English College, Valladolid
It was founded with the permission of King Philip II of Spain by the English priest Robert Persons in 1589, during the English Reformation. Today, men of varying ages and backgrounds spend a year in Valladolid, to discern their vocation. They are exposed to spiritual and human formation, which roots their faith in Jesus Christ, the image of Our Lady venerated in the College Chapel is that of La Vulnerata, or The Wounded One. Some of the English troops started a riot and dragged a statue of the Virgin Mother and they cut off both arms, and all that remained of the child were parts of his tiny feet on his mother’s knee. The mutilated statue was taken to Madrid, and given a place of honour in a chapel of a Countess. The priests and seminarians of the English College in Valladolid asked the Countess if they might make reparation for the behaviour of their countrymen who had desecrated the statue. She agreed and the statue was brought to Valladolid and installed with great solemnity in the College Chapel in 1600.
Every year during Holy Week the statue is processed along the street, where it is met by a huge paso or float, the two images meet, and dance to each other for a brief period—then the Vulnerata comes back to the College. English College, Douai English College, Rome Official website
Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI, born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini, reigned as Pope from 21 June 1963 to his death in 1978. Montini served in the Vaticans Secretariat of State from 1922 to 1954, Montini became the Secretary of the Italian Bishops Conference. John XXIII elevated him to the College of Cardinals in 1958, upon his election to the papacy, Montini took the name Paul VI. He re-convened the Second Vatican Council, which was closed with the death of John XXIII. The magnitude and depth of the reforms affecting all fields of Church life during his pontificate exceeded similar reform policies of his predecessors and successors, Paul VI was a Marian devotee, speaking repeatedly to Marian congresses and mariological meetings, visiting Marian shrines and issuing three Marian encyclicals. Following his famous predecessor Saint Ambrose of Milan, he named Mary as the Mother of the Church during the Second Vatican Council, Paul VI sought dialogue with the world, with other Christians, other religions, and atheists, excluding nobody.
He saw himself as a servant for a suffering humanity and demanded significant changes of the rich in North America. His positions on birth control, promulgated most famously in the 1968 encyclical Humanae vitae, Pope Benedict XVI declared that the late pontiff lived a life of heroic virtue and conferred the title of Venerable upon him. Pope Francis beatified him on 19 October 2014 after the recognition of a miracle attributed to his intercession and his liturgical feast is celebrated on the date of his birth on 26 September. Giovanni Battista Montini was born in the village of Concesio, in the province of Brescia and his father Giorgio Montini was a lawyer, director of the Catholic Action and member of the Italian Parliament. His mother was Giudetta Alghisi, from a family of rural nobility and he had two brothers, Francesco Montini, who became a physician, and Lodovico Montini, who became a lawyer and politician. On 30 September 1897, he was baptized in the name of Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini and he attended Cesare Arici, a school run by the Jesuits, and in 1916, he received a diploma from Arnaldo da Brescia, a public school in Brescia.
His education was interrupted by bouts of illness. In 1916, he entered the seminary to become a Roman Catholic priest and he was ordained priest on 29 May 1920 in Brescia and celebrated his first Holy Mass in Brescia in the Basilica of Santa Maria delle Grazie. Montini concluded his studies in Milan with a doctorate in Canon Law in the same year, afterwards he studied at the Gregorian University, the University of Rome La Sapienza and, at the request of Giuseppe Pizzardo at the Accademia dei Nobili Ecclesiastici. Consequently, he spent not a day as a parish priest, in 1925 he helped found the publishing house Morcelliana in Brescia, focused on promoting a Christian inspired culture. Montini had just one posting in the service of the Holy See as Secretary in office of the papal nuncio to Poland in 1923. Of the nationalism he experienced there he worte, This form of nationalism treats foreigners as enemies, one seeks the expansion of ones own country at the expense of the immediate neighbours
Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus Latin, Societas Iesu, S. J. SJ or SI) is a religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in Spain. The society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations on six continents, Jesuits work in education, intellectual research, and cultural pursuits. Jesuits give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, and promote social justice, Ignatius of Loyola founded the society after being wounded in battle and experiencing a religious conversion. He composed the Spiritual Exercises to help others follow the teachings of Jesus Christ, ignatiuss plan of the orders organization was approved by Pope Paul III in 1540 by a bull containing the Formula of the Institute. Ignatius was a nobleman who had a background, and the members of the society were supposed to accept orders anywhere in the world. The Society participated in the Counter-Reformation and, later, in the implementation of the Second Vatican Council, the Society of Jesus is consecrated under the patronage of Madonna Della Strada, a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and it is led by a Superior General.
