Ivory Coast or Côte d'Ivoire the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a country located on the south coast of West Africa. Ivory Coast's political capital is Yamoussoukro in the centre of the country, while its economic capital and largest city is the port city of Abidjan, it borders Guinea and Liberia to the west, Burkina Faso and Mali to the north, Ghana to the east, the Gulf of Guinea to the south. Before its colonization by Europeans, Ivory Coast was home to several states, including Gyaaman, the Kong Empire, Baoulé; the area became a protectorate of France in 1843 and was consolidated as a French colony in 1893 amid the European scramble for Africa. It achieved independence in 1960, led by Félix Houphouët-Boigny, who ruled the country until 1993. Stable by regional standards, Ivory Coast established close political and economic ties with its West African neighbors while at the same time maintaining close relations to the West France. Ivory Coast experienced a coup d'état in 1999 and two religiously-grounded civil wars, first between 2002 and 2007 and again during 2010–2011.
In 2000, the country adopted a new constitution. Ivory Coast is a republic with strong executive power vested in its president. Through the production of coffee and cocoa, the country was an economic powerhouse in West Africa during the 1960s and 1970s, though it went through an economic crisis in the 1980s, contributing to a period of political and social turmoil. Only around 2014 has GDP per capita in the country again reached the level of its peak in the 1970s. In the 21st century, the Ivorian economy is market-based and still relies on agriculture, with smallholder cash-crop production being dominant; the official language is French, with local indigenous languages widely used, including Baoulé, Dan and Cebaara Senufo. In total there are around 78 languages spoken in Ivory Coast. There are large populations of Muslims and various indigenous religions. Portuguese and French merchant-explorers in the 15th and 16th centuries divided the west coast of Africa roughly, into four "coasts" reflecting local economies.
The coast that the French named the Côte d'Ivoire and the Portuguese named the Costa Do Marfim—both mean "Coast of Ivory"—lay between what was known as the Guiné de Cabo Verde, so-called "Upper Guinea" at Cap-Vert, Lower Guinea. There was a Pepper Coast known as the "Grain Coast", a "Gold Coast", a "Slave Coast". Like those, the name "Ivory Coast" reflected the major trade that occurred on that particular stretch of the coast: the export of ivory. Other names included the Côte de Dents "Coast of Teeth", again reflecting the trade in ivory. One can find the name Cote de Dents used in older works, it was used in Duckett's Dictionnaire and by Nicolas Villault de Bellefond, for example, although Antoine François Prévost used Côte d'Ivoire. In the 19th century, usage switched to Côte d'Ivoire; the coastline of the modern state is not quite coterminous with what the 15th- and 16th-century merchants knew as the "Teeth" or "Ivory" coast, considered to stretch from Cape Palmas to Cape Three Points and, thus now divided between the modern states of Ghana and Ivory Coast.
It retained the name through French rule and independence in 1960. The name had long since been translated into other languages, which the post-independence government considered troublesome whenever its international dealings extended beyond the Francophone sphere. Therefore, in April 1986, the government declared that Côte d'Ivoire would be its formal name for the purposes of diplomatic protocol, since officially refuses to recognize or accept any translation from French to another language in its international dealings. Despite the Ivorian government's request, the English translation "Ivory Coast" is still used in English by various media outlets and publications; the first human presence in Ivory Coast has been difficult to determine because human remains have not been well preserved in the country's humid climate. However, newly found weapon and tool fragments have been interpreted as a possible indication of a large human presence during the Upper Paleolithic period, or at the minimum, the Neolithic period.
The earliest known inhabitants of Ivory Coast have left traces scattered throughout the territory. Historians believe that they were all either displaced or absorbed by the ancestors of the present indigenous inhabitants, who migrated south into the area before the 16th century; such groups included the Kotrowou, Zéhiri, Ega and Diès. The first recorded history appears in the chronicles of North African traders, from early Roman times, conducted a caravan trade across the Sahara in salt, slaves and other goods; the southern terminals of the trans-Saharan trade routes were located on the edge of the desert, from there supplemental trade extended as far south as the edge of the rain forest. The more important terminals—Djenné, Timbuctu—grew into major commercial centres around which the great Sudanic empires developed. By controlling the trade routes with their powerful military forces, these empires were able
Apollo insurance covers
The Apollo insurance covers are autographed postal covers signed by the astronaut crews prior to their mission. The insurance covers began with Apollo 11 and ended with Apollo 16; the ability of astronauts to obtain much life insurance was limited, so they signed hundreds of postal covers before they left, on the presumption that they would become valuable in the event of their death. The crew would designate a trusted ally with the covers who would have them cancelled at the Kennedy Space Center post office on the day of launch and/or on the day of the lunar landing. Apollo 11 insurance covers fetch the highest prices because it was the first lunar landing mission. There are three varieties of the Apollo 11 covers, four of Apollo 12, two of Apollo 13, two of Apollo 14, one of Apollo 15 and one of Apollo 16; some astronauts left behind single signed covers for their families. The two producers of the mission covers were The Manned Spacecraft Center Stamp Club in Houston, Texas and a friend of the astronauts, Al Bishop.
