The Philadelphia Eagles are a professional American football team based in Philadelphia. The Eagles compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's National Football Conference East division. In the 2017 season the team won Super Bowl LII, their first Super Bowl win in franchise history and their fourth NFL title overall, after winning the Championship Game in 1948, 1949, 1960; the franchise was established in 1933 as a replacement for the bankrupt Frankford Yellow Jackets, when a group led by Bert Bell secured the rights to an NFL franchise in Philadelphia. Bell, Chuck Bednarik, Bob Brown, Brian Dawkins, Reggie White, Steve Van Buren, Tommy McDonald, Greasy Neale, Pete Pihos, Harold Carmichael, Sonny Jurgensen, Norm Van Brocklin have been inducted to the Pro Football Hall of Fame; the team has had an intense rivalry with the New York Giants. This rivalry is the oldest in the NFC East and is among the oldest in the NFL, it was ranked by NFL Network as the number one rivalry of all-time, Sports Illustrated ranks it as the fourth-best rivalry in the NFL, according to ESPN, it is one of the fiercest and most well-known rivalries in the American football community.
They have a bitter rivalry with the Dallas Cowboys, which has become more high-profile since the 1960s, as well as a historic rivalry with the Washington Redskins. Their rivalry with the Pittsburgh Steelers is another bitter rivalry known as the battle of Pennsylvania dating back to 1933; the team ranks among the best in the league in attendance and has sold out every game since the 1999 season. In a Sports Illustrated poll of 321 NFL players, Eagles fans were selected as the most intimidating fans in the NFL; the Frankford Athletic Association was organized in May 1899 in the parlor of the Suburban Club. The cost of purchasing a share in the association was $10. However, there were contributing memberships, ranging from $1 to $2.50, made available to the general public. The Association was a community-based non-profit organization of local businesses. In keeping with its charter, which stated that "all profits shall be donated to charity", all of the team's excess income was donated to local charitable institutions.
The original Frankford Athletic Association disbanded prior to the 1909 football season. Several of the original players from the 1899 football team kept the team together, they became known as Loyola Athletic Club. In keeping with Yellow Jackets tradition, they carried the "Frankford" name again in 1912, to become the Frankford Athletic Association. In the early 1920s, the Frankford Athletic Association's Yellow Jackets gained the reputation as being one of the best independent football teams in the nation. In 1922, Frankford absorbed the Union Quakers of Philadelphia; that year, Frankford captured the unofficial championship of Philadelphia. During the 1922 and 1923 seasons the Yellow Jackets compiled a 6–2–1 record against teams from the National Football League; this led to the Association being granted an NFL franchise in 1924, thus becoming the Frankford Yellow Jackets. Midway through the 1931 season, the Yellow Jackets went bankrupt and were forced to cease operations. After more than a year of searching for a suitable replacement, the NFL granted an expansion franchise to a syndicate headed by Bert Bell and Lud Wray and awarded them the assets of the failed Yellow Jackets organization.
The Bell-Wray group had to pay an entry fee of $3,500 and assumed a total debt of $11,000, owed to three other NFL franchises. Drawing inspiration from the Blue Eagle insignia of the National Recovery Administration—the centerpiece of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal—Bell and Wray named the new franchise the Philadelphia Eagles. Although this makes it appear that the Yellow Jackets sat out the 1932 season and returned as the Eagles in 1933. However, neither the Eagles nor the NFL regard the two franchises as the same, citing the aforementioned period of dormancy. Furthermore no Yellow Jackets players were on the Eagles' first roster; the Eagles, along with the Pittsburgh Steelers and the now-defunct Cincinnati Reds, joined the NFL as expansion teams. Wray became the Eagles first head coach after being convinced by Bell, his former teammate at Penn, to take the position; the team planned to play their home games at Shibe Park, the home of the Philadelphia Athletics baseball club. When negotiations fell through the team managed to make a deal with the Athletics' crosstown rival, the Philadelphia Phillies to play at the Baker Bowl.
The Eagles played their first game on October 15, 1933, against the New York Giants at the Polo Grounds in New York City. They lost the game 56-0; the Eagles struggled over the course of their first decade. Their best finish was in 1934, when they finished tied for third in the East. For the most part, the Eagles' early rosters were composed of former Penn and Villanova players who played for a few years before going on to other things. In 1935 Bell proposed an annual college draft to equalize talent across the league; the draft was a revolutionary concept in professional sports. Having teams select players in inverse order of their finish in the standings, a practice still followed today, strove to increase fan interest by guaranteeing that the worst teams would have the opportunity for annual infusions of the best college talent. Between 1927 and 1934, a triopoly of three teams had won all but one title since 1927 (the lone exception being the P
Hristo Popadiyn is a Bulgarian footballer who plays as a defender for Slavia Sofia. Popadiyn bеgan his career with Levski Sofia. In the beginning of 2013 he was sent on loan to the Italian Serie A team Chievo Verona until the end of the season, he returned to Levski for the 2013/14 season making his official debut for the club in a cup match against Pirin Gotse Delchev won by Levski with 0:5. He was sent on loan to Vitosha Bistritsa in the beginning of 2014 until the end of the season. After his loan to Vitosha ended he moved to Botev Vratsa, he made his debut for the team in a match against Dobrudzha on 2 August 2014. For the cup the team was drawn against the Bulgarian champions Ludogorets Razgrad and Popadiyn played in the match on 24 September 2014. On 12 January 2015 Popadiyn moved to another team in Lokomotiv 2012 Mezdra. After receiving offers from teams from A Group he chose to move to the newly created second team of Ludogorets Razgrad, he made his debut for Ludogorets II on 25 July 2015 in a match against Dunav Ruse.