The Society of Jesus on October 3,2016 announced that Superior General Adolfo Nicolás resignation was officially accepted, on October 14, the 36th General Congregation of the Society of Jesus elected Father Arturo Sosa as its thirty-first Superior General. The headquarters of the society, its General Curia, is in Rome, the historic curia of St. Ignatius is now part of the Collegio del Gesù attached to the Church of the Gesù, the Jesuit Mother Church. In 2013, Jorge Mario Bergoglio became the first Jesuit Pope, the Jesuits today form the largest single religious order of priests and brothers in the Catholic Church. As of 1 January 2015, Jesuits numbered 16,740,11,986 clerics regular,2,733 scholastics,1,268 brothers and 753 novices. In 2012, Mark Raper S. J. wrote, Our numbers have been in decline for the last 40 years—from over 30,000 in the 1960s to fewer than 18,000 today. The steep declines in Europe and North America and consistent decline in Latin America have not been offset by the significant increase in South Asia, the Society is divided into 83 Provinces with six Independent Regions and ten Dependent Regions.
On 1 January 2007, members served in 112 nations on six continents with the largest number in India and their average age was 57.3 years,63.4 years for priests,29.9 years for scholastics, and 65.5 years for brothers. The current Superior General of the Jesuits is Arturo Sosa, the Society is characterized by its ministries in the fields of missionary work, human rights, social justice and, most notably, higher education. It operates colleges and universities in countries around the world and is particularly active in the Philippines. In the United States it maintains 28 colleges and universities and 58 high schools and he ensured that his formula was contained in two papal bulls signed by Pope Paul III in 1540 and by Pope Julius III in 1550. The formula expressed the nature, community life and apostolate of the new religious order, the meeting is now commemorated in the Martyrium of Saint Denis, Montmartre
The court has a complicated building history stretching from the mid-16th century to the early 20th century. It is a Grade I listed building, the court was originally constructed by the Morgan family in 1559, although earlier medieval elements were incorporated. It was embellished and extended by the Arnolds, Members of Parliament for. The north front is of two storeys and six bays from the late 17th century, whilst the east front was rebuilt as late as 1905. The interior contains plaster ceilings, fireplaces, the Monmouthshire author and artist, Fred Hando, visited the house in the early 1950s and described it is his book Journeys in Gwent. Hando recorded the seventeenth century decorated plaster ceiling in the great hall, and the fire-back, dated 1694. The grounds and outbuildings are of note, the stable block is a great rarity dating from 1630–40 and largely unaltered. It is a Grade I listed building in its own right, near the lake there is a small brick summerhouse, called the Guardhouse or Garden House, which may originally have been one of a pair completing a walled enclosure around the court.
This has its own Grade II* listed designation, the court is a private house that is occasionally open to the public
Patron saints of places
The idea of assigning a patron saint to a certain locality harks back to the ancient tutelary deities. This is a list of saints of places by nation, region. If a place is not listed here, it may be listed in Patronage of the Blessed Virgin Mary, kingdom of Bosnia – Gregory the Miracle-Worker and Saint Gregory after 1461. Albans – Alban St. Andrews – Andrew St. Brides Wentloog – Brigit of Kildare St. Davids – David St. Helier, Jersey – Helier St. Louis St. With regard to the omnipresence of this belief, the late Martin Lings wrote. Traditionally, it has been understood that the saint of a particular place prays for that places wellbeing and for the health. Here is a partial list of Muslim patron saints, Patron saints of ailments, illness, a Biographical Dictionary of the Saints. Our Sunday Visitors 2012 Catholic Almanac, Michael, ed. Butlers Lives of Patron Saints
Roath is a district and community in the east/north-east of the city of Cardiff, capital of Wales. It lies just east/north east of the city centre, stretching from Adamsdown in the south to Roath Park in the north, Roath contains the Plasnewydd electoral ward. Its main shopping streets are Albany Road, City Road, the area is characterised by its several tree-lined avenues and Victorian era terraced streets. Roath houses a diverse population including a large number of students, being very close to the main university campuses. Parts of Roath are among the most affluent districts of Cardiff and its close proximity to the city centre, its number of local amenities, churches and restaurants and public houses and the famous Roath Park make it a popular area to live. Y Rhath is likely a development of the Brythonic word for ramparts, cognate with the Irish word ráth and this may suggest a pre-existing Iron Age settlement, likely on the site of the old manor house which was surrounded by earthworks and a ditch for centuries.
