Duchy of Pomerania
The Duchy of Pomerania was a duchy in Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, ruled by dukes of the House of Pomerania. During the High Middle Ages, it comprised the northern Neumark and Uckermark areas as well as Circipania. Most of the time, the duchy was ruled by several Griffin dukes in common, after the last Griffin duke had died during the Thirty Years War in 1637, the duchy was partitioned between Brandenburg-Prussia and Sweden. The Kings of Sweden and the Margraves of Brandenburg, Kings of Prussia, the name Pomerania comes from Slavic po more, which means Land by the Sea. In the 12th century, the Holy Roman Empires Duchy of Saxony and Denmark variously conquered Pomerania, the Stolp and Schlawe areas were ruled by Ratibor I and his descendants until the Danish occupation and extinction of the Ratiboride branch in 1227. The areas stretching from Kolberg to Stettin were ruled by Ratibors brother Wartislaw I, the terms of surrender after the Polish conquest were that Wartislaw had to accept Polish sovereignty, convert his people to Christianity, and pay an annual tribute to the Polish duke.
In several expeditions mounted between 1102 and 1121, most of Pomerania had been invaded by the Polish duke Bolesław III Wrymouth, from 1102 to 1109, Boleslaw campaigned in the Netze and Persante area. The Pomeranian residence in Belgard was taken already in 1102, from 1112 to 1116, Boleslaw subdued all of Pomerelia. From 1119 to 1122, the area towards the Oder were subdued, Stettin was taken in the winter of 1121–1122. The conquest resulted in a death toll and devastation of vast areas of Pomerania. Polands influence vanished in the next decade, in 1135, Boleslaw had accepted overlordship of Holy Roman Emperor Lothair III and in turn received his Pomeranian gains as well as the still undefeated Principality of Rügen as a fief. Wartislaw I accepted the Emperor as his overlord, with Boleslaws death in 1138, Polish overlordship ended, triggering competition of the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark for the area. Already in 1120, he had expanded west into the areas near the Oder Lagoon, most notably Demmin, the Principality of Gützkow and Wolgast were conquered in the following years.
The major stage of the expansion into Lutici territory occurred between Otto of Bambergs two missions,1124 and 1128. In 1128, the County of Gützkow and Wolgast were already incorporated into Wartislaw Is realm, captured Lutici and other war loot, including livestock and clothes were apportioned among the victorious. These gains were not subject to Polish over lordship, but were placed under over lordship of Nordmark margrave Albrecht the Bear a dedicated enemy of Slavs, by Lothair III, the western territories contributed to making Wartislaw significantly independent from the Polish dukes. Wartislaw was not the only one campaigning in these areas, the Polish duke Boleslaw III, during his Pomeranian campaign launched an expedition into the Müritz area in 1120–21, before he turned back to subdue Wartislaw. The Holy Roman Emperor Lothair III in 1114 initiated massive campaigns against the local Lutici tribes resulting in their defeat in 1228
A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within these churches, bishops are seen as those who possess the full priesthood, Some Protestant churches including the Lutheran and Methodist churches have bishops serving similar functions as well, though not always understood to be within apostolic succession in the same way. Priests and lay ministers cooperate and assist their bishop in shepherding a flock, the earliest organization of the Church in Jerusalem was, according to most scholars, similar to that of Jewish synagogues, but it had a council or college of ordained presbyters. In, we see a system of government in Jerusalem chaired by James the Just. In, the Apostle Paul ordains presbyters in churches in Anatolia, in Timothy and Titus in the New Testament a more clearly defined episcopate can be seen. We are told that Paul had left Timothy in Ephesus and Titus in Crete to oversee the local church, Paul commands Titus to ordain presbyters/bishops and to exercise general oversight, telling him to rebuke with all authority.
Early sources are unclear but various groups of Christian communities may have had the bishop surrounded by a group or college functioning as leaders of the local churches, eventually, as Christendom grew, bishops no longer directly served individual congregations. Instead, the Metropolitan bishop appointed priests to each congregation. Around the end of the 1st century, the organization became clearer in historical documents. While Ignatius of Antioch offers the earliest clear description of monarchial bishops he is an advocate of monepiscopal structure rather than describing an accepted reality. To the bishops and house churches to which he writes, he offers strategies on how to pressure house churches who dont recognize the bishop into compliance. Other contemporary Christian writers do not describe monarchial bishops, either continuing to equate them with the presbyters or speaking of episkopoi in a city, plainly therefore we ought to regard the bishop as the Lord Himself — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 6,1.