In the case of the MSCSC Covers, there are many of the exact covers that the stamp collectors obtained through the club. These were crew signed, but many after the mission, which makes them not an insurance cover; the essence of a true Insurance Cover is the fact that it was signed while in quarantine prior to launch and that it was one of those that were left behind for the crew families in the event of disaster. In order to be certain that a cover is a genuine Insurance Cover, it must originate from one of the crew members or their families. Ideally, the reverse of the cover should be certified by one of the crew. Although flown artifacts from the Apollo missions are the most desirable objects for collectors, Insurance Covers have become popular because they display all that a collector would want from a mission. Apollo 15 postal covers incident
Thomas Woodrow Wilson was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States from 1913 to 1921. A member of the Democratic Party, Wilson served as the president of Princeton University and as the 34th governor of New Jersey before winning the 1912 presidential election; as president, he oversaw the passage of progressive legislative policies unparalleled until the New Deal in 1933. He led the United States during World War I, establishing an activist foreign policy known as "Wilsonianism." Born in Staunton, Wilson spent his early years in Augusta and Columbia, South Carolina. After earning a Ph. D. in political science from Johns Hopkins University, Wilson taught at various schools before becoming the president of Princeton. As governor of New Jersey from 1911 to 1913, Wilson broke with party bosses and won the passage of several progressive reforms, his success in New Jersey gave him a national reputation as a progressive reformer, he won the presidential nomination at the 1912 Democratic National Convention.
Wilson defeated incumbent Republican President William Howard Taft and Progressive Party nominee Theodore Roosevelt to win the 1912 presidential election, becoming the first Southerner to serve as president since the American Civil War. During his first term, Wilson presided over the passage of his progressive New Freedom domestic agenda, his first major priority was the passage of the Revenue Act of 1913, which lowered tariffs and implemented a federal income tax. Tax acts implemented a federal estate tax and raised the top income tax rate to 77 percent. Wilson presided over the passage of the Federal Reserve Act, which created a central banking system in the form of the Federal Reserve System. Two major laws, the Federal Trade Commission Act and the Clayton Antitrust Act, were passed to regulate and break up large business interests known as trusts. To the disappointment of his African-American supporters, Wilson allowed some of his Cabinet members to segregate their departments. Upon the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Wilson maintained a policy of neutrality between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers.
He won re-election by a narrow margin in the presidential election of 1916, defeating Republican nominee Charles Evans Hughes. In early 1917, Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war against Germany after Germany implemented a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, Congress complied. Wilson presided over war-time mobilization but devoted much of his efforts to foreign affairs, developing the Fourteen Points as a basis for post-war peace. After Germany signed an armistice in November 1918, Wilson and other Allied leaders took part in the Paris Peace Conference, where Wilson advocated for the establishment of a multilateral organization known as the League of Nations; the League of Nations was incorporated into the Treaty of Versailles and other treaties with the defeated Central Powers, but Wilson was unable to convince the Senate to ratify that treaty or allow the United States to join the League. Wilson suffered a severe stroke in October 1919 and was incapacitated for the remainder of his presidency.
He retired from public office in 1921, died in 1924. Scholars rank Wilson as one of the better U. S. presidents, though he has received strong criticism for his actions regarding racial segregation. Thomas Woodrow Wilson was born to a Scots-Irish family in Staunton, Virginia, on December 28, 1856, he was the third of four children and the first son of Joseph Ruggles Wilson and Jessie Janet Woodrow, who were slaveholders. Wilson's paternal grandparents had immigrated to the United States from Strabane, County Tyrone, Ireland in 1807, settling in Steubenville, Ohio, his grandfather James Wilson published a pro-tariff and anti-slavery newspaper, The Western Herald and Gazette. Wilson's maternal grandfather, Reverend Thomas Wodrow, migrated from Paisley, Scotland to Carlisle, before moving to Chillicothe, Ohio in the late 1830s. Joseph met Jessie while she was attending a girl's academy in Steubenville, the two married on June 7, 1849. Soon after the wedding, Joseph was ordained as a Presbyterian priest and assigned to serve as a pastor in Staunton.
