click links in text for more info

Philadelphia Naval Shipyard

The Navy Yard known as the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard and Philadelphia Naval Business Center, was an important naval shipyard of the United States for two centuries. It is now a large mixed-use campus that employs nearly 15,000 people across a mix of industries, includes cutting edge cell therapy production facilities, global fashion companies, a commercial shipyard. Philadelphia's original navy yard, begun in 1776 on Front Street and Federal Street in what is now the Pennsport section of the city, was the first naval shipyard of the United States; the new, much larger yard grew up around facilities begun in 1871 on League Island at the confluence of the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers. The United States Navy ended most of its activities there in the 1990s; the Navy still has a Naval Inactive Ship Maintenance Facility and a few engineering activities at the site. The yard has its origins in a shipyard on Philadelphia's Front Street on the Delaware River, founded in 1776 and became an official United States Navy site in 1801.

From 1812 till 1865 it was a big production center. The first ship, launched to the water was the USS Franklin; this event was watched by more than 50,000 spectators. The rapid development of other shipbuilding companies pledged Philadelphia to improve production processes, it was the first shipyard in the world which used floating dry docks in the building process to improve an operating time of the ships. After the advent of ironclad warships made the site obsolete, new facilities were built in 1871 on League Island at the confluence of the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers. From early in the nineteenth century many Philadelphia workers agitated for a reduction in the arduous twelve hour workday; the workday in the Philadelphia Navy Yard prior to 1835 was sunrise to sunset, with time off for breakfast. In the summer of 1835 Philadelphia Navy Yard shipwrights and other workers became leaders in this effort when they chose to combine direct action, a strike, with political pressure to the executive branch.

After first making a request to the Secretary of the Navy via shipyard Commandant Commodore James Barron, on 29 August 1835 they appealed directly to President Andrew Jackson. Commodore Barron endorsed his workers request with the following acknowledgment "I would respectfully observe – Seems to be inevitable, sooner or for as the working man are seconded by all the Master workmen, city councils etc. There is no probability they will secede from their demands." Their petition was granted and on 31 August 1835 the president ordered the Secretary of the Navy to grant the ten hour work day effective 3 September 1835. However, the change was only applicable to the Philadelphia Navy Yard, it was another 5 years before the ten hour day was extended to all government employees engaged in manual labor. The Naval Aircraft Factory was established at the League Island site in 1917. Just after World War I, a 350-ton capacity hammerhead. Manufactured in 1919 by the McMyler-Interstate Company in Bedford, the crane was called the League Island Crane by its builder.

Weighing 3,500 tons, the crane was shipped to the yard in sections, it was the world's largest crane at the time. The "League Island Crane" was for many years the Navy's largest crane. Mustin Field opened at the Naval Aircraft Factory in 1926 and operated until 1963; the shipyard's greatest period came in World War II, when the yard employed 40,000 people who built 53 ships and repaired 574. During this period, the yard built the famed battleship New Jersey and its 45,000-ton sister ship, Wisconsin. In the Naval Laboratory, Philip Abelson developed the liquid thermal diffusion technique for separating uranium-235 for the Manhattan Project. After the war, the workforce dropped to 12,000, in the 1960s, new ships began to be contracted out to private companies; the yard built its last new ship, the command ship Blue Ridge, in 1970. The yard's closure was recommended in 1991 by the Base Realignment and Closure Commission, as a result of foreign competition and reduced needs due to the end of the Cold War.

The planned closing was unsuccessfully litigated to the US Supreme Court in Specter. Although local politicians tried to keep the yard open, it closed in 1995 with a loss of 7,000 jobs. Senator Arlen Specter charged that the Department of Defense did not disclose the official report on the closing; this resulted in a controversy that led to no avail. Since its transfer from the government, the west end of property has been leased to Aker Kværner, a tanker and commercial shipbuilding firm; the City of Philadelphia became the landlord and owner of The Navy Yard in March 2000, when the Philadelphia Authority for Industrial Development took title to 1,000 acres from The Navy. The Philadelphia Industrial Development Corporation manages the planning and development of The Navy Yard on behalf of PAID and the City of Philadelphia. A comprehensive master plan was developed in 2004 to turn the former industrial yard to a mixed-use campus; as of 2010, navy activities there include Naval Support Activity Philadelphia, the Naval Surface Warfare Center Ship Systems Engineering Station, Naval Facilities Engineering Command Mid-Atlantic Public Works Department Pennsylvania and the Naval Inactive Ship Maintenance Facility, which stores decommissioned and mothballed warships and auxiliary naval vessels.

