Singapore the Republic of Singapore, is an island city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23%; the country is known for its transition from a developing to a developed one in a single generation under the leadership of its founder Lee Kuan Yew. In 1819, Sir Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore as a trading post of the British East India Company. After the company's collapse in 1858, the islands were ceded to the British Raj as a crown colony. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, it gained independence from the British Empire in 1963 by joining Malaysia along with other former British territories, but separated two years over ideological differences, becoming a sovereign nation in 1965.
After early years of turbulence and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global hub for education, finance, human capital, logistics, technology, tourism and transport; the city ranks in numerous international rankings, has been recognised as the most "technology-ready" nation, top International-meetings city, city with "best investment potential", world's smartest city, world's safest country, second-most competitive country, third least-corrupt country, third-largest foreign exchange market, third-largest financial centre, third-largest oil refining and trading centre, fifth-most innovative country, the second-busiest container port. The Economist has ranked Singapore as the most expensive city to live in, since 2013, it is identified as a tax haven. Singapore is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies, one of 11 worldwide. Globally, the Port of Singapore and Changi Airport have held the titles of leading "Maritime Capital" and "Best Airport" for consecutive years, while Singapore Airlines is the 2018 "World's Best Airline".
Singapore ranks 9th on the UN Human Development Index with the 3rd highest GDP per capita. It is placed in key social indicators: education, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety and housing. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied. According to the Democracy Index, the country is described as a "flawed democracy"; the city-state is home to 5.6 million residents, 39% of whom are foreign nationals, including permanent residents. There are four official languages: English, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil, its cultural diversity is reflected in major festivals. Pew Research has found. Multiracialism has been enshrined in its constitution since independence, continues to shape national policies in education, politics, among others. Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government; the People's Action Party has won every election since self-government began in 1959. As one of the five founding members of ASEAN, Singapore is the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council Secretariat, as well as many international conferences and events.
It is a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth of Nations. The English name of Singapore is an anglicisation of the native Malay name for the country, in turn derived from Sanskrit, hence the customary reference to the nation as the Lion City, its inclusion in many of the nation's symbols. However, it is unlikely that lions lived on the island. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name and scholars do not believe that the origin of the name is established; the central island has been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE "island at the end" in Malay. Singapore is referred to as the Garden City for its tree-lined streets and greening efforts since independence, the Little Red Dot for how the island-nation is depicted on many maps of the world and Asia, as a red dot. Singapore is referred to as the "Switzerland of Asia" in 2017 due to its neutrality on international and regional issues; the Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy identified a place called Sabana in the general area in the second century, the earliest written record of Singapore occurs in a Chinese account from the third century, describing the island of Pu Luo Chung.
This was itself a transliteration from the Malay name "Pulau Ujong", or "island at the end". The Nagarakretagama, a Javanese epic poem written in 1365, referred to a settlement on the island called Tumasik. In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama. Although the historicity
Basser College, University of New South Wales
Basser College, University of New South Wales is a residential college at the University of New South Wales in Sydney. Basser College and its two neighbouring Colleges and Phillip Baxter, are collectively known as the Kensington Colleges. Basser College was founded in 1959, ten years after the opening of the University of New South Wales, making it the oldest residential college at the University, it was built to accommodate students from rural areas, enabling them access to the same education as local, metropolitan students. The College is named after Sir Adolph Basser, a Polish entrepreneur and philanthropist who contributed to the cost of the College's construction; the College's foundational structure was designed around two central courtyards: Girls' Quad and Boys' Quad. The names echo the separate living arrangements in the College after female residents were first admitted in the 1960s; the majority of the rooms were divided into alcoves of four, with two front rooms and two back rooms.
The back rooms were larger and allocated to returning residents or'seniors', whilst the front rooms were allocated to first-year residents or'freshers'. These alcoves were thus affectionately dubbed'alcove families', with two males and two females constituting each group. Basser College's original building was the only college on Kensington Campus for which every room had the convenience of a wash basin. Residents stayed in Basser for two or three years before ending their college tenure. A student had to remain at College for two and a half years, to be named Honorary College Valedictorian. Basser College celebrated its 50th anniversary with a'Back to Basser' day at the College in August 2009; the original building was last used in the 2011 Academic year and was handed over to a construction company in December 2011 to be demolished and replaced as part of UNSW's major student accommodation redevelopment. Basser College offers a range of sporting and social activities planned and co-ordinated by a student leadership team.