On 23 September 2015 he made his debut for the Ludogorets first team in the Bulgarian Cup in a 5–0 win over Lokomotiv 1929 Mezdra. On 22 May 2016 he made his complete debut in A Group for Ludogorets in a match against Beroe Stara Zagora. On 7 September 2016 he became the third player after Ventsislav Kerchev and Yanaki Smirnov who joined Lokomotiv Gorna Aryahovitsa on loan until the end of the 2016-17 season, but 2 days returned in Ludogorets. On 9 November 2016, Popadiyn was released by Ludogorets. In February 2017, following a few months without a club, Popadiyn joined Vitosha Bistritsa. On 6 June 2017 he signed a contract with Dunav Ruse; as of 3 December 2015 Hristo Popadiyn at Soccerway
Testosterone poisoning is a popular term used to explain behaviors that are deemed excessively masculine. An early printed reference to "testosterone poisoning" came in 1975 from actor Alan Alda. In a parody of self-help writing, Alda diagnosed the "ailment" of masculinity and offered methods for its "cure", he wrote: Everyone knows that testosterone, the so-called male hormone, is found in both men and women. What is not so well known, is that men have an overdose... Until it has been thought that the level of testosterone in men is normal because they have it, but if you consider how abnormal their behavior is you are led to the hypothesis that all men are suffering from testosterone poisoning. Ten years that same sentence from Alda's article was quoted in the 1985 book A Feminist Dictionary. Carl Sagan gave the phrase more publicity when he praised Moondance magazine writer Daniela Gioseffi's American Book Award winner Women on War as follows: "A book of searing analysis and cries from the heart on the madness of war.
Why is the half of humanity with a special sensitivity to the preciousness of life, the half untainted by testosterone poisoning wholly unrepresented in defense establishments and peace negotiations worldwide?" A Los Angeles Times op-ed piece accused Sagan of "pompously inform us that the whole planet is imminently endangered by'testosterone poisoning'". Bruce Tremper used the term in The Avalanche Review, stating that being "a man" is best proven by dying "a stupendously violent death". A 1996 Psychology Today article referred to the phrase as "only a joke", but noted that a study about testosterone and male employment had shown that testosterone levels were lower for successful new male employees at a southern U. S. oil firm than they were for new male employees, terminated. Berenbaum et al. stated that exposure to high levels of androgens in utero is associated with higher levels of adult aggression. Mazur et al. stated that males with higher testosterone levels tend to be more aggressive than other males.
The authors suggested that higher testosterone levels were a result of aggressive behavior, not a cause of it. In Family and Friends' Guide to Domestic Violence, Elaine Weiss wrote that "deadly testosterone poisoning" is one of "many misunderstandings about abusive men", she continued: " is not a war of the hormones, an inevitable biological clash between estrogen and testosterone. If it were there would be more of it. McDermott found a significant positive relationship between levels of aggression. However, the link between testosterone and aggression was questioned in a 2010 study published in Nature. According to that study, "a single dose of testosterone in women causes a substantial increase in fair bargaining behaviour, thereby reducing bargaining conflicts and increasing the efficiency of social interactions. However, subjects who believed that they received testosterone—regardless of whether they received it or not—behaved much more unfairly than those who believed that they were treated with placebo."
Antonia Feitz protested the use of the expression in a 1999 essay in the Australian Daily Issues Paper, calling it hate speech. Beth Gallagher's Salon.com essay "Road Sows", which discussed sports utility vehicles, asserted that "Not long ago, if you found yourself being tailed within an inch of your life by one of these monsters, you could be reasonably sure that testosterone poisoning was at work. But now I don't bother to check my makeup -- the macho creep back there is as to be the soccer mom next door, or her mom..." Several readers submitted "testosterone poisoning" to a 2001 Atlantic Monthly competition to find a male equivalent for hysteria. Dr. Karl Albrecht made testosterone poisoning a synonym for male chauvinism in his 2002 book The Power of Minds at Work: Organizational Intelligence in Action. In a 2003 Wall Street Journal essay, Kay S. Hymowitz chided Western feminists for neglecting the rights of Third World women in Muslim countries. Magazine editor Tina Brown used the phrase thematically in a 2005 Washington Post essay about the downfall of Harvard University president Larry Summers and the problems of Disney's former embattled CEO Michael Eisner.
The term is sometimes used by transfeminine people, including transgender women, to describe how testosterone has damaged them. Gender roles Sexism Misandry Misogyny Toxic masculinity Archer, John. "The influence of testosterone on human aggression". British Journal of Psychology. 82: 1–28. Doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1991.tb02379.x. PMID 2029601. White, Roderick E.. "Entrepreneurs and evolutionary biology: The relationship between testosterone and new venture creation". Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 100: 21–34. Doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2005.11.001