Philadelphia International Airport is the primary airport serving Philadelphia. The airport serves 31.7 million passengers annually, making it the 20th busiest airport in the United States. In 2019, PHL served the most in the airport's history; the airport, located 7 miles from downtown Philadelphia, has 25 airlines that offer nearly 500 daily departures to more than 130 destinations worldwide. Philadelphia International Airport is located in Philadelphia, is the largest airport in the state, it is the fifth-largest hub for American Airlines, serves as its primary Northeast hub and European gateway. Additionally, the airport is a regional cargo hub for UPS Airlines and a focus city for the ultra low-cost airline Frontier Airlines; the airport has service to cities in the United States, the Caribbean, Latin America and the Middle East. As of summer 2019, there are flights from the airport to 140 destinations, 102 domestic and 38 international. Most of the airport property is in Philadelphia proper.
The international terminal and the western end of the airfield are in Tinicum Township, Delaware County. PHL has 4 runways. Philadelphia International Airport is important to Philadelphia, its metropolitan region and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania; the Commonwealth's Aviation Bureau reported in its Pennsylvania Air Service Monitor that the total economic impact made by the state's airports in 2004 was $22 billion. In 2017 PHL commissioned a new economic impact report; the report found PHL alone accounted for $15.4 billion in activity with over 96,000 direct and indirect jobs with $5.4 Billion in total earnings. In 2018, the airport was ranked by J. D. Power as one of the "worst large airports in the U. S." Starting in 1925, the Pennsylvania National Guard used the present airport site as a training airfield. The site was dedicated as the "Philadelphia Municipal Airport" by Charles Lindbergh in 1927, but it had no proper terminal building until 1940. Once Philadelphia's terminal was completed American, Eastern, TWA and United began flights.
In 1947 and 1950 the airport had all 5400 ft or less. In 1956 runway 9 was 7284 ft. Not much changed until the early 1970s, when runway 4 was closed and 9R opened with 10500 ft. On June 20, 1940 the airport's weather station became the official point for Philadelphia weather observations and records by the National Weather Service. During World War II the United States Army Air Forces used the airport as a First Air Force training airfield. Beginning in 1940, Rising Sun School of Aeronautics of Coatesville performed primary flight training at the airport under contract to the Air Corps. After the Pearl Harbor Attack, the I Fighter Command Philadelphia Fighter Wing provided air defense of the Delaware Valley area from the airport. Throughout the war, various fighter and bomber groups were organized and trained at Philadelphia airport and assigned to the Philadelphia Fighter Wing before being sent to advanced training airfields or being deployed overseas. Known units assigned were the 33d, 58th, 355th and 358th Fighter Groups.
In June 1943 I Fighter Command transferred jurisdiction of the airport to the Air Technical Service Command. ATSC established a sub-depot of the Middletown Air Depot at the airport; the 855th Army Air Forces Specialized Depot unit repaired and overhauled aircraft and returned them to active service, the Army Air Forces Training Command established the Philco Training School on January 1, 1943, which trained personnel in radio repair and operations. In 1945 the Air Force reduced its use of the airport and it was returned to civil control that September. Philadelphia Municipal became Philadelphia International in 1945, when American Overseas Airlines began direct flights to Europe. A new terminal opened in December 1953; the April 1957 OAG shows 30 weekday departures on Eastern, 24 TWA, 24 United, 18 American, 16 National, 14 Capital, 6 Allegheny and 3 Delta. To Europe, five Pan Am DC-6Bs a week via Idlewild and Boston and two TWA 749As a week via Idlewild. Eastern and National had nonstops to Miami, but the TWA 1049G to LAX that started in 1956 was the only nonstop beyond Chicago.
The first scheduled jets were TWA 707s in summer 1959. Terminal B/C modernization was completed in 1970, Terminal D opened in 1973 and Terminal E in 1977. In the 1980s PHL hosted several hubs; the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978 allowed regional carrier Altair Airlines to create a small hub at PHL using Fokker F-28s. Altair began in 1967 with flights to cities such as Rochester, New York, Connecticut and to Florida until it ceased operations in November 1982. In the mid-1980s Eastern Air Lines opened a hub in Concourse C; the airline declined in the late 1980s and sold aircraft and gate leases to Chicago-based Midway Airlines. Midway operated its Philadelphia hub until it ceased operation in 1991. During the 1980s US Airways built a hub at PHL. US Airways became the dominant carrier at PHL in the 1980s and 1990s and shifted most of its hub operations from Pittsburgh to Philadelphia in 2003; as of 2013 PHL was US Airways' largest international hub. From January 2
Cornus controversa, syn. Swida controversa, is a species of flowering plant in the genus Cornus of the dogwood family Cornaceae, native to China, the Himalayas and Japan, it is a deciduous tree growing with multiple tiered branches. Flat panicles of white flowers appear in summer, followed by globose black fruit. Ovate dark green leaves turn red-purple in autumn, it is cultivated in parks in temperate regions. It is sometimes referred to as Bothrocaryum controversum Pojark when seeds are offered for online sale; the variety C. controversa'Variegata' has leaves with cream margins, which turn yellow in autumn, grows to a lesser size than its parent – 25 ft. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit
Łukasz Ogończyk Górnicki, humanist of the Polish Renaissance, political commentator and chancellor of Sigismund August of Poland. He wrote a number of works both political. Górnicki is most famous from his Dworzanin polski, an adaptation of Baldassare Castiglione's Book of the Courtier. Łukasz Górnicki was born in Oświęcim. He was Anna Gąsiorkówna, poor townspeople from Bochnia. Górnicki began his education there, his early life was influenced by his uncle Stanisław Gąsiorek, called Anserinu, a cleric at and director of the royal chapel on Wawel, as well as author of Polish patriotic verses and composer. Stanisław took an interest in his nephew and brought him to Kraków in 1538, seeing to the young man's studies and court carrier, declaring Górnicki his heir; the exact contours of Górnicki's education are uncertain, though it can be said that he never entered the Kraków Academy. Górnicki worked at court from his youth until his death. In this time he had ample opportunity to encounter the courtly life surrounding the king.