The leadership team, known as the'House Committee,' consists of: The Social Director, in charge of weekly events and parties. Male and Female Sports Directors, who organise Inter-College Sports Association competitions; the Cultural Director who facilitate the annual play, musical groups and excursions to cultural venues in Sydney. The Arc@UNSW and Communities Director, who co-ordinates and promotes charitable activities as well as functions as the chief external liaison to the UNSW Student Union and Alumni of Basser College; the Operations and Communications Director, charged with the dissemination of college information and maintenance of Student Club operated amenities. Each individual Director is charged with the operation and management of a succinct portfolio of Officers of the House; each Officer is appointed to complete a specific role within the college, i.e. the organisation of the annual Basser College Ball. The House Committee is in turn overseen and directed by the Basser student Executive, consisting of a Treasurer and President.
The Executive works with the Dean of College to ensure that the rules of the College and the responsibilities of each resident are upheld and maintained respectively. The current Basser College House President is William Cook; the current Dean of Basser College is Mr James Hardiman. Basser College hosts an annual'Parent's Weekend' where parents are invited to experience the students' College activities. Basser residents participate in an annual fundraiser event'Spring Fever', a live comedy and musical event designed to raise money for a charity of the student bodies' choosing. Academic support is available to every resident in College by UNSW support staff. Senior College residents can earn the title of'Academic Mentor' on the basis of exemplary academic performance. Academic Mentors are charged with the responsibility of assisting their faculty peers. Three meals per day are provided during session at the nearby Goldstein Dining Hall, shared with the other Kensington Colleges – Philip Baxter and Fig Tree Hall.
Accommodation packages include fortnightly cleaning and WiFi. The redeveloped Basser College opened in Semester 1, 2014, it accommodates 160 students in a mixture of rooms with either en suite or shared bathroom facilities. Basser has expansive study areas as well as a roof top garden; the College will share landscaped garden spaces with Philip Baxter, Goldstein College and the newly established residences Fig Tree Hall and Colombo House. Basser College website
Sir John Philip Baxter, better known as Philip Baxter, was a British chemical engineer. He was the second director of the University of New South Wales from 1953, continuing as vice-chancellor when the position's title was changed in 1955. Under his administration, the university grew from its technical college roots into the "fastest growing and most diversifying tertiary institution in Australia". Philip Baxter College is named in his honour. Baxter was born in Wales, but grew up in England, entering the University of Birmingham at age 16, he joined Imperial Chemical Industries as a chemical engineer, became head of the Central Laboratory of its General Chemicals Division in Widnes, investigating the chemistry of chlorine and fluorine. He was elected to the Widnes Municipal Council in 1939, a seat he held until 1949. During the Second World War he provided James Chadwick with samples of uranium hexafluoride for Tube Alloys, the British wartime nuclear weapons program, established a pilot plant to produce it in Widnes.
In 1944, in response to a request from the Americans for someone with expertise in both uranium chemistry and industrial operations, he went to Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to assist the Manhattan Project. Baxter was recruited by the then-New South Wales University of Technology as a professor of chemical engineering in 1949, he became one of the most prolific public advocates of nuclear power for Australia. He served as chairman of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission from 1957 to 1972 and the International Atomic Energy Agency from 1969 to 1970, he oversaw the construction of the High Flux Australian Reactor at Lucas Heights. He founded the National Institute of Dramatic Art, and, as the chairman of the Sydney Opera House Trust, brought the Sydney Opera House to completion and opening on 20 October 1973. John Philip Baxter was born in Machynlleth in Wales on 7 May 1905, the younger child of John Baxter and his wife Mary Netta née Morton, he had Muriel. His father was a telegraphist with the British Post Office.
The family moved to Hereford in England. At school, he enjoyed playing tennis. Baxter passed the Northern Universities Matriculation examination when he was 14, but found that this was too young to be admitted to a university, he passed it again the following year, passed the University of London Matriculation examination the year after, when he was 16, after which he was permitted to enter the University of Birmingham. He was enrolled in a science course, he earned his Bachelor of Science degree with first class honours in 1925, his Master of Science the following year. His main form of recreation remained tennis. With the help of a £250 per annum James Watt research scholarship, he wrote his 1928 Doctor of Philosophy thesis on "The combustion of carbonic oxide", under the supervision of F. H. Burstall. A recommendation from Burstall helped Baxter secure a research engineer position with Imperial Chemical Industries in Billingham, where a new chemical factory had been established to make sodium hydroxide.