The Navy Yard is home to 120 companies with 10,000 employees, as t

Pachycondyla petiolosa

Pachycondyla petiolosa is an extinct species of ant in the formicid subfamily Ponerinae described by from a fossil found in Europe. P. parvula is one of six Lutetian Pachycondyla species. When described Pachycondyla petiolosa was known from two fossil insects which are compression-impression fossils preserved in layers of soft sedimentary rock. Along with other well preserved insect fossils, the P. petiolosa specimens were collected from layers of Lutetian Messel Formation rock in the Messel pit World Heritage Site. The Messel formation is composed of brown coals, oil shales, bituminous shale, which preserved numerous insects, birds and terrestrial mammals as a notable lagerstätten; the area is a preserved maar lake which formed 47 million years ago as the result of volcanic explosions. At the time of description, the holotype specimen, number SMF MeI 1893, along with the paratype SMF MeI 1427 were preserved in the Senckenberg Research Station Messel fossil collections; the fossils were described by Gennady Dlussky and Sonja Wedmann in a 2012 paper on the poneromorph ants of Messel.

In the type description Dlussky and Wedmann named the species P. petiolosa, with the specific epithet derived from the Latin "petiolosus", chosen in recognition of notably visible petiole. The species is one of six Pachycondyla. All six of the species were described by Dlussky and Wedmann in the same 2012 paper, the other five being P. eocenica, P. lutzi, P.? messeliana, P. parvula, P. petrosa. Another eight fossil species have been described from fossils in North America and Asia. Both of the Pachycondyla petiolosa queens are preserved in lateral positioning and have body lengths of 20–22 mm and the head is 4.7 mm. The alitrunk is 7.1 -- 7.2 mm long, with the queens being described as being build large. The antennae scape extends just beyond the occipital margin of the head, the funicular segments in the middle are longer than wide; the eyes are oval in shape and placed behind of the head's midpoint. Where preserved the mandibles comprise less than half the length of the head; the petiole is rounded in side view, with a high, thick scale, there are visible hairs preserved on the last segment of the petiole.

Media related to Pachycondyla petiolosa at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Pachycondyla petiolosa at Wikispecies

Tim March

Timothy March is a Canadian curler. He plays lead for Team Glenn Howard. March skipped his high school team from Sir Oliver Mowat Collegiate Institute to a provincial Schoolboy championship in 2005. March played third on the Annandale Country Club team that were runners up at the 2010 The Dominion Curling Club Championship; the team had won the provincial curling club championship that year. March joined the Mark Kean rink in 2010. In 2011, the team played in the January 2011 Canadian Open; the team finished the event with an 0-5 record. That season, the team made it to their first provincial championship, the 2011 Dominion Tankard. There, the team finished with a 6-4 record. In the 2011-12 season, the Kean rink played in two slams, the 2011 World Cup of Curling and the December 2011 Canadian Open; the team played in the 2012 Dominion Tankard. In the 2012-13 season, Team Kean had a better season on Tour, winning the 2012 KW Fall Classic and playing in four slams, they played in the 2012 Masters of Curling, the 2012 Canadian Open of Curling, the 2013 National and the 2013 Players' Championship.