Before he was two years old, Woodrow Wilson and his family moved to Georgia. Wilson's earliest memory was of standing near the front gate of the Augusta parsonage on an autumn day in 1860, when a strange passerby said that Abraham Lincoln had been elected and that a war was coming. By 1861, both of Wilson's parents had come to identify with the Southern United States and they supported the Confederacy during the American Civil War. Wilson's father was one of the founders of the Southern Presbyterian Church in the United States after it split from the Northern Presbyterians in 1861, he became minister of the First Presbyterian Church in Augusta, the family lived there until 1870. After the end of the Civil War, Wilson began attending a nearby school, where classmates included future Supreme Court Justice Joseph Rucker Lamar and future ambassador Pleasant A. Stovall. Though Wilson's parents placed a high value on education, he struggled with reading and writing until the age of thirteen because of developmental dyslexia.
From 1870 to 1874, Wilson lived in Columbia, South Carolina, where his father was a theology professor at the Columbia Theological Seminary. In 1873, Wilson became a communicant member of the Columbia First Presbyterian Church. Wilson attended Davidson College in North Carolina for the 1873–74 school year, but transferred as a freshman to the College of New Jersey, he studied political philosophy and history, joined t
In philately, the term cover pertains to the outside of an envelope or package with an address with postage stamps that have been cancelled and is a term used among stamp and postal history collectors. The term does not include the contents of the letter or package, although they may add interest to the item if still present. Cover collecting plays an important role in postal history as many covers bear stamps and other markings along with names and addresses all of which help to place a cover at a given time and place in history; the term originates from the practice of covering a letter by folding a separate sheet about it to physically protect it and prevent infringement of confidentiality. In the first half of the 19th century it became the fashion to cut the cover into a diamond or lozenge shape; this was the precursor of the version of the envelope known today. Its convenience and popularity led to the lozenge design being adopted for the special pre-paid postage envelopes and covers issued in 1840 after postal reforms were introduced by Rowland Hill and others.
A philatelic cover is an envelope or post card prepared with a stamp and address and sent through the mail delivery system for the purpose of creating a collectible item. There are several different basic categories for covers. Names for cover types is terminology used by collectors of stamps and postal history. There exist a wide variety of covers; the categories begin with the most common types of collectible covers, such as first day covers or first flight covers. Sometimes there will be an area of overlap in the subject of categories. For example, there are First day covers that were sent with mail aboard airplanes on First flight mail runs. Event covers can include, First flights, or other types of covers. A military cover sent to a head of state can be referred to as a Historic cover. A first day cover is an envelope with a postage stamp canceled on its first day of issue; the design or theme of the stamp may be printed on the cover to enhance its appeal to the philatelic community. An event cover notes an anniversary.
Stamp on cover. This is a cover, collected as an example of a given stamp postally used on a cover, however older stamps with recent cancellations are philatelic. A pre-stamped cover is a cover that has an imprinted stamp. First flight covers are those carried on an aircraft authorized by a government or postal administration, for the first time on a particular route. A stampless cover is an envelope or folded outer sheet bearing an address and manuscript or ink-stamped postal markings without prepaid adhesive postage stamps from the period before adhesive postage stamps became available or common in the mid-to-late 19th Century. Military covers can include a wide variety of subjects that may include first flight covers, prisoner of war covers. Mail sent from an Army Post Office or a Navy Post Office are common types of military covers. Railroad covers is mail, processed aboard special rail cars outfitted with an official post office where mail is processed en route to its general destination.
Historical covers are those that have special historical significance above and beyond that of the average collectible cover. These can include mail sent by Presidents or other heads of state. If the historical cover is i.e. to or from a General in an Army the cover can be classified as a military cover. Names for cover categories are used as general reference in philately. If aspects of a cover are referenced in a historical capacity the category of the cover may not be mentioned. Other specialty types of covers include Censored covers along with Blockade mail, Pony Express covers, Prisoner of war covers and Patriotic covers, among others; the availability of the different types of covers varies and is something that adds perspective to the historical and philatelic significance of the cover. For example, First Day covers and First Flight covers are common because the events that inspired the creation of these covers were somewhat common. In other examples, various types of military and historical covers are scarce or rare because the circumstances or events that prompted the creation of these covers were conversely uncommon.