Your godly bishop — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 2,1, therefore as the Lord did nothing without the Father, either by Himself or by the Apostles, so neither do ye anything without the bishop and the presbyters. — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 7,1. Be obedient to the bishop and to one another, as Jesus Christ was to the Father, and as the Apostles were to Christ and to the Father, — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 13,2. Apart from these there is not even the name of a church, — Epistle of Ignatius to the Trallesians 3,1. Follow your bishop, as Jesus Christ followed the Father, and the presbytery as the Apostles, and to the deacons pay respect, as to Gods commandment — Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnans 8,1. He that honoureth the bishop is honoured of God, he that doeth aught without the knowledge of the bishop rendereth service to the devil — Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnans 9,1
Martin Luther, O. S. A. was a German professor of theology, priest, monk and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation. Luther came to reject several teachings and practices of the Roman Catholic Church and he strongly disputed the Catholic view on indulgences as he understood it to be, that freedom from Gods punishment for sin could be purchased with money. Luther proposed a discussion of the practice and efficacy of indulgences in his Ninety-five Theses of 1517. His translation of the Bible into the vernacular made it accessible to the laity. It fostered the development of a version of the German language, added several principles to the art of translation, and influenced the writing of an English translation. His hymns influenced the development of singing in Protestant churches and his marriage to Katharina von Bora, a former nun, set a model for the practice of clerical marriage, allowing Protestant clergy to marry. In two of his works, Luther expressed antagonistic views towards Jews, writing that Jewish homes and synagogues should be destroyed, their money confiscated.
Condemned by virtually every Lutheran denomination, these statements and their influence on antisemitism have contributed to his controversial status, Martin Luther was born to Hans Luder and his wife Margarethe on 10 November 1483 in Eisleben, part of the Holy Roman Empire. He was baptized as a Catholic the next morning on the feast day of St. Martin of Tours and his family moved to Mansfeld in 1484, where his father was a leaseholder of copper mines and smelters and served as one of four citizen representatives on the local council. He had several brothers and sisters, and is known to have close to one of them. Hans Luther was ambitious for himself and his family, and he was determined to see Martin, his eldest son, become a lawyer. He sent Martin to Latin schools in Mansfeld, Magdeburg in 1497, where he attended a school operated by a lay group called the Brethren of the Common Life, the three schools focused on the so-called trivium, grammar and logic. Luther compared his education there to purgatory and hell, in 1501, at the age of 19, he entered the University of Erfurt, which he described as a beerhouse and whorehouse.
He was made to wake at four every morning for what has been described as a day of rote learning and he received his masters degree in 1505. In accordance with his fathers wishes, Luther enrolled in law school at the university that year but dropped out almost immediately. Luther sought assurances about life and was drawn to theology and philosophy, expressing particular interest in Aristotle, William of Ockham, philosophy proved to be unsatisfying, offering assurance about the use of reason but none about loving God, which to Luther was more important. Reason could not lead men to God, he felt, for Luther, reason could be used to question men and institutions, but not God. Human beings could learn about God only through divine revelation, he believed and he attributed his decision to an event, on 2 July 1505, he was returning to university on horseback after a trip home
John George, Elector of Brandenburg
John George of Brandenburg was a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg and a Duke of Prussia. A member of the House of Hohenzollern, he was the son of Joachim II Hector, Elector of Brandenburg, and his first wife Magdalena of Saxony. Faced with large debts accumulated during the reign of his father, though a staunch Lutheran opposed to the rise of Calvinism, he permitted the admission of Calvinist refugees from the wars in the Spanish Netherlands and France. He was succeeded by his son Joachim Frederick, upon the death of his kinsman Albert I, Duke of Prussia in 1568, the Duchy of Prussia was inherited by the latters underage son Albert Frederick. John Georges father was a co-inheritor of the Duchy of Prussia, in 1577 the Brandenburg electors became co-regent with Duke Albert Frederick of Prussia. John George was married three times and his first wife was Princess Sophie of Legnica, whom he married in 1545. They had one child together, Joachim Frederick Secondly, he married Margravine Sabina of Brandenburg-Ansbach, daughter of George, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, in 1548
Stargard is a city in northwestern Poland, with a population of 71,017. Situated on the Ina River it is the capital of Stargard County and since 1999 has been in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship, before World War II the town was in Prussia, Germany. The citys name is of Pomeranian origin and stands for old town/city and its one of the biggest towns of Szczecin agglomeration. Stargard is a railroad junction, where the southwards connection from Szczecin splits into two directions - one towards Poznań and the other towards Gdańsk. There is another line to Pyrzyce from the town. Until December 31,2015, the town was known as Stargard Szczeciński, which was first mentioned in around 1140, received Magdeburg city rights in 1243 from Barnim I, Duke of Pomerania. The name itself is a combination of two Slavic words and gard, in this connotation, the term gard is still being used by the only surviving Pomeranian language speakers, the Kashubs. However, some say that the name is of Scandinavian origin, starn.