The team did not qualify for the men's provincial championship that season. The rink played in the 2013 Canadian Olympic Curling Pre-Trials, finishing with a 1-3 record, not qualifying for the Olympic Trials, they played in the 2013 Canadian Open of Curling, losing in the quarterfinals. The team disbanded mid-season, but March would play in two more Slams that year, playing lead for Travis Fanset at the March 2014 National going 0-5 and playing lead for John Epping at the 2014 Players' Championship, losing in the quarterfinals; the next season, March remained on the Epping rink. Early on in the season, they won the 2014 Village of Taunton Mills Gord Carroll Curling Classic, they played in five slams that season, making it to the semifinals of the 2014 Masters and 2015 Players' Championship, while missing the playoffs at the November 2014 National, the 2014 Canadian Open of Curling and the 2015 Elite 10. The team played in the 2015 Ontario Tankard, making it to the final before losing to March's former skip, Mark Kean.

In the 2015-16 season, Team Epping would play in seven Grand Slam events, winning the 2015 Meridian Canadian Open, the team's first Slam title. In the other slams, the team made lost in the finals of the 2016 Humpty's Champions Cup, made it to the semifinals of the 2015 National, the quarterfinals of the 2016 Elite 10, while the team missed the playoffs at the 2015 GSOC Tour Challenge, 2015 Masters of Curling, 2016 Players' Championship; the team played in the 2015 Canada Cup of Curling, where they made it to the semifinal. At the 2016 Ontario Tankard, the team again made it to the finals, but lost to Team Glenn Howard in the final; that season, the team won the 2016 US Open of Curling. In the 2016-17 season, the Epping rink again played in all seven slams, making it to the semifinals of the 2017 Humpty's Champions Cup, the quarterfinals of the 2016 WFG Masters and the 2016 Boost National, missed the playoffs at the 2016 GSOC Tour Challenge, 2017 Meridian Canadian Open, the 2017 Elite 10 and the 2017 Players' Championship.

Elsewhere on the tour, the team won the 2016 CookstownCash presented by Comco Canada Inc. and the 2016 Challenge de Curling de Gatineau. At the 2016 Canada Cup of Curling, the team again lost in the semifinal. At the 2017 Ontario Tankard, the team lost in the semifinal against Wayne Tuck Jr.. The team missed the playoffs; the team would win the first provincial championship for the team. They represented Ontario at the 2018 Tim Hortons Brier, where Epping led them to a bronze medal, after losing in the semifinal to Alberta, skipped by Brendan Bottcher. March works as a senior accountant for Cathy L. Tune, CPA, he married Kim Tune in 2018. He attended Ryerson University. Tim March on the World Curling Tour database Tim March on the CurlingZone database Team Epping website

Campaign to Suppress Bandits in Northern Guangdong

The Campaign to Suppress Bandits in Northern Guangdong was a counter-guerrilla / counterinsurgency campaign the communists fought against the nationalist guerrilla, consisted of bandits and nationalist regular troops left behind after the nationalist government withdrew from mainland China. The campaign was fought during the Chinese Civil War in the post-World War II era, resulted in communist victory; this campaign is part of the Campaign to Suppress Bandits in Guangdong. The nationalists had faced a precarious dilemma in waging the campaign against its communist enemy because of complex situation they had faced, made several grave miscalculations which contributed to their eventual failure. Like other nationalist futile attempts to fight guerrilla and insurgency warfare against the communists after being driven off from mainland China, the first grave strategic miscalculation made by the retreating nationalist government contributed at least if not greater than the enemy's political and military pressure to the nationalist defeat in this campaign.

The first strategic miscalculation made by the retreating nationalist government was identical to the earlier one the nationalist government had made after World War II, when it had neither the sufficient troops nor enough transportation assets to be deployed into the Japanese-occupied regions of China, unwilling to let these regions falling into communist hands, the nationalist government ordered the Japanese and their turncoat Chinese puppet government not to surrender to the communists and allowed them to keep their fighting capabilities to "maintain order" in the Japanese occupied regions by fighting off the communists. This earlier miscalculation resulted in further alienation and resentment to the nationalist government by the local population, which had blamed the nationalists for losing the regions to the Japanese invaders during the war. Half a decade when the nationalists were driven from mainland China, they had made the similar miscalculation once again in their desperation, this time by enlisting the help of local bandits to fight the communists, ordering the nationalist troops left behind to join these bandits in the struggle against the communism.

