that intersects with x = l 2 cos ⁡ θ. Since 0 < l < D, the area of this intersection is given by Area = ∫ 0 π 2 l 2 cos ⁡ θ d θ = l 2 sin ⁡ π 2 − l 2 sin ⁡ 0 = l 2. Now, the area of the sample space is Area = D 2 × π 2 = D π 4. Hence, the probability P of the event is P = Area Area = l 2 4 D π = 2 l π D; the interesting thing about the formula is that it stays the same when you bend the needle in any way you want, making it a "noodle"—a rigid plane curve. We drop the assumption that the length of the noodle is no more than the distance between the parallel lines; the probability distribution of the number of crossings depends on the shape of the noodle, but the expected number of crossings does not. This fact may be proved. First suppose the noodle is piecewise i.e. consists of n straight pieces. Let Xi be the number of times the ith piece crosses one of the parallel lines.

These random variables are not independent, but the expectations are still additive due to the linearity of expectation: E = E + ⋯ + E. Regarding a curved noodle as the limit of a sequence of piecewise linear noodles, we conclude that the expected number of crossings per toss is proportional to the length; the problem is to find the constant. In case the noodle is a circle of diameter equal to the distance D between the parallel lines L = πD and the number of crossings is 2, with probability 1. So when L = πD the expected number of crossings is 2. Therefore, the expected number of crossings must be 2L/. There is one more surprising consequence. In case the noodle is any closed curve of constant width D the number of crossings is exactly 2; this implies Barbier's theorem asserting. Ramaley, J. F.. "Buffon's Noodle Problem". The American Mathematical Monthly. Mathematical Association of America. 76