Here he met Lilian May Thatcher. The two became engaged, but before they could marry, Alexander Fleck had Baxter transferred to ICI's new General Chemicals Division in Widnes as head of the Central Laboratory. Baxter and Lilian were married in the register office in Stockton-on-Tees on 17 August 1931. Three years they designed and built their own home in Farnworth, where they lived until 1949, they had four children: Valerie. The Central Laboratory's focus at this time was on the chemistry of fluorine. Electrolysis of salt water produced chlorine and sodium hydroxide, but there was not as much demand for the chlorine, so ICI was eager to create new products using chlorine that it could sell. New products that were created included various solvents, chlorinated rubber, Lindane, an insecticide developed in collaboration with ICI's Agricultural Research Station at Jealott's Hill. Baxter received a number of patents for his work, he became Research Manager of the General Chemicals Division in 1935.
He reorganised the Central Laboratory into seven sections, each with its own Assistant Research Manager, an organisational structure known as "Baxter and the seven dwarves", not considered a success at the time. In addition to his scientific work, Baxter was involved in local politics, he was elected to the Widnes Municipal Council in 1939, a seat he held until 1949. He was leader of the Conservative Party in the Council, chairman of the local party organisation in the Widnes UK Parliament constituency. In 1940, with Britain at war during the Second World War, Baxter was approached by physicist James Chadwick, who asked if he could supply a sample of uranium hexafluoride. Baxter did so on a personal basis. Chadwick came back and asked Baxter if he could supply a much larger amount, about 3 kilograms; this time, Baxter demurred. The production of such a large quantity would require the purchase of additional equipment. ICI's hydrofluoric acid plant would require repairs; the bill for that amount of uranium hexafluoride would therefore come to around £3,000, a sum that he could not spend from research funds.
He would require permission from senior ICI management, who would want to know if it would assist the war effort and whether 3 kg was all that would be required, or if further orders could be expected. Chadwick revealed that this was part of a secret project, codenamed Tube Alloys, the obj
UNSW Faculty of Law
The Faculty of Law of the University of New South Wales is a law school situated in Sydney, Australia. It is regarded as being one of Australia's top law schools. In 2019, QS World University Rankings ranked the UNSW Law Faculty 14th on its list of the best law schools in the world, 3rd in Australia, it is ranked second in Australia according to the ARWU 2017 subject rankings and the 2018 Times Higher Education subject rankings. The Faculty comprises the School of Law and 13 affiliated research and specialist legal centres, including a community legal centre, the Kingsford Legal Centre; the Faculty is co-founder and operator of the Australasian Legal Information Institute, which provides free access to case law and other primary legal resources online. It offers legal education for all career stages: undergraduate law dual degree programs, the Juris Doctor for graduates, postgraduate coursework, postgraduate research, continuing legal education short courses. On 13 July 1964, the University's Council approved the creation of the UNSW Faculty of Law.
On 24 January 1966, the Foundation Chair of Law was created, with the appointee to be the Dean of the Faculty of Law. On 8 September 1969, Wootten was appointed to this position, where, in 1971, he would oversee the first teaching classes in the faculty; the Faculty opened on 1 March 1971 with 219 undergraduate students. Prior to this, only the University of Sydney offered law degrees in New South Wales; the task of establishing the new law school was given to John Halden Wootten QC, a former judge of the Supreme Court of New South Wales, appointed Foundation Dean in 1969. In 1976, the Faculty moved to occupy five floors of the UNSW Library Tower on upper campus. In 2006, the Faculty moved to a new law building on lower campus; the official opening took place on 21 September 2006 by the Chief Justice of Australia Murray Gleeson. A quotation from Hal Wootten, Founding Dean, is set out on a wall of the law building: "a law school should have and communicate to its students a concern for those on whom the law may bear harshly."Currently the Faculty teaches 2,675 students.
In 2019, the QS World University Rankings placed UNSW Law School 14th on its list of the best law schools in the world, in 2016 it was ranked 13th in the world. The law school is ranked second in Australia after the University of Melbourne by the ARWU 2017 subject rankings, second in Australia by the 2018 Times Higher Education subject rankings; the UNSW Law School was noted as one of the primary faculties in helping to place the University 1st in Australia and 33rd in the globe for most millionaires produced. In the 2011, 2012 and 2013 Good Universities Guide, UNSW was the only law school in Australia to receive top ratings across all criteria, which include: teaching quality, generic skills, overall satisfaction, success in obtaining a job. From 2006 to 2009, the Federal Government's assessment of excellence in tertiary education found that the Faculty lead all Australian universities for the quality of learning and teaching in law. Beginning in 2019, UNSW moved to trimesters seeing the teaching year divided into three terms rather than two semesters as previously.