However, the bandits were feared and hated by the local populace they plagued for so long, nationalist troops left behind joining the bandits did not help them win the support of the general population. In fact, it served the exact opposite; the second grave strategic miscalculation made by the retreating nationalist government was similar to the one the nationalist government had made after World War II, when it attempted to solve the warlord problem that had plagued China for so long with the problem of the exterminating communists together: those warlords allied with Chiang Kai-shek's nationalist government were only interested in keeping their own power and defected to the Japanese side when Japanese invaders offered to let them keep their power in exchange for their collaborations. After World War II, these forces of former Japanese puppet governments once again returned to the nationalist camp for the same reason they defected to the Japanese invaders, it was difficult for Chiang to get rid of these warlords for good as soon as they surrendered to Chiang and rejoined nationalists, because such move would alienate other factions within the nationalist ranks, those former Japanese puppet government's warlords could still help the nationalists to by holding on to what was under their control and fighting off communists, they and the communists would both be weakened.

The bandits the nationalist governments had failed to exterminate were not good candidates for evacuation to Taiwan half a decade and using them to fight communists appeared to be the only logical alternative. If the communists were great weakened by the bandits it would the nationalists would have easier time in their counterattacks to retake China. If the bandits were defeated the nationalists would have easier job to eradicate them after retaking China. However, just like those warlords, these bandits were only interested in keeping their own power and thus did not put any real efforts to fight the communists like some of the nationalists who were dedicated to their political cause; the eradication of bandits by the communist government only strengthened its popular support since previous governments dating back from Qing Dynasty had failed to do so. The third grave strategic miscalculation made by the retreating nationalist government was similar to the second one, but this one was about its own troops left behind.

The nationalist government had faced a dilemma: the disciplined troops were in desperate need to defend Taiwan, the last nationalist island sanctuary. The less disciplined second rate and undisciplined third rate troops, both of which consisted of warlords' troop were not suited to be withdrawn to defend the last stand nationalists had made, they were not given the top priority for evacuation. Instead, they were left behind to fight the communists behind the enemy line, but such move had alienated many of the troops left behind, it was impossible to expect them to fight their communist enemy with the same kind of dedication like those nationalist agents who believed in their political cause. Compounding the problem, due to the need of bandits' knowledge of local area, they were rewarded with higher ranks than the nationalist troops left behind; as a result, the former-nationalist regular troops turned guerrilla fighters lac

Liam Smith (boxer)

Liam Smith is a British professional boxer. He held the WBO light-middleweight title from 2015 to 2016, the British and Commonwealth light-middleweight titles between 2012 and 2015. Liam is the younger brother of Paul Smith and Stephen Smith, the older brother of Callum Smith. Liam Smith was raised in Liverpool by his parents alongside his 5 siblings. Smith started boxing at Rotunda ABC during his teenage years and states boxing saved him from getting in trouble on the streets.“But I was doing other daft stuff, like getting brought home by police, smashing windows, fighting on the streets and other little silly things that lead up to going off the rails. But when I started boxing it would keep me in at night." As an amateur, Smith fought for Rotunda ABC in Liverpool. He is a two-time winner of the ABA Championships, having won in 2007 and 2008, fighting at light welterweight. In 2007 he defeated Luke Gray and in 2008 he defeated Steve Turner. Liam Smith made his professional debut at light-middleweight on 10 October 2008 against Duncan Cottier at the Everton Park Sports Centre, Liverpool.

In a four-round fight, Smith won on points. This was part of a stacked card by Queensberry Promotions which had future world titlists such as Nathan Cleverly, Anthony Crolla, Tony Bellew as well as Liam's older brother Stephen. In his second pro fight, Smith defeated John Van Emmenis via first-round technical knockout. Smith only fought twice in 2009, outpointing Kevin McCauley and Darren Gethin in four round contests. Smith fought three times in 2010, first a 4-round points win over Billy Smith, a points draw against Terry Carruthers and a second round TKO of veteran Matt Scriven. After a 9-month lay off, Smith fought twice again in 2011, a third-round knockout off Barrie Jones and a first-round KO of Gerard Healy. Healy was counted out. 2012 was the most active year from Smith since his pro debut as he fought five times, an 8 rounds points win against Paul Morby, a first-round TKO win against Andrew Patterson, a six-round points win against Dee Mitchell and a 10-round points win against Gary McMillan, a British light-middleweight title eliminator.

