Bishop of Lausanne
The Bishop of Lausanne was a Prince-Bishop of the Holy Roman Empire and the Ordinary of the diocese of Lausanne, Switzerland. Bern secularized the bishopric in 1536; the bishop fled into exile, first in Evian, in Burgundy. Today, the Catholic diocese of Fribourg and Geneva has its seat in Fribourg. For the ecclesiastical history, see Lausanne and Geneva bishopric Bubulcus Grammatius Saint Marius Arricus 639-654 Prothasius 652 Chilmegiselus 670 Udalricus 690 Fredarius 814-825 David 827-850 Hartmannus 852-878 Hieronimus 878-892 Boso 892-927 Libo 927-932 Bero 932-947 Magnerius 947-968 Eginolfus 968-985 Henri of Bourgogne 985-1018 Hugues of Bourgogne 1018-1037 Henri II of Lenzbourg 1039-1051/56 Burchard of Oltingen 1056-1089 Lambert of Grandson 1089-1090 Cono of Fenis 1090-1103/07 Giroldus or Gérard of Faucigny 1105-1126/34 Guy of Maligny or of Marlaniaco 1134-1143 Amedeus of Clermont call of Lausanne 1145-1159 Landri of Durnes 1160-1178/79 Roger of Vico-Pisano 1178-1212 Berthold of Neuchâtel 1212-1220 Gérard of Rougemont 1220-1221 Guillaume of Ecublens 1221-1229 Boniface Clutinc 1231-1239 Jean of Cossonay 1240-1273 Guillaume of Champvent 1273-1301 Gérard of Vuippens 1302-1309 Othon of Champvent 1309-1312 Pierre of Oron 1313-1323 Jean de Rossillon 1323-1341 Jean Bertrand 1341-1342 Geoffroi de Vayrols 1342-1347 François Prévost 1347-1354 Aymon de Cossonay 1355-1375 Guy of Prangins 1375-1394 Aymon Séchal administrator, 1394-1394 Guillaume of Menthonay 1394-1406 Guillaume of Challant 1406-1431 Louis of la Palud 1431-1433 Jean of Prangins 1433-1440 Georges of Saluces 1440-1461 Guillaume de Varax 1462-1466 Jean Michel 1466-1468 Barthélémy Chuet, administrator 1469-1472 Giuliano della Rovere, 1472-1473, future pope Julius II, 1503-1513, Benoît of Montferrand 1476-1491 Aymon of Montfalcon 1491-1517 Sébastien of Montfalcon 1517-1536/60 Jean de Watteville 1609-1649 Jost Knab 1652-1658 Henri Fuchs 1658-1662 Jean-Baptiste de Strambino 1662-1684 Pierre de Montenbach 1688-1707 Jacques Duding 1707-1716 Claude-Antoine Duding 1716-1745 Joseph-Hubert de Boccard 1746-1758 Joseph-Nicolas de Montenach 1758-1782 Berndard-Emmanuel de Lenzbourg 1782-1795 Jean-Baptiste d'Odet 1796-1803 Joseph-Antoine Guisolan 1804-1814 Pierre-Tobie Yenni Etienne Marilley Christophore Cosandey Gaspard Mermillod Joseph Déruaz André-Maurice Bovet Placide Colliard Marius Besson François Charrière Pierre Mamie Amédée Grab, O.
S. B. Bernard Genoud Charles Morerod, O. P
Eleanor of Provence
Eleanor of Provence was Queen consort of England, as the spouse of King Henry III of England, from 1236 until his death in 1272. She served as regent of England during the absence of her spouse in 1253. Although she was devoted to her husband, staunchly defended him against the rebel Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester, she was much hated by the Londoners; this was. On one occasion, Eleanor's barge was attacked by angry citizens who pelted her with stones, pieces of paving, rotten eggs and vegetables. Eleanor had at least five children, including the future King Edward I of England, she was renowned for her cleverness, skill at writing poetry, as a leader of fashion. Born in Aix-en-Provence, she was the second daughter of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Provence and Beatrice of Savoy, the daughter of Thomas I of Savoy and his wife Margaret of Geneva, she was well educated as a child, developed a strong love of reading. Her three sisters married kings. After her elder sister Margaret married Louis IX of France, their uncle William corresponded with Henry III of England to persuade him to marry Eleanor.
