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Philip I, Count of Flanders

Philip of Alsace was count of Flanders from 1168 to 1191. He succeeded his father Thierry of Alsace, his reign began in 1157, while he acted as regent and co-count for his father, away on crusade. He stopped the piracy. Floris was captured in Bruges and remained in prison until 1167, at which point he was being ransomed in exchange for recognition of Flemish suzerainty over Zeeland. By inheritance, Philip recovered for Flanders the territories of Waasland and Quatre-Métiers. In 1159, Philip married Elisabeth of Vermandois known as Isabelle, elder daughter of count Raoul I of Vermandois and Petronilla of Aquitaine; when his brother-in-law died, his wife inherited the county of Vermandois. This pushed Flemish authority further south, to its greatest extent thus far, threatened to alter the balance of power in northern France. Philip governed wisely with the aid of Robert d'Aire, whose role was that of a prime minister, they established Philip's foreign relations were excellent. He mediated in disputes between Louis VII of France and Henry II of England, between Henry II and Thomas Becket, arranged the marriage of his sister Margaret with Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut.

Philip and Elisabeth were childless. In 1175, Philip discovered that Elisabeth was committing adultery and had her lover, Walter de Fontaines, beaten to death. Philip obtained complete control of her lands in Vermandois from King Louis VII of France. Philip's brothers Matthew and Peter of Alsace died, so in 1177, before going on crusade, he designated Margaret and Baldwin as his heirs. In the Holy Land, Philip hoped to take part in a planned invasion of Egypt, for which purpose the crusaders had allied with the Byzantine Empire. A Byzantine fleet of 150 galleys was waiting at Acre. Philip had other plans, however, he and King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem were first cousins, sharing a grandfather, King Fulk, whose daughter from his first marriage, Sibylla of Anjou, was Philip's mother. Baldwin IV was a leper and childless, offered Philip the regency of the Kingdom of Jerusalem as his closest male relative present there. Philip refused both this and the command of the army of the kingdom, saying he was there only as a pilgrim.

Instead Baldwin appointed Raynald of Châtillon, to. As William of Tyre says, "this being the situation, the count at last revealed the secret thought of his mind and did not try to conceal to what end all his plans were." He had come to have his own vassals married to his cousins, Baldwin's sister Sibylla and half-sister Isabella. Sibylla's husband William of Montferrat had just died, leaving her pregnant with the future Baldwin V. William of Tyre, the chief negotiator in this dispute, told the count it would be improper to marry her off again so soon. According to the chronicle of Ernoul, Philip was rebuffed by Raymond III of Tripoli, who claimed the regency, as well as by Raymond's supporters from the Ibelins, who hoped to marry the princesses into their own family. Baldwin of Ibelin insulted the count in public. Philip left Jerusalem in October to campaign in the north for the Principality of Antioch, participating in an unsuccessful siege of Harim before returning home. Meanwhile, the Byzantine alliance against Egypt was abandoned.

In November, Baldwin IV and Raynald defeated Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard. Philip returned from Palestine in 1179, at which point Louis VII, now sick, named him guardian of his young son Philip II. One year Philip of Alsace had his protégé married to his niece, Isabelle of Hainaut, offering the County of Artois and other Flemish territories as dowry, much to the dismay of Baldwin V; when Louis VII died, Philip II began to assert his independence. War broke out in 1180. Picardy and Île-de-France were devastated. King Philip gained the upper hand. Baldwin V, at first allied with his brother-in-law, intervened in 1184 on behalf of his son-in-law, King Philip, in support of his daughter's interests; the dispute between Count Philip and Baldwin was encouraged by King Philip, who went so far as to name Baldwin his representative in negotiations with the Count. Count Philip's wife, died in 1183, prompting King Philip II to seize the province of Vermandois on behalf of Elisabeth's sister, Eleonore.

Philip remarried, to Matilda, daughter of Afonso I, the first King of Portugal. Philip gave Matilda a dower that included a number of major Flemish towns, in an apparent slight to Baldwin V. Fearing that he would be surrounded by the royal domain of France and the County of Hainaut, Count Philip signed a peace treaty with King Philip II and Count Baldwin V on 10 March 1186, recognizing the cession of Vermandois to the king, although he was allowed to retain the title Count of Vermandois for the remainder of his life. In 1190, Philip took the cross for a second time and joined the Flemish contingents which had gone to Palestine. After arriving at the Siege of Acre, he was stricken by the epidemic passing through the crusader camp, died on 1 August 1191, his body was brought back to Flanders by his wife. Philip was buried in Clairvaux Abbey. Since he was unsuccessful in producing an heir with Countess Matilda, he was succeeded by his sister Margaret and his brother-in-law, who thereupon ruled as Baldwin VII of Flanders.