Alternatively, it could derive from the given to the Roman settlement in Cardiff. Roath Court is a villa on the site of the medieval manor house of Roath. Since 1952 it has been a funeral home and its Georgian portico, designed by Robert Adam in 1766 for Bowood House, was moved there in 1956. Roath contains the Church of Saint Margaret of Antioch, built in 1870 on the site of an earlier Norman chapel and the new Gothic revival church. Designed by Llandaff architect John Prichard on a Greek Cross plan, inside is an opulent mausoleum housing tombs of nine members of the Bute family, including the First Marquess and his wives. The tower of St Margarets was finally completed in 1926, Roath once had a railway station on the South Wales Main Line, but this closed in 1917. The event showcases art, music and literature in a variety of venues including peoples homes and he established the first nonconformist congregation in Cardiff
The town is famous for its proud rugby tradition and is a centre of tinplate production. Llanelli is surrounded by a number of villages and communities in the Llanelli Rural district, some of these communities, especially ones that immediately surround the town, are often unofficially referred to as Llanelli. In many respects, Llanelli represents a continuation of the Newport-Cardiff-Swansea metropolitan belt into the more rural West of Wales, the spelling Llanelly is an anglicised form which was used until 1966, after which it was changed following a local public campaign. This is evident in the name of the historic building. It can lead to confusion with the village and parish, the town lies on the River Lliedi, although much of the river is not visible, especially in the town centre, where the river is underneath the town. Historically a mining town, Llanelli grew significantly in the 18th century and 19th century with the mining of coal and the tinplate industry, many of these industries were served by the Llanelly and Mynydd Mawr Railway which opened in 1803.
Llanelli became such a significant regional producer of tin that it was referred to as Tinopolis by the half of the 19th century. The closure of mines and competition from overseas steel plants meant that Llanelli, like many other towns in southern Wales, saw significant. People from Llanelli are sometimes nicknamed Turks, the origin of this name is uncertain. One theory is that many Turkish sailors once called at the port of Llanelli during their voyages, Llanelli has hosted the National Eisteddfod six times, in 1895,1903,1930,1962,2000 and 2014. In the mid-20th century, Llanelli was the largest town in the world more than half the population spoke a Celtic language. It is ranked the 7th largest urban area in Wales, according to the 2011 UK Census returns,23. 7% of Llanelli town residents could speak the Welsh language. During the 1950s, Trefor and Eileen Beasley campaigned to get Llanelli Rural Council to distribute tax papers in Welsh by refusing to pay taxes until their demand was met, the council reacted by sending in the bailiffs and selling their furniture to recover the money owed.
The Beasleys neighbours bought the furniture and returned it to them, the council finally reversed this policy during the 1960s when they accepted that the Welsh language should be equal with the English language. In 1991 Llanelli was a distinct Travel to Work Area, the area around Llanelli in eastern Carmarthenshire is home to a number of manufacturing companies, many of which service the automotive industry. The Technium Performance Engineering Centre was developed at Llanelli Gate as an incubator for businesses in the automotive, motorsport. The core shopping area has now relocated from the town centre to the Trostre/Pemberton area. Llanelli has a tradition, with the Felinfoel Brewery in Felinfoel
The Welsh people or the Welsh are a nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with and the Welsh language. Prior to the 20th century, large numbers of Welsh people spoke only Welsh, the term Welsh people applies to people from Wales and people of Welsh ancestry perceiving themselves or being perceived as sharing a cultural heritage and shared ancestral origins. Over 300,000 Welsh people live in London, the same etymological origin is shared by the names of various other Celtic or Latin peoples such as the Walloons and the Vlachs, as well as of the Swiss canton of Valais. The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, and Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales and these words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning fellow-countrymen. They thus carry a sense of land of fellow-countrymen, our country, the word came into use as a self-description probably before the 7th century. It is attested in a poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh, until c.1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland.
During their time in Britain, the ancient Romans encountered tribes in present-day Wales that they called the Ordovices, the Demetae, the Silures and the Deceangli. The people of what is now Wales were not distinguished from the rest of the peoples of southern Britain, all were called Britons and spoke the common British language, a Brythonic Celtic tongue. Celtic language and culture seems to have arrived in Britain during the Iron Age, the claim has been made that Indo-European languages may have been introduced to the British Isles as early as the early Neolithic, with Goidelic and Brythonic languages developing indigenously. The genetic evidence in this case would show that the change to Celtic languages in Britain may have occurred as a cultural rather than through migration as was previously supposed. The assumed genetic imprint of Neolithic incomers is seen as a cline, with stronger Neolithic representation in the east of Europe, when the Roman legions departed Britain around 400, a Romano-British culture remained in the areas the Romans had settled, and the pre-Roman cultures in others.