Henry sought a dowry of up to twenty thousand silver marks to help offset the dowry he had just paid for his sister Isabella, but Eleanor's father was able to negotiate this down to no dowry, just a promise to leave her ten thousand when he died. Like her mother and sisters, Eleanor was renowned for her beauty, she was a dark-haired brunette with fine eyes. Piers Langtoft speaks of her as "The erle's daughter, the fairest may of life". On 22 June 1235, Eleanor was betrothed to King Henry III. Eleanor was born latest in 1223. Eleanor was married to King Henry III of England on 14 January 1236, she had never seen him prior to the wedding at Canterbury Cathedral and had never set foot in his kingdom. Edmund Rich, Archbishop of Canterbury, officiated, she was dressed in a shimmering golden gown that fitted at the waist and flared out to wide pleats at her feet. The sleeves were long and lined with ermine. After riding to London the same day where a procession of citizens greeted the bridal pair, Eleanor was crowned queen consort of England in a ceremony at Westminster Abbey, followed by a magnificent banquet with the entire nobility in full attendance.
Her love for her husband grew from 1236 onward. Eleanor was a loyal and faithful consort to Henry, but she brought in her retinue a large number of uncles and cousins, "the Savoyards", her influence with the King and her unpopularity with the English barons created friction during Henry's reign, her uncle William of Savoy became a close advisor of her husband and displeasing English barons. Though Eleanor and Henry supported different factions at times, she was made regent of England when her husband left for Gascony in 1253. Eleanor was devoted to her husband's cause, stoutly contested Simon de Montfort, raising troops in France for Henry's cause. On 13 July 1263, she was sailing down the Thames. Eleanor stoutly hated the Londoners who returned her hatred. In addition to the queen-gold other such fines were levied on the citizens by the Queen on the thinnest of pretexts. In fear for her life as she was pelted with stones, loose pieces of paving, dried mud, rotten eggs and vegetables, Eleanor was rescued by Thomas Fitzthomas, the Mayor of London, took refuge at the bishop of London's home.
In 1272 Henry died, her son Edward, 33 years old, became Edward I, King of England. She remained in England as queen dowager, raised several of her grandchildren—Edward's son Henry and daughter Eleanor, Beatrice's son John; when her grandson Henry died in her care in 1274, Eleanor went into mourning and gave orders for his heart to be buried at the priory at Guildford which she founded in his memory. In 1275 Eleanor's two remaining daughters died: Beatrice 24 March, she retired to a convent. Eleanor died on 24/25 June 1291 in Amesbury, eight miles north of Salisbury, England, she was buried in Amesbury Abbey. The exact site of her grave at the abbey is unknown making her the only English queen without a marked grave, her heart was taken to London. Eleanor was renowned for her learning and skill at writing poetry, as well as her beauty, she wore parti-coloured cottes, gold or silver girdles into which a dagger was casually thrust, she favoured red silk damask, decorations of gilt quatrefoil, to cover her dark hair she wore jaunty pillbox caps.
Eleanor introduced a new type of wimple to England, high, "into which the head receded until the face seemed like a flower in an enveloping spathe". She had developed a love for the songs of the troubadors as a child, continued this interest, she bought many romantic and historical books, covering stories from ancient times to contemporary romances written in the period. Eleanor is the protagonist of The Queen From Provenc
Rudolf I of Germany
Rudolf I known as Rudolf of Habsburg, was Count of Habsburg from about 1240 and King of Germany from 1273 until his death. Rudolf's election marked the end of the Great Interregnum in the Holy Roman Empire after the death of the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II in 1250. A Swabian count, he was the first Habsburg to acquire the duchies of Austria and Styria in opposition to his mighty rival, the Přemyslid king Ottokar II of Bohemia, whom he defeated in the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld; the territories remained under Habsburg rule for more than 600 years, forming the core of the Habsburg Monarchy and the present-day country of Austria. Rudolf was the first king of the Romans of the Habsburg dynasty, he played a vital role in raising the comital house to the rank of Imperial princes, he was the first of a number of late medieval count-kings, so called by the historian Bernd Schneidmüller, from the rival noble houses of Habsburg and Wittelsbach, all striving after the Roman-German royal dignity, taken over by the Habsburgs in 1438.