This led to a cut in contact hours with students, criticised as a cost saving measure. Among the Go8 law schools, UNSW Law topped the Quality Indicators for Learning and Teaching 2014 survey and funded by the Australian Government Department of Education and Training, which measured the perspectives of recent students and graduates on experience as students and employment and salary outcomes. UNSW Law achieved the highest percentage in each of these categories, continued to do so as of 2016. In the past three years, five UNSW law graduates have won Rhodes scholarships. In 2018, three UNSW law graduates won New Colombo Plan Scholarships. UNSW law students have achieved success in a number of international advocacy competitions, including: World Champion, World Runner-Up, the Best Speaker in the English speaking rounds in the Jean-Pictet International Humanitarian Law Competition. World Runner-Up and World Quarter-Finalists in the Philip C. Jessup International Law Moot Court Competition. World Champion and Asia-Pacific Round Champion in the Manfred Lachs Space Law International Moot Competition.
World Champion and World Runner-Up in the International Chamber of Commerce International Mediation Competition. Best Claimant and Best Respondent Memorandum in the World in the Willem C. Vis International Commercial Arbitration Moot. Semi-finalists, quarter-finalists, best memorials, best speaker and best prosecution in the International Criminal Court Moot; the Law Faculty is situated in the Law Building on the University's main campus in Kensington, Sydney. The building was designed by Melbourne architects Corbet Lyons. Features of the building include light-filled atria space, open staircases, landscaped courtyards and an agora running up through floors. There are 13 classrooms with 40-plus seats, two Harvard-style lecture rooms with 90 seats and a 350-seat auditorium. Other features include a new Moot student lounge; the Law Library is occupied over two levels. In addition to the main campus in Kensington, the Faculty of Law offers classes, predominantly to those in postgraduate coursework programmes and those in years of law degree programmes, at its CBD Campus located within Sydney's legal and financial district, on levels 6 and 7 of 1 O'Connell Street, Sydney.
The Law Faculty offers both an undergraduate and a graduate law program, namely the combined Bachelor of Law with a Bachelor in another discipline
UNSW Faculty of Engineering
The Faculty of Engineering is a constituent body of the University of New South Wales and was established on 8 May 1950. It is the largest engineering faculty in Australia, offering the widest range of engineering programmes; the Faculty comprises nine schools: UNSW Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering UNSW School of Chemical Sciences and Engineering UNSW School of Civil & Environmental Engineering UNSW School of Computer Science and Engineering UNSW School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications UNSW School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering UNSW School of Mining Engineering UNSW School of Petroleum Engineering UNSW School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering Ranked Number 1 Engineering faculty in Australia - ARWU, 2016. It holds the world record for multi-layer solar cell efficiency, it is one of the leading solar cell research centres in the world with ongoing active research in the area of wafer-based solar cell technologies, thin film cell technologies and advanced third-generation cell concepts.
23% of "Australia's Top 100 Most Influential Engineers" as listed by Engineers Australia graduated from UNSW, the highest percentage for any university. In the top 5 universities in Australia for the proportion of graduates who were employed full-time four months after completing their course - Quality Indicators for Learning and Teaching Results MyUniversity is an Australian Government website providing information about Australian universities; as data is collected from different sources, percentages may collate to over 100%. Information is provided university wide, on select disciplines. Results for all Engineering disciplines are listed below. Aerospace Engineering Students 97.7% of students have a positive outcome: 89.9% full-time job rate 7.8% of students go onto further full-time study 7.8% Attrition Rate Computing and Information Systems 100% of students have a positive outcome: 93.5% full-time job rate 7.8% of students go onto further full-time study 8.6% Attrition Rate Civil Engineering Students 100% of students have a positive outcome: 94.9% full-time job rate 9.1% of students go onto further full-time study 5.2% Attrition Rate Electrical and Electronic Engineering students 100% of students have a positive outcome: 92.4% full-time job rate 10.6% of students go onto further full-time study 5.0% Attrition Rate Mechanical Engineering student 100% of students have a positive outcome: 90.1% full-time job rate 13.1% of students go onto further full-time study 6.7% Attrition Rate Students of the faculty are involved in a number of high-profile projects: Sunswift Solar Car.
Formula SAE-A Racing Car BLUEsat Satellite. Ori Allon, Computer Science and Engineering PhD - Orion Search Engine.
University of New South Wales Asia
The University of New South Wales Asia was the first international university campus for the University of New South Wales in Singapore which opened on 12 March 2007. UNSW Asia was the first foreign university and fifth university in Singapore. On 23 May 2007, UNSW Asia Singapore campus announced its planned closure on 28 June 2007, at the end of the first semester due to financial issues and lower than expected student numbers; as a result of the sudden closure, rifts within the UNSW management were publicised, accusations were exchanged between the University and the Economic Development Board. Questions were raised over the Economic Development Board's role in bringing in over-ambitious business plans; the Singapore government's total loans to the university amounting to S$32 million was revealed. The University is expected to repay all loans, will have to restore the land for its campus to its original state incurring further costs. UNSW announced its closure on 23 May 2007, it was reported that the closure was due to its low student enrolment, causing the school to run into financial problems.