At the age of 24, this left Smith with a record of 12 wins, 5 by way of knockout, 1 draw and no losses. Smith had his last fight of 2015 on 15 December at the ExCel Arena in London, for the vacant Commonwealth light-middleweight title against Steve O'Meara in his first twelve-round fight. Smith went on to win the fight on all three scorecards. After a 6-month gap, Smith returned to his hometown of Liverpool to defeat journeyman Max Maxwell on points over six rounds. Smith had his next tough fight on 21 September 2015, against Kenyan born Erick Ochieng at the Olympia. Smith won via twelve round unanimous decision on all scorecards to win the vacant British light-middleweight title. In December, Smith defended the title by stopping Mark Thompson in round 4. Thompson was down twice in the third round. In July 2014, Smith defended the title again, this time winning by way of knockout against Jason Welborn in round 6. On 25 October 2014, Smith beat Zoltan Sera at the Echo Arena in Liverpool for the vacant WBA Continental light-middleweight title.

Smith was cut above the right eye in a second round head clash which required 5 stitches, Sera was knocked down in the third round as the fight came to an end. On 6 March 2015, Smith fought again at this time against Robert Talarek. Smith won via eighth-round TKO. A month in April, Smith fought and defeated David Ezequiel Romero via seventh-round TKO to win the vacant WBO Inter-Continental light-middleweight title. Romero was knocked down once in the third round, twice in the fifth and once in the sixth before the fight came to an end. After the win, this left Smith with a record of 20 wins with 10 by 1 draw and no losses, it was announced in August 2015 that Smith would fight John Thompson for the WBO light-middleweight title, left vacant by Demetrius Andrade. Smith was supposed to fight Frenchman Michel Soro, only for an internal issue with promoters Top Rank to force him out; the fight took place on 10 October at the Manchester Manchester. Smith became the new WBO champion after seeing off Thompson with a seventh-round knockout.

Smith grew into the fight following a defensive first few rounds. By the time the sixth round came, was on the rise thanks to a few well-placed jabs and produced the decisive punch in the seventh, causing the referee to wave the fight in his favour. On 19 December 2015, Smith returned to the Manchester Arena on the undercard of Andy Lee vs. Billy Joe Saunders WBO middleweight title fight. Smith dominated'Jimmy' Kilrain Kelly, making the first successful defense of his WBO title. Kelly was deducted two points in the sixth round for illegal head butting, stopped late in the seventh round. Kelly produced a brave display against the more experienced champion. Despite Smith dominating the contest, Kelly showed his guts and potential, troubling Smith on occasions in every round. On 9 May 2016, Smith announced he would defend his WBO title against Predrag Radosevic at the Echo Arena on 4 June; this was Smith's second defence of his new title in his home city of Liverpool. This was announced after Austin Trout backed out.

Smith won the fight in the second round to retain his world title. This was Smith's eighth consecutive knockout victory. On 24 June, it was

Disco Heaven

"Disco Heaven" is s song from former Frankie Goes to Hollywood singer Holly Johnson, released as the lead single from his 1999 album Soulstream. The song was produced by Holly Johnson; the song was the first single in five years from Johnson, released on his own Pleasuredome label. It was the second release on the Pleasuredome label, following the promo release of "Hallelujah!" from the Soulstream album. The single peaked at #85 in the UK, lasted in the Top 100 for just one single week; the song is about the friends Johnson had lost to AIDS. In an article by The Guardian in August 1999, the author Simon Hattenstone spoke of the song, stating "He wants to play me the new single, so we head off for his recording studio in the attic; the song Disco Heaven seems to be a celebratory throwback to his clubbing days. Johnson, now 39, still talks in the same high camp of yesteryear with a pouting stress between syllables." Johnson was quoted "It's a song about remembering in a positive way your friends that aren't here any more.