Rudolf was born on 1 May 1218 at Limburgh Castle near Sasbach am Kaiserstuhl in the Breisgau region of present-day southwestern Germany. He was the son of Count Albert IV of Habsburg and of Hedwig, daughter of Count Ulrich of Kyburg. Around 1232, he was given as a squire to his uncle, Rudolf I, Count of Laufenburg, to train in knightly pursuits. At his father's death in 1239, he inherited large estates from him around the ancestral seat of Habsburg Castle in the Aargau region of present-day Switzerland as well as in Alsace. Thus, in 1240 in order to quell the rising power of Rudolf and in an attempt to place the important "Devil’s Bridge" across the Schöllenenschlucht under his direct control, Emperor Frederick II, granted Schwyz Reichsfreiheit in the Freibrief von Faenza. In 1242, Hugh of Tuffenstein provoked Count Rudolf through contumelious expressions. In turn, the Count of Habsburg failed to take his seat of power; as the day passed on, Count Rudolf bribed the sentinels of the city and gained entry, killing Hugh in the process.
In 1244, to help control Lake Lucerne and restrict the neighboring forest communities of Uri and Unterwalden, Rudolf built near its shores Neuhabsburg Castle. In 1245 Rudolf married Gertrude, daughter of Count Burkhard III of Hohenberg, he received as her dowry the castles of Oettingen, the valley of Weile, other places in Alsace, he became an important vassal in Swabia, the former Alemannic German stem duchy. That same year, Emperor Frederick II was excommunicated by Pope Innocent IV at the Council of Lyon. Rudolf sided against the Emperor; this gave them a pretext to damage Neuhabsburg. Rudolf defended it and drove them off; as a result, Rudolf, by siding with the Pope, gained influence. Rudolf paid frequent visits to the court of his godfather, the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II, his loyalty to Frederick and his son, King Conrad IV of Germany, was richly rewarded by grants of land. In 1254, he engaged with other nobles of the Staufen party against Bishop of Basle; when night fell, he burnt down the local nunnery.
Pope Innocent IV excommunicated him and all parties involved. As penance, he took up the cross and joined Ottokar II, King of Bohemia in the Prussian Crusade of 1254. Whilst there, he oversaw the founding of the city of Königsberg, named in memory of King Ottokar; the disorder in Germany during the interregnum after the fall of the Hohenstaufen dynasty afforded an opportunity for Count Rudolf to increase his possessions. His wife was a Hohenberg heiress. Successful feuds with the Bishops of Strasbourg and Basel further augmented his wealth and reputation, including rights over various tracts of land that he purchased from abbots and others; these various sources of wealth and influence rendered Rudolf the most powerful prince and noble in southwestern Germany. In the autumn of 1273, the prince-electors met to choose a king after Richard of Cornwall had died in England in April 1272. Rudolf's election in Frankfurt on 1 October 1273, when he was 55 years old, was due to the efforts of his brother-in-law, the Hohenzollern burgrave Frederick III of Nuremberg.
The support of Duke Albert II of Saxony and Elector Palatine Louis II had been purchased by betrothing them to two of Rudolf's daughters. As a result, within the electoral college, King Ottokar II of Bohemia, himself a candidate for the throne and related to the late Hohenstaufen king Philip of Swabia, was alone in opposing Rudolf. Other candidates were Prince Siegfried I of Anhalt and Margrave Frederick I of Meissen, a young grandson of the excommunicated Emperor Frederick II, who did not yet have a principality of his own as his father was still alive. By the admission of Duke Henry XIII of Lower Bavaria instead of the King of Bohemia as the seventh Elector, Rudolf gained all seven votes. Rudolf was crowned in Aachen Cathedral on 24 October 1273. To win the approbation of the Pope, Rudolf renounced all imperial rights in Rome, the papal territory, Sicily, promised to lead a new crusade. Pope Gregory X, despite the protests of Ottokar II of Bohemia, not only recognised Rudolf himself, but persuaded King Alfonso X of Castile, chosen German
Humbert I, Count of Savoy
Humbert I, better known as Humbert the White-Handed or Humbert Whitehand was the founder of the House of Savoy. Of obscure origins, his service to the German emperors Henry II and Conrad II was rewarded with the counties of Maurienne and Aosta and lands in Valais, all at the expense of local bishops and archbishops. Humbert was the son of Amadeus, who may not have preceded him as count of Maurienne, his brother was Bishop Otto of Belley. Humbert is the progenitor of the dynasty known as the House of Savoy; the origins of this dynasty are unknown, but Humbert's ancestors are variously said to have come from Saxony, Burgundy or Provence. Given Humbert's close connections with Rudolf III of Burgundy, it is that his family were Burgundian, were descended either from the dukes of Vienne, or from a Burgundian aristocratic family, it is likely that Humbert was related to Ermengarde of Burgundy, second wife of Rudolf III. Humbert held lands around Belley and in the county of Sermorens, before gaining lands in Aosta and Valais.