It was one of the most important towns in Duchy of Pomerania, in 1363 the city joined the Hanseatic League and was strongly fortified. During the 15th century the Pomeranian dukes chose it as their residence, during the Thirty Years War the city burnt down and in the 1648 Peace of Westphalia it was incorporated, together with the rest of Further Pomerania, into Brandenburg-Prussia. In 1701 Stargard became part of the Kingdom of Prussia and in 1818, after the Napoleonic Wars, as a result of the unification of Germany in 1871 the city became part of the German Empire. On 1 April 1901 it became an independent city, separate from the Saatzig District, during World War II the large prisoner-of-war camp Stalag II-D was located near Stargard. There were Kashubs and thousands of Canadians captured at Dieppe imprisoned there, one of whom was Gerald MacIntosh Johnston, a Canadian actor, after World War II the region was placed under Polish administration by the Potsdam Agreement under territorial changes demanded by the Soviet Union.
Most Germans fled or were expelled and were replaced with Poles expelled from the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union, in 2004 a north-western part of the town was made into an industrial park - Stargardzki Park Przemysłowy. Another industrial park is located in the south - Park Przemysłowy Wysokich Technologii, on January 1,2016, the town was renamed Stargard. Heavy bombing during World War II devastated most of Stargards fine historical sites, some of these monuments, such as St. Mary’s Church and the 16th-century town hall, have been rebuilt. The newly restored buildings are on the European Route of Brick Gothic. Some of the surviving examples include, St. Marys Church - one of the largest brick churches in Europe St. Johns Church Medieval fortifications - ramparts, gates
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther, a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian. Luthers efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation in the German-speaking territories of the Holy Roman Empire. Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone and this is in contrast to the belief of the Catholic Church, defined at the Council of Trent, concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition. In addition, Lutheranism accepts the teachings of the first seven ecumenical councils of the undivided Christian Church, unlike Calvinism, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lords Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, the purpose of Gods Law, the grace, the concept of perseverance of the saints.
Today, Lutheranism is one of the largest denominations of Protestantism, with approximately 80 million adherents, it constitutes the third most common Protestant denomination after historically Pentecostal denominations and Anglicanism. The Lutheran World Federation, the largest communion of Lutheran churches, Other Lutheran organizations include the International Lutheran Council and the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference, as well as independent churches. The name Lutheran originated as a term used against Luther by German Scholastic theologian Dr. Johann Maier von Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519. Eck and other Catholics followed the practice of naming a heresy after its leader. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term Evangelical, which was derived from euangelion, the followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition began to use that term. To distinguish the two groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed.
As time passed by, the word Evangelical was dropped, Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Philippists and Calvinists. In 1597, theologians in Wittenberg defined the title Lutheran as referring to the true church, Lutheranism has its roots in the work of Martin Luther, who sought to reform the Western Church to what he considered a more biblical foundation. Lutheranism spread through all of Scandinavia during the 16th century, as the monarch of Denmark–Norway, through Baltic-German and Swedish rule, Lutheranism spread into Estonia and Latvia. Since 1520, regular Lutheran services have been held in Copenhagen, under the reign of Frederick I, Denmark-Norway remained officially Catholic. Although Frederick initially pledged to persecute Lutherans, he adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers. During Fredericks reign, Lutheranism made significant inroads in Denmark, at an open meeting in Copenhagen attended by the king in 1536, the people shouted, We will stand by the holy Gospel, and do not want such bishops anymore.