You know they're all there dancing together in disco heaven." The article noted "Johnson has plenty of friends to remember. He can count 15 friends with AIDS, all of them now dead."On the promotional CD single release of "Disco Heaven" came a card detailing info on the release. The card, issued by SizeNine, read "An artist and musician best known for forming the 80s phenomenon Frankie Goes to Hollywood, Holly Johnson returns with the infectious'Disco Heaven'; the first commercial release on his Pleasuredome label the single is taken from the forthcoming album Soulstream released September 1999. Holly captures the disco vibes that are storming the charts and the dancefloors." In the Italian Rockol of 19 August 1999, an article based on Soulstream stated "Holly Johnson, former lead singer of Frankie Goes To Hollywood, the English group of "alternative dance" well known in the eighties, is ready to get back on track. Ten years on from the album "Blast", Holly - who years ago had made it known to have contracted the AIDS virus - has indeed prepared his first single in five years, "Disco Heaven", which will be in stores from September 6, will be accompanied by a video full of quotes of the 80s - and with the participation of Boy George in person.

This is the first song from the new album that will follow on October 4, "Soulstream." Despite this, the promotional CD single press detail card had noted the release date as 23 August. The single was released via Johnson's own label Pleasuredome in the UK only, it was issued on 12" vinyl and CD. On the main 12" release, four versions/remixes of the song were included; the featured remix was the seven-minute "Disco Heaven", whilst the other tracks were "Disco Heaven", "Disco Heaven" and "Disco Heaven". Additionally, a UK 12" promo of this release featured the same track listing. For the main three-track CD release, the featured version was "Disco Heaven", used on the Soulstream album, whilst the other two tracks were "Disco Heaven" and "Disco Heaven"; the "Disco Heaven" was created by Daz Saund. A four-track CD release was issued and featured "Disco Heaven" again as the featured track, alongside "Disco Heaven", "Disco Heaven" and "Disco Heaven". A promo version of the particular release was issued.

A five-track CD acetate was released with a bare white sleeve with text/track listing. The release featured all tracks in the same order as the 12" vinyl release, but with "Disco Heaven" as the fifth track. Both the main 12" release and the two main CD releases featured artwork highlighting a bright coloured background and a disco ball alongside the cover's text; the back cover included a similar theme but with drawings from Johnson himself of angel-like figures. For the 12" promo release, the artwork featured the logo of the Pleasuredome label with a black background; this generic sleeve was issued for the "Hallelujah!" promo release. A UK test press vinyl and metropolis metal vinyl acetate is in circulation; the video for the song was Johnson's directorial debut and his first music video since the 1994 video for the single "Legendary Children". The video featured cameo appearances by Boy George as Leigh Bowery, Jasper Conran as the late American designer Halston, Angie Brown as herself, Jibby Bean as herself, Win Austin as Grace Jones, Trademark as Andy Warhol, Nicola Bowery Roy as Sylvester and Golden Boy.

Dancers in the video included Faustos Danese, Charles Sebunya, Roberto Saraceno, Laura Hills, Melody Woodhead and Bev Jones. The video's choreography was handled by Les Child, assisted by Mark Tyme. In the Guardian article of August 1999, author Simon Hattenstone spoke of the song in relation to visiting Johnson's home, stating "He wants to play me the new single, so we head off for his recording studio in the attic, he turns on the video, tells me it's his directorial debut, starts smiling. The song Disco Heaven seems to be a celebratory throwback to his clubbing days; the video features celebrities such as Boy George and Jasper Conran imitating great gay icons like Divine and Leigh Bowery." Johnson was quoted stating "All me fabulous guest stars - it was bloody hard work."On 24 August 1999, MTV News published an article based on the Soulstream album, which stated "Johnson, 39, told MTV News via email that he'll be releasing "Soulstream," hi