According to Stephen Oppenheimer 96% of lineages in Llangefni in north Wales derive from Iberia, Genetic marker R1b averages from 83–89% amongst the Welsh. The people in what is now Wales continued to speak Brythonic languages with additions from Latin, the surviving poem Y Gododdin is in early Welsh and refers to the Brythonic kingdom of Gododdin with a capital at Din Eidyn and extending from the area of Stirling to the Tyne. John Davies places the change from Brythonic to Welsh between 400 and 700, offas Dyke was erected in the mid-8th century, forming a barrier between Wales and Mercia. The genetic tests suggested that between 50% and 100% of the population of what was to become England was wiped out. In 2001, research for a BBC programme on the Vikings suggested a strong link between the Celts and Basques, dating back tens of thousands of years. The UCL research suggested a migration on a huge scale during the Anglo-Saxon period and it appears England is made up of an ethnic cleansing event from people coming across from the continent after the Romans left, said Dr Mark Thomas, of the Centre for Genetic Anthropology at UCL
Cwmafan, sometimes known as Cwmavon in English, is a large village and community in the Afan valley in Wales, lying within Neath Port Talbot County Borough. It has a population of 5,603, increasing slightly to 5,615 at the 2011 Census. In many ways it is a suburb of the town of Port Talbot which is less than 2 miles to the south. The literal translation of Cwmafan from Welsh to English is Valley of Raspberries, Cwm meaning valley and Afan being raspberries, the village is surrounded by hills, the biggest being Foel Fynyddau which stands 370 m high and lies on the northern edge of the village. West of Foel Fynyddau is Mynydd-y-Gaer, the summit of which is where the community boundaries of Cwmavon, the River Afan runs through the village from North East to South West. The area of Ynysygwas lies to the east of the village, Brynbryddan to the West, the village has an industrial history with metalworking being particularly significant. There were large copper and tin works as well as coal mines close by.
The metal ores, from as far away as Chile, were off-loaded in Port Talbot or Swansea docks, one notable event in the history of the town was in 1985 when the Ynys-y-Gwas bridge suddenly collapsed, cutting off water supply to the residents. A resident of Maesteg, Paul Barry, was enough to escape unharmed from the incident. The village is home to several sporting grounds, the most prominent of these being the Welfare Ground. A second rugby union pitch along with a pitch, tennis courts and bowling green are located at Parc Siencyn Powell. William Abraham, trade unionist and MP, chris Needs is a BBC Radio Wales presenter who grew up in Cwmavon. Ioan Kidd, Welsh-language author born and raised in Cwmafan, joseph John Richards, born between Cwmavon and Aberavon, became famous in the United States as a composer of march tunes and a bandleader. George Thomas, Viscount Tonypandy, was living at 62 Gower Street, age 3, lyn Jones, former Wales international rugby union player, coach of the Ospreys. Rees Richards, a Wales international at rugby union and rugby league was born in Cwmavon, Neath Port Talbot www. geograph. co.
uk, photos of Cwmafan and surrounding area
Rumney is a district and community in the east of the city of Cardiff, Wales. It lies east of the Rhymney River, and is part of Monmouthshire. On 1 April 1938 the Cardiff Extension Act 1937 incorporated it into the county borough of Cardiff and this is a predominantly residential area with a variety of social and private housing. There are many shopping outlets on Newport Road as well as local shops at the top of Rumney Hill and on Wentloog Road, new industrial and business estates have been developed alongside existing ones on Lamby Way providing employment opportunities. The remains of the castle were excavated in the late 70s, schools in the area include Eastern High School and St Illtyds Catholic High School. The area is on Cardiff Bus 44/45 routes between Cardiff central bus station and St Mellons and the 49/50 routes to Llanrumney and it is served by the 30 service to Newport bus station. The electoral ward of lies within the constituency of Cardiff South and Penarth. It is bounded by the wards of Pontprennau & Old St.