In 1548 he went on bishop Filip Padniewski's diplomatic mission to Transylvania. From 1552 he worked in the royal chancery under the direction of the chancellor Jan Przerembski. In 1552 Górnicki travelled with Przerembski in the king's service Gdańsk, Lithuania. In this period he took low orders, received a few benefices as a result. Having gained some financial stability from these benefices and from his uncle's will, Górnicki set off for Italy for two years in 1557. Resident in Padua, he studied law at the university there, he returned to Poland in February 1559. From 1559 to mid-1565, Górnicki worked on a translation and adaptation of Baldassare Castiglione's Book of the Courtier; this was dedicated to King Sigismund August. Górnicki changed it to match the Polish situation, he moved the discussion at the base of the text from the court of Guidobaldo da Montefeltro in Urbino in 1507 to the residence of Bishop Samuel Maciejowski in Prądnik Biały near Kraków in 1549. In that conversation the participants discuss the ideal courtier, a nonchalant man of good family, who brings together good manners and breeding with honor and education.
The discussants in Górnicki's version were: Wojciech Kryski, Stanisław Maciejowski, Andrzej Kostka, Aleksander Myszkowski, Jan Dreśniak, Stanisław Wapowski, Stanisław Bojanowski and Stanisław Lupa Podlodowski. For this work Górnicki received a noble title from King Sigismund, as well as the Ogończyk coat of arms in 1561. Between 1574 and 1579 Górnicki married Barbara Broniewska, his junior by 30 years, daughter of Stanisław Broniowski, Master of the Horse in Przemyśl. Łukasz Górnicki died in Lipniki pod Tykocinem on 22 July 1603. He was buried in Tykocin in the Bernardine church on the island of Narew. Rozmowa O Elekcyey, o Wolności, o Prawie y obyczaiach Polskich Podczas Electiey Krola Iego Mci Zygmunta III czyniona. Kraków, 1616. Unterredung von der Wahl, Gesetzen und Sitten der Pohlen. Wrocław. Lucas Gornicki, Starosten von Tykocin und Wasilkow, Unterredung von der Wahl, Gesetzen und Sitten der Pohlen, zur Zeit der Wahl Sigismund des Dritten verfertiget und ohnlängst nach verbesserter alten pohlnischen Schreibart aufs neue herausgegeben durch J.
Z. R. K. Nunmehro ins Deutsche übersetzet und mit dem Leben des Auctoris versehen von Christian Gottlieb Friesen. Wrocław, 1762. Clarissimi Viri Lucae Gornickij Actio Adversus Demetrium Et Pro Demetrio, Latine Versa = Sławnego Męża Łukasza Gornickiego Sprawa Przeciw Dymitrowi Y Za Dymitrem. Wilno, 1788. Rozmowa o Elekcyi, o Wolności, o Prawie, y obyczaiach Polskich. Podczas Elekcyi Króla Jego Mći Zygmunta III czyniona. Pisana przez Łukasza Gornickiego. Teraz nowo wydana y w stylu Staro-Polskim nieco poprawiona przez J. Z. R. K.. Warsaw, 1750-1795. Nowy Karakter Polski Z Drukarnie Lazarzowey: Y Orthographia Polska: Iana Kochanowskiego, Lukasza Gornickie, Iana Ianuszowskiego, Kraków 1594. Bodniak, Stanisław. Karta z bibljotekarskich i starościńskich zajęć Górnickiego. Kraków, 1928. Czarnik, Bronisław. Żywot Łukasza Górnickiego. Lwów, 1883. Kozielewski, Ignacy. Łukasz Górnicki: studium historyczno-literackie. Lwów, 1929. Lichański, Jakub Zdzisław. Łukasz Górnicki. Wrocław, 1982. Lichański, Jakub Zdzisław. Łukasz Górnicki: sarmacki Castiglione.
Warsaw, 1998. Lowenfeld, Rafał. Łukasz Górnicki, jego życie i dzieła: przyczynek do dziejów humanizmu w Polsce. Warsaw, 1884. Noworolskiej, B. and W. Steca. Łukasz Górnicki i jego czasy. Białystok, 1993. Salwa, P. ed. Łukasz Górnicki i jego włoskie inspiracje. Warsaw, 2005. Pollak, Roman. "Górnicki Łukasz." In Polski Słownik Biograficzny, vol. 8, part. 3. Wrocław, 1960