While covers sent in recent decades tend to be common, they can prove to be scarce because the circumstance that created these covers were uncommon, as are the various examples of historical covers i.e. sent by a head of state to another prominent individual. At the same time there exist covers that are quite old but are still common and not difficult to find, as are various types of post cards or commercial covers. Patriot covers are common because the practice of sending these was popular during periods of war. Patriotic cover availability here can vary depending on the country and time period in question. Covers collected for the stamp on cover can vary in availability and depends on the availability of the stamp issue itself along with the demand for the use of a particular denomination; the denomination of a stamp determines the availability of the issue on cover as the use of some higher, denominations was uncommon because of the low demand for a particular postage rate. There are a number of circumstances that can affect the availability of a given cover type and which contribute to a cover's historical and philatelic value.
Airmail Civil War covers Crash cover Disinfected mail Philatelic cover Pris
Discontinued post office
A discontinued post office or DPO is an American postal term for a post office, discontinued. Some are in ghost towns, some victims of consolidation of mail service as small post offices are closed or a city expands; the introduction of Rural Free Delivery, RFD, in 1902 led to the closure of many post offices, which peaked in 1901 at 76,945. In the United States, rural, mail had been picked up in rural areas at small local post offices, home delivery being limited to urban areas until experimentation with rural delivery began in 1890. Covers, letters, wrappers, or postmarks from discontinued post officers are of interest to students of postal history; as one example, in Saguache County, Colorado there are over 50 discontinued post offices. Examples of references from the postal history of Colorado: Bauer, William H.. Colorado Post Offices, 1859-1989: A Comprehensive Listing of Post Offices and Branches, Colorado Railroad Museum, hardcover, 280 pages, ISBN 978-0-918654-42-7 Helbock, Richard W.
A Checklist of Colorado Post Offices 1858-1988 Jarrett, David L. Colorado Territorial and Pre-Territorial Postmarks, Collector Club of Chicago, hardcover Meschter, Daniel Y. Pre-Territorial Colorado Postal History, La Posta Publications, 91 pages Segerstrom, Kenneth Colorado Illustrated Covers La Posta Publications, paperback, 100 pages
First day of issue
A first day of issue cover or first day cover is a postage stamp on a cover, postal card or stamped envelope franked on the first day the issue is authorized for use within the country or territory of the stamp-issuing authority. Sometimes the issue is made from a permanent foreign or overseas office. Covers that are postmarked at sea or their next port of call will carry a Paquebot postmark. There will be a first day of issue postmark a pictorial cancellation, indicating the city and date where the item was first issued, "first day of issue" is used to refer to this postmark. Depending on the policy of the nation issuing the stamp, official first day postmarks may sometimes be applied to covers weeks or months after the date indicated. Postal authorities may hold a first day ceremony to generate publicity for the new issue, with postal officials revealing the stamp, with connected persons in attendance, such as descendants of the person being honored by the stamp; the ceremony may be held in a location that has a special connection with the stamp's subject, such as the birthplace of a social movement, or at a stamp show.
Prior to 1840, postage costs were high and they were paid by the person who received the mail. The cost was measured by how far the letter had to go. Sometimes this amounted to a considerable sum. Sir Rowland Hill calculated that the cost to the Post Office was far less than what some people were paying to send/receive their mail. Hill believed that sending mail should be affordable to all so proposed that postage should be pre-paid, based on the weight rather than the number of sheets and the cost should be drastically reduced. On 10 January 1840 a Uniform 1d postmark was released which allowed a universal penny postage rate, this was a postmark, paid and was applied when the letter was sent, it was decided that an adhesive label should be used to prevent forgeries and mis-use of the postal service and the Penny Black stamp was born. The stamp was covered a letter up to 14 grams in weight, it was released for sale on 6 May 1840 however, several post offices that received the stamps prior to that date released the stamps early.
The City of Bath is known for releasing the stamps on 2 May 1840. Here began the first First Day Covers. Event covers known as commemorative covers, instead of marking the issuance of a stamp, commemorate events. A design on the left side of the envelope explains the anniversary being celebrated. Ideally the stamp or stamps affixed relate to the event. Cancels are obtained either from the location or, in the case of the United States, from the Postal Service's Cancellation Services unit in Kansas City. Philatelic covers are envelope prepared with a stamp and sent through the mail delivery system to create a collectible item. Information about philatelic covers is available online in catalogs and collector websites. Computer vended postage stamps issued by Neopost had first-day-of-issue ceremonies sponsored by the company, not by an official stamp-issuing entity. Personalised postage stamps of different designs are sometimes given first-day-of-issue ceremonies and cancellations by the private designer.