The closure came despite the fact that UNSW had invested over S$22 million in its Singapore campus. Students who were enrolled at UNSW Asia were offered a place in an equivalent programme at UNSW Sydney; the students of the university petitioned against the closure of the Singapore campus. Together with the petition, they are asked for the S$140 million campus project at Changi to be abandoned to cut costs, they added. Some said they did not mind paying their tuition fees in full to help the situation at the loss making campus; the petition was sent to the UNSW management in Sydney as well as the Ministry of Education and the Economic Development Board. Students felt the university should be given a chance and the university had a lot of potential in Singapore as well as being a force in the Asian education system. Local universities said. Scholarships were given to students to study in the UNSW Sydney campus with S$12,000 given to foreign students and S$22,000 to local students; as a full university, UNSW Asia was to be an English-medium institution offering undergraduate and research programs across multiple disciplines grouped into the two clusters, namely science and health.
Six bachelor's degree programs were to be offered for undergraduates, namely those in science, commerce, international studies and media, were to have corresponding honours courses. Undergraduates were to be able to pursue a single major or a double major program, which includes Science/Commerce, Science/Media, Science/International Studies, Commerce/International Studies, Commerce/Media, International Studies/Media, Engineering/Commerce and Engineering/International Studies. Other programs could have been added by the university in due course, such as those in medical sciences and health administration. Emphasis was to be made on research work with the establishment of research centres, would have involved research programs funded and conducted by members of both the Asian and Australian campuses. UNSW Asia was to specialise in research relevant to the Asian region and work with research and industry trends in Singapore. All degrees conferred by UNSW Asia were to be awarded by the University of New South Wales, all academic programs of the Asian campus will be governed and treated on equal standing with those in the Australian campuses under the UNSW Council.
UNSW Asia aimed to establish a high international profile by allocating at least 70% of its intake to non-Singaporeans. Applications open in January 2006 for the pioneering batch of about 500 to 600 students, UNSW Asia began classes in March 2007. However, only 148 students were enrolled successfully. Prior to that, the university commenced a 40-week Foundation Studies program in January 2006 as an independent pre-university course for prospective students, including a course in the English language. Open to both Singaporeans and international students - though Singaporeans have to be above 18 and males need to complete National Service before enrolling, it offered courses in commerce and the physical sciences. Singaporean Students needed to have an aggregate score of below 20 for GCE'O' Levels and a minimum of C6 for English Language. Successful completion of the course would guarantee a place in UNSW Asia, although they may apply to enter the Australian campuses; the university expected to have a full student population of about 15,000 after 15 to 20 years.
A site in Changi was allocated for the building of the university's permanent campus. The only university to be sited in the eastern part of Singapore, it is located between Upper Changi Road East and Changi South Avenue 1, sited next to the Changi Business Park and about 400 metres away from the Expo MRT Station; the Campus can be seen on Google Maps below in the External Links. An international design competition was held to design the campus masterplan and the library building, with acclaimed Singapore-based Kerry Hill Architects winning the competition in an announcement on 28 June 2005. Other finalists in the competition were Singapore-based WOHA, three Australia-Singapore partnerships of FJMT/Architects 61. Construction of the campus began in 2006, the first buildings were scheduled be ready for occupation in late 2008, including the library, science/engineering building, academic/administrative building, teaching suites, research laboratories and sports facilities
UNSW Faculty of Built Environment
The Built Environment is a constituent body of the University of New South Wales, Australia. The school of architecture was one of the founding schools of UNSW; the Faculty of Architecture was established in 1950 and was one of the first three faculties of the university. In 1993 the name of the faculty was changed to the Faculty of the Built Environment; the faculty is headquartered in the Red Centre on the Kensington Campus 5 kilometres from Sydney's CBD. According to the QS World University Rankings 2016, Architecture and Built environment at UNSW is ranked number 19 worldwide and number 3 in Australia after the University of Sydney and Melbourne University ranked 17 and 18 respectively. Australian Institute of Architects 2015 National President and 2009 Australian Institute of Architects Gold Medal Ken Maher Australian Institute of Architects award-winner Andrew Benn Robin Boyd Award and Wilkinson Award-winner Alexander Tzannes Australian Institute of Architects Gold Medalist 2008 Richard Johnson AO MBE UNSW Faculty of the Built Environment website