After Rudolf III’s death, Humbert I swore fealty to Emperor Conrad II. He supported Conrad II in his campaigns against Odo II, Count of Blois, Aribert, Archbishop of Milan. In return, Conrad II appointed Humbert count of Savoy and granted him Maurienne and Tarentaise; these imperial grants to a loyal supporter secured key passes through the Alps, controlling trade between Italy and Western Europe, which would be the core of Savoy power for centuries. Humbert married Ancelie, she may have been Ancilla of Aoste, the daughter of vir illustris Anselme of Aoste or Ancilla of Lenzburg, the daughter of the master of ceremonies of Burgundy. Alternatively, Ancilla may have been a daughter of Anselm and Aldiud, thus a member of a northern Italian dynasty known as the Anselmids. With his wife, Humbert had at least four sons: Amadeus I, Count of Savoy, successor Aymon, Bishop of Sion Burchard, Archbishop of Lyon Otto, Count of Savoy, successor of his brotherSome authors believe that he had additional sons.
Humbert is said to have died c.1047/8 at Hermillon, a town in the Maurienne region of present-day Savoie, France. More it has been suggested that he died by 1042. Cox, Eugene L.. The Green Count of Savoy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. LCCN 67-11030. C. W. Previté-Orton, The Early History of the House of Savoy, accessible online at: archive.org S. Hellmann, Die Grafen von Savoyen und das Reich: bis zum Ende der staufischen Periode, accessible online at: Genealogie Mittelalter Die Urkunden der burgundischen Rudolfinger, ed. T. Schieffer, MGH DD Burg, accessible online at: Monumenta Germaniae Historia C. Ducourthial, ‘Géographie du pouvoir en pays de Savoie au tournant de l’an Mil,’ in C. Guilleré, J- M. Poisson, L. Ripart and C. Ducourthial, eds. Le royaume de Bourgogne autour de l’an mil, pp. 207–246. Laurent Ripart, Les fondements idéologiques du pouvoir des comtes de la maison de Savoie (de la fin du Xe siècle au début du XIIIe siècle. History of House of Savoy Humbert Weißhand, Graf von Savoyen Humbert Biancamano, Conte di Savoia
Humbert II, Count of Savoy
Umberto II, nicknamed the Fat, was Count of Savoy from 1080 until his death in 1103. He was the son of Amadeus II of Savoy, he was married to Gisela of Burgundy, daughter of William I, Count of Burgundy, had 7 children: Amadeus III of Savoy William, Bishop of Liège Adelaide, married to Louis VI of France Agnes, married to Archimbald VI, lord of Bourbon Umberto Reginald Guy, abbey of Namur
Edward, Count of Savoy
Edward, surnamed the Liberal, was the Count of Savoy from 1323 to 1329. He was the son of Amadeus V, Count of Savoy, his first wife Sybille of Bâgé. Edward was born at Baugé, he was married to Blanche of Burgundy, daughter of Robert II, Duke of Burgundy and Agnes of France, Duchess of Burgundy. They had a daughter, who married John III the Good, duke of Brittany. In 1325, Edward was attacked at Varey by Guigues VIII of Viennois and Amadeus III of Geneva as he was besieging Varey castle. Guigues won the battle and Edward escaped. In 1327, the residents of Maurienne revolted against their bishop-prince; the bishop asked Edward for help, Edward agreed, provided that he gain the administrative control of the diocese. The bishop consented, was restored; that same year, the bishop of Sion refused to pay him homage, the custom since the time of Peter II, Count of Savoy. From on, the bishop and the count paid each other homage on the bridge of Morge. In 1328, he had wooden aqueducts built to bring fresh water directly into the courtyard of the castle at Chambéry.
His death in 1329 was unexpected, left the county to his brother, Aymon. Cox, Eugene L.. The Green Count of Savoy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. LCCN 67-11030
Amadeus V, Count of Savoy
Amadeus V, surnamed the Great for his wisdom and success as a ruler, was the Count of Savoy from 1285 to 1323. He established Chambéry as his seat, he was the son of Thomas II of Beatrice Fieschi. Amadeus began life in the service of King Edward I of England, as a household knight, serving in the First Welsh War of 1277. During the Second Welsh War of 1282 he was in command of Edward’s forces at Chester that relieved the siege of Rhuddlan Castle, his childless paternal uncle, Count of Savoy, Philip I died in 1285. Meanwhile earlier, in 1282, his elder brother Thomas III of Piedmont, had accidentally died in 1282. Philip’s will charged his niece Eleanor of Provence and her son King Edward I of England with the inheritance of Savoy. Amadeus was awarded the County of Savoy, in order to diminish family rivalry his younger brother Louis was awarded the new Barony of Vaud becoming Louis I of Vaud. Through his marriage to Sybilla, Countess of Bugey and Bresse, he was able to incorporate these Burgundian districts into his states.