Mellons to the north, Trowbridge to the east, Splott to the southwest, Penylan to the west. Www. geograph. co. uk, photos of Rumney and surrounding area, The local Scout Group for Rumney and Llanrumney
John Arnold of Monmouthshire
John Arnold, widely known as John Arnold of Monmouthshire, was a Welsh Protestant politician and Whig MP. He was one of the most prominent people in Monmouthshire in the late 17th century, a stark anti-Papist, he was a notable figure during the Popish plot and the suppression of Catholicism in the country. Arnold represented the constituencies around Monmouth and Southwark in Parliament in the 1680s and 1690s and his strong anti-Papist beliefs and insurgences against Catholic priests made him an unpopular and controversial figure amongst his peers and in his native Monmouthshire. Amongst his associates were Titus Oates and Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, Arnold was born in Southwark, around 1635, the first son of Nicholas Arnold of Llanvihangel Crucorney and the maternal grandson of Sir Edward Moore of Drogheda, County Louth. The Arnold family had their seat in Llanthony Priory by the end of the 16th century but had to lease it to the Hoptons owing to financial difficulties, Llanvihangel Court became the family seat and John succeeded his father in 1665.
Educated in Southwark, he became Sheriff of Monmouthshire in 1669, Arnold was made a deputy lieutenant, captain of the county troops, and Justice of the Peace in 1677 by Henry Somerset, 3rd Marquess of Worcester. Arnold, who was starting to exhibit signs of paranoia, blamed Edward Colman, secretary to the future King James II, in fact Colman, who has been described as the typical courtier and man about town, had no interest in events on the remote Welsh border. On 17 November 1678, Arnold captured Father David Lewis, known as Charles Baker, Father Lewis spent the night in an upper room under John Arnolds roof at Llanvihangel Court. He was taken to Monmouth Gaol and was executed on 27 August 1679 after a trial at Usk and he was a very popular figure locally and his execution caused widespread dismay. In the winter of 1678–9, Arnold was restored to the bench at the request of Worcesters son, amongst those brought to him was Lewis, the Jesuit and the college of Jesuits at the Cwm was attacked.
In the second election of 1679, Arnold stood for Monmouth. The election result was overturned on petition in 1680, and Arnold was seated for Monmouth instead of Lord Herbert and he continued to fight the Catholics and complained in parliament about the Monmouthshire justices failing to enforce the Penal Laws. Arnold fell into disrepute with the Catholic Herberts of Coldbrook around this time, Arnold was responsible for prosecuting and executing Philip Evans on the testimony of three witnesses he found. Although Giles was found guilty and fined £500, some believed that Herbert of Coldbrook was the culprit and he became known to his enemies thereafter as cut-throat Arnold. In November and John Dutton Colt were described by Thomas Bruce as the most noisy, in January 1681, Arnold supported the case for removing the Earl of Halifax and Laurence Hyde from the Kings counsels. At this time he was given an armed guard to protect him during his travels to Oxford against Papist attacks. His sanity was questioned, and it was said he would attack complete strangers in the street.
He was infuriated by the decision to create his arch-enemy Worcester a Duke and he was fined £10,000, an exorbitant figure at that time
Monmouth is a traditional county town in Monmouthshire, Wales. It is situated where the River Monnow meets the River Wye, the town is 30 miles northeast of Cardiff, and 113 miles west of London. It is within the Monmouthshire local authority, and the constituency of Monmouth. According to the 2001 census, its population was 8,877, the town was the site of a small Roman fort and became established after the Normans built a castle here after 1067. Its mediaeval stone gated bridge is the one of its type remaining in Britain. The castle came into the possession of the House of Lancaster, in 1536, it became the county town of Monmouthshire. Monmouth became a tourist centre at the heart of the Wye Valley and it now acts as a shopping and service centre, and as a focus of educational and cultural activities for its surrounding rural area. The name Monmouth is an English contraction of Monnow-mouth, the Welsh name for the river, which may originally have meant fast-flowing, was anglicised as Monnow. The town was known in Welsh as Abermynwy, replaced by Trefynwy by the 1600s.
Excavations undertaken by the Monmouth Archaeological Society on sites along Monnow Street have uncovered a wealth of information about the history of the town. Indeed, the Council for British Archaeology have designated Monmouth as one of the top ten towns in Britain for archaeology, the excavations revealed the remains of a Neolithic crannog. The dwelling was constructed on stilts on an island away from the lake shore in water up to 10 feet deep. Timbers from the structure were dated to 4867 years before present. The first recorded settlement at Monmouth was the small Roman fort of Blestium and this was connected by road to the larger Roman towns at Glevum and Isca Augusta. Archaeologists have found Roman pottery and coins within the town centre. After the end of Roman rule in Britain, the area was at the edge of the Welsh kingdom of Ergyng. The only evidence of continuing settlement at Monmouth is a record of a 7th-century church, at a location within the town. Initially it would have been a motte and bailey castle, rebuilt in stone, and refortified and developed over time