The stamps issued by private local posts can have first days of issue, as can artistamps. The postmark is one of the most important features of a cover. Stamps are cancelled by a postmark, which shows they have been used and can’t be re-used to send a letter. Circular Date Stamps are the'bread-and-butter' postmarks used on everyday mail by Post Office counters across the UK. A CDS postmark is straight forward and only features the town’s name and the date. There is no picture, it you wanted to use a CDS postmark because the town is relevant to the stamp issue, you would have to go to the town’s local Post Office to get it. On a cover, the postmark should link them to the envelope. Postmarks came to the foreground in the early 1960s, when collectors started to demand more interesting cancellations on their first day covers. For the Red Cross issue in 1963, a special Florence Nightingale cover was posted at her birthplace, West Wellow; the Botanical Conference issue of 1964 featured primroses on the stamps, so one clever cover dealer posted his covers at Primrose Valley.
This kind of relevant postmark made a cover worth ten times more than the same cover with a standard postmark issued by the Philatelic Bureau at Edinburgh. In the US, the U. S. Postal Service chooses several, as ` official' first day cities; these have a special connection to the stamp issue being released, these postmarks are the only ones that have the wording:'First Day of Issue' With postmarks becoming more and more important to the covers, pictorial postmarks became popular. Pictorial postmarks are known as Special Handstamps/Postmarks. In 1924 The first commemorative set of stamps for the British Empire Exhibition had both special postmarks and a special slogan, but it was not until the late 1960s/early 1970s that dealers and organisations caught on that you could sponsor/design a connected postmark and it would make an ordinary cover something special; these days anyone can sponsor a postmark. They need to design the postmark, get it approved by Royal Mail and pay a fee; the postmark becomes the property of Royal Mail and anyone is allowed to use it on their covers.
This means other people's postmarks. However, to be an “official” cover, a postmark has to be on the cover produced by the organisation that sponsored the post
Zeppelin mail was mail carried on zeppelins, the German airships that saw civilian use from 1908 to 1939. Every zeppelin flight carried mail, sometimes in large quantities; the first zeppelin to carry mail was LZ 4, in July 1908, followed shortly by LZ 3. The early flights did not use any special markings. By 1911 a number of different postmarks were in use; these were applied on board the zeppelin while in flight, at a small postal station. The zeppelins were taken into military service in 1914, thereafter did not carry civilian mail, although military commanders had special handstamps applied to their mail. In late 1919, LZ 120 Bodensee resumed flights and mail carriage, using postmarks much as before the war, until 1921 when it was given to Italy as a war reparation. LZ 126 carried mail in 1924 before it was delivered to the United States and renamed the Los Angeles; the Los Angeles carried mail between Lakehurst, New Jersey and Mayagüez, Puerto Rico several times. LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin had a celebrated career.
Within weeks of its first flight in September 1928, the Graf Zeppelin carried the first airmail to go directly from Germany to the US and vice versa. Germany issued special 4-mark stamps for the occasion. On the return trip, the zeppelin carried 52,000 postcards and 50,000 letters. In 1929, Graf Zeppelin circled the globe, with stops in Los Angeles. By the time it was taken out of service in June 1937, the zeppelin had made 590 flights, each flight carrying up to 12 tons of mail to and from dozens of countries around the world. Although LZ 129 Hindenburg is most famous for its fiery end, for the 14 months of its existence, it carried considerable amounts of mail overseas, many of those are available today. Most of the 17,609 pieces of mail on the last flight were destroyed in the fire, but a handful were recovered, today are prized crash covers; the LZ 130 Graf Zeppelin II was the last of the zeppelins to carry mail. Zeppelin stamps were issued by a few countries to pay the postage for mail carried on Zeppelin flights during the late 1920s and early 1930s when Zeppelins flew passengers and mail from Germany to other countries and on return flights.
Some stamps were regular issues overprinted. 1930 Graf Zeppelin stamps of the United States LZ 127 Graf Zeppelin Airship Zeppelin Notes References SourcesZeppelinpost Spezial-Katalog eZEP.de — The webportal for Zeppelin mail and airship memorabilia Zeppelin Study Group — Research group for airship memorabilia and Zeppelin mail Zeppelin Post Journal — Quarterly publication for Zeppelin mail and airship memorabilia