Philip seems to represent the end of one kind of feudal world and the beginning of a new type of sovereignty, put into practice by King Philip: for the first time, a king of France ruled over a count of Flanders. Despite a costly war, the economic expansion of Flanders did not stop, as witn

2002–03 Manchester City F.C. season

The 2002–03 season was Manchester City Football Club's first season back playing in the Premier League again after having been relegated from it at the end of the 2000–01 season. This was the club's sixth season playing in the Premier League since its initial formation as the top tier of English football ten years earlier, with Manchester City as one of its original 22 founding member clubs. Overall, this was Manchester City's 111th season playing in any division of English football, most of which have been spent in the top flight; this season was the team's first one playing in the Premier League under the stewardship of Kevin Keegan who, having taken over the helm as manager from Joe Royle after the club had been relegated to the Football League First Division fifteen months earlier, had led the club to an immediate promotion back to the top flight. In fact, the previous season had seen Manchester City promoted in style, with the team breaking many prior club records as it became the new First Division champions.

This successful campaign allowed Keegan to delve into the transfer market in the summer and he brought in a number of high-profile players - such as striker Nicolas Anelka, defender Sylvain Distin and goalkeeper Peter Schmeichel - in an effort to ensure that the team was strong enough to remain in the Premier League now that it was back there again. By spending the £13m transfer fee required to bring Anelka to Manchester City from Paris Saint-Germain the club broke its previous transfer record. Sylvain Distin transferred over to Manchester City from PSG for £5m, while Peter Schmeichel joined the club on a free transfer from Aston Villa; some of the other players Keegan brought in during the newly introduced summer transfer window were Marc-Vivien Foé, who joined the club on a season-long loan from Lyon, Vicente Matías Vuoso and Mikkel Bischoff. Additionally, Robbie Fowler, David Sommeil and Djamel Belmadi were signed by Keegan a few months during the 2003 January transfer window; the new year would see the man, the main impetus behind the hiring of Kevin Keegan, chairman David Bernstein, fall out with his new hire and leave the club following a boardroom dispute over finances and managerial structure that followed on the back of the previous week's resignation of the club's managing director.

The initial cause of this dispute had occurred back in January concerning the protracted transfer saga of Robbie Fowler. He was succeeded as club chairman by former deputy chairman John Wardle; this season's campaign would see Manchester City win its first Manchester Derby in over 13 years, allowing Peter Schmeichel to establish an exceptional record where he has never been on the losing side in a derby game. During his nine years playing with Manchester United the Reds were unbeaten against Manchester City, while in his single final season playing with the Blues, City won the derby game played at Maine Road and drew the one played at Old Trafford; this was to be Manchester City's last season playing at its historic Maine Road ground before moving to its current home at City of Manchester Stadium. The last game of the season was the last game played at the club's old ground, Marc-Vivien Foé would have the distinction of being recorded in the soccer annals as the player who scored the last goal for Manchester City at Maine Road.

The team kit was produced by Le Coq Sportif and the shirt sponsorship was provided by the financial and legal services group First Advice. Squad at end of season Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Prior to this season, the history of Manchester City's performance in the English football league hierarchy since the creation of the Premier League in 1992 is summarised by the following timeline chart – which commences with the last season of the old Football League First Division. Information current as of 11 May 2003 Manchester City F. C. seasons

Jonathan M. Davis

Jonathan McMillan Davis was an American politician and the 22nd Governor of Kansas. Davis was born in Kansas to Jonathan McMillan and Eve Davis, his education was in the public schools and the University of Kansas and the University of Nebraska–Lincoln. He left college without graduating due to the death of his father, he married Mary "Mollie" Purdom on September 26, 1894 and they had four children. Mollie died in 1926 and he married Mary E. Raymond on December 16, 1931. Davis served in the Kansas House of Representatives from 1905 to 1913. Winning the 1922 gubernatorial race, Davis was sworn into the office on January 8, 1923. During his tenure, taxes were cut and women's suffrage were endorsed, increased funding secured for veteran's pensions, banking procedures were limited, an improved road bill was authorized, utilities were controlled, the chancellor of the University of Kansas was fired. Davis was arrested the day, he was tried twice and acquitted both times. Davis died on June 27, 1943 following a lengthy illness and several repeat visits to a Fort Scott hospital.

He is interred at Bronson Cemetery in Kansas. Jonathan M. Davis at Find a Grave The Political Graveyard National Governors Association Publications concerning Kansas Governor Davis' administration available via the KGI Online Library