Expansion saw his dominions further increased. On 1 October 1285, Amadeus was declared protector of Geneva after negotiations with the Bishop of Geneva; the hereditary title belonged to Amadeus II, Count of Geneva, in conflict with the Bishop. In 1287 Amadeus besieged the castle of Ile in the Rhône near Geneva, captured it after fourteen weeks. In 1295, Amadeus acquired the fortress at Chambéry from its previous owner Hugh of La Rochette, he brought Georges de Aquila, a student of Giotto to his court. Georges decorated the castle with paintings, carved wood, frescoes, he worked there for the Savoyards until he died in 1348. Among his successes was the Treaty of Annemasse which the Count of Geneva and the Dauphin of Viennois accepted subservient roles to him as his vassals; the treaty was the result of military victories over the both of them. In 1301, Amadeus settled his dispute over control of Valais with the Roman Catholic Diocese of Sion, his reign, however saw friction between the County of Savoy and the Duchy of Austria.
He pursued an alliance with the Kingdom of France and received Maulévrier in Normandy as a result of initial good relations. The eventual recovery of Lyon by the Kings of France alerted Amadeus to their expansionistic tendencies towards the regions by the Alps, he sought a powerful ally against potential hostility in the German king Henry VII, married to Margaret of Brabant, the sister-in-law of Amadeus. Amadeus accompanied Henry in his Italian campaign of 1310–1313, which culminated in Henry's coronation as Holy Roman Emperor on 29 June 1312; as a reward for his service, AMadeus received the title of Imperial Count, imperial vicar of Lombardy, the lordships of Asti and Ivrea. Henry elevated Aosta and Chablais to duchies, though they remained a part of the realm of Savoy. In 1315, Amadeus assisted the Knights Hospitaller in the defense of Rhodes against the Turks, he first married Sybille de Baugé, daughter of Guy I Damas de Baugé, Baron of Couzan and Dauphine de Lavieu, had eight children by her: Bonne of Savoy, married twice: 1) John I of Viennois, Dauphin of Viennois, 2) Hugh of Burgundy, Lord of Montbauson, the son of Hugh III, Count of Burgundy.
John of Savoy Beatrice of Savoy Edward of Savoy, succeeded his father, married Blanche of Burgundy, daughter of Robert II, Duke of Burgundy. Eleonor of Savoy, married three times: 1) William of Chalon, Count of Auxerre and Tonnerre, 2) Dreux IV of Mello, 3) John I, Count of Forez, her daughter Marguerite de Mello married John II of Chalon-Arlay. Margaret of Savoy, married John I of Montferrat. Agnes of Savoy, married William III of Geneva, their son was Amadeus III of Geneva. Aymon of Savoy, succeeded his brother Edward as Count of Savoy, married Yolande of Montferrat, the daughter of Theodore I, Marquess of Montferrat. In 1297, he married, Marie of Brabant, a daughter of John I, Duke of Brabant and Margaret of Flanders, her maternal grandparents were his first wife, Matilda of Bethune. They had 4 children: Maria of Savoy, married Hugh, Baron of Faucigny, the son of Humbert I of Viennois. Catherine of Savoy, married Leopold I, Duke of Austria and Styria. Anna of Savoy, married Byzantine Emperor, Andronikos III Palaiologos.
Beatrice of Savoy, married, in 1327, Henry VI, Duke of Carinthia. Cox, Eugene L.. The Green Count of Savoy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. LCCN 67-11030. Jobson, Adrian; the First English Revolution: Simon de Montfort, Henry III and the Barons' War. Bloomsbury Academic. Taylor, A. J.. "A Letter of Lewis of Savoy to Edward I". The English Historical Review. Oxford University Press. Vol. 68, No. 266 Jan. His listing in "Medieval lands" by Charles Cawley; the project "involves extracting and analysing detailed information from primary sources, including contemporary chronicles, cartularies and testaments."