Fredericks son Christian was openly Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his fathers death, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in 1537 he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark-Norway
The Peene is a river in Germany. The Westpeene, with Ostpeene as its tributary, and Kleine Peene/Teterower Peene flow into Kummerower See. From Kommerower See, inclusively, to the mouth, the ground of the water is five feet and this makes water level and flows liable to the water level of Baltic Sea and Oder, including reverse flows. The Peene Valley is one of the largest contiguous fen regions in central Europe, thanks to its wilderness and intact nature, the river Peene and its valley is sometimes superstitiously referred to as the Amazon of the North. The western branch of the Oder River, which separates the island of Usedom from the German mainland, is called Peene. It is one of three connecting the Oder Lagoon with the Bay of Pomerania of the Baltic Sea. Major towns at the Peene river are Malchin, Demmin, media related to Peene at Wikimedia Commons www. peenetal-landschaft. de - Association for natural protection of the Peene river valley
The Uecker or Ucker is a river in the northeastern German states of Brandenburg, where it is known as the Ucker, and of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Its source lies in the Uckermark district, near the village Alt-Temmen and it flows north through Lake Oberuckersee, Lake Mollensee and Lake Unteruckersee, where the old town of Prenzlau stands. Near the small village of Nieden the Ucker changes its name to Uecker and it flows further north through the towns of Pasewalk and Torgelow, and passes Eggesin on the left site. Here the river Randow flows into the Uecker, in Ueckermünde, the Uecker flows into the Szczecin Lagoon, which connects with the Baltic Sea through the three straits Peenestrom, Świna and Dziwna. The name Uecker originated in the Polabian word vikru/vikrus, meaning fast or quick, the Uecker gave its name to the Uckermark historical region and to the two districts Uckermark and Uecker-Randow. Handbuch der historischen Stätten Deutschlands, Band 10, Berlin und Brandenburg, słowianie zachodni, z dziejów tworzenia się średniowiecznej Europy
Protestantism is a form of Christianity which originated with the Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. It is one of the three divisions of Christendom, together with Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. The term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks from or attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Protestants reject the notion of papal supremacy and deny the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist. The Five solae summarize the reformers basic differences in theological beliefs, in the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, the Baltic states, and Iceland. Reformed churches were founded in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by such reformers as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, the political separation of the Church of England from Rome under King Henry VIII brought England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement.
Protestants developed their own culture, which made major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, some Protestant denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of families, Anglicanism, Baptist churches, Reformed churches, Methodism. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, and constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier. During the Reformation, the term was used outside of the German politics. The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was more widely used for those involved in the religious movement. Nowadays, this word is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and Calvinist traditions in Europe, above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the EKD.
In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Lutheran or a Calvinist, the German word evangelisch means Protestant, and is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical usually refers to Evangelical Protestant churches, and it traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, and was brought to the United States. Protestantism as a term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i. e. Roman Catholicism. Initially, Protestant became a term to mean any adherent to the Reformation movement in Germany and was taken up by Lutherans. Even though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or Evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ and Swiss Protestants preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists
John Frederick I, Elector of Saxony
Johann Frederick I, called Johann the Magnanimous, or St. Johann the Steadfast, was Elector of Saxony and Head of the Protestant Confederation of Germany, Champion of the Reformation. Johann Frederick was the eldest son of Elector Johann by his first wife and his mother died fourteen days after his birth, on 12 July 1503. He received his education from George Spalatin, whom he highly esteemed during his whole life, Spalatin was Martin Luthers friend and advisor and thus, through Spalatins schooling, Johann developed a devotion to the teachings of Martin Luther. His knowledge of history was comprehensive, and his library, which extended over all sciences, was one of the largest in Germany, with vivid interest he observed the development of the reformatory movement. He eagerly read Luthers writings, urged the printing of the first complete edition of his works, at the Elector castle at Torgau, he constructed a chapel specifically designed to be a Lutheran place of worship and invited Martin Luther to deliver the inaugural sermon.
His father introduced him into the political and diplomatic affairs of the time and he took an active part in the disturbances caused by the Pack affair, and Luther was grateful to him for his exertions, in spite of his youth, for the maintenance of peace. During the second diet of Speyer he temporarily assumed the reins of government in place of his father and he accompanied the latter to the Diet of Augsburg in 1530, signed with him the Augsburg Confession and was active in the proceedings. His attitude did not remain unnoticed, and won him the emperors dislike, in 1532, Johann Frederick succeeded his father as elector. In the beginning he reigned with his half-brother, John Ernest and he consolidated the Lutheran State Church by the institution of an electoral consistory and renewed the church visitation. At the Diet of Schmalkalden in 1537 the council was refused, and the elector treated the papal legate with open disregard and rejected the propositions of Dr. Held and his attitude became more and more stubborn and regardless of consequences, not to the advantage of the Protestant cause.
In 1542 he expelled Duke Henry of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from his country to protect the Evangelical cities Goslar and Brunswick, New war-like entanglements hindered Charles V from interfering and by apparently yielding he succeeded in concealing his true intentions. The elector appeared personally at the diet of Speyer in 1544, the harmony of the emperor with the Evangelicals appeared never greater than at that time. John Frederick actually thought that peace had come and continued the reforms in his country. Even the growing discord among the allies did not disturb him, when the Schmalkaldic War broke out in 1546, he marched to the south at the head of his troops, but the unexpected invasion of his country by his cousin Duke Maurice compelled him to return. He succeeded in reconquering the larger part of his possessions and repelling Maurice, the Battle of Mühlberg,24 April 1547, went against him and dispersed his army. He received a wound to the left side of his face. He was taken prisoner by Charles V and sent into exile in Worms and he was never greater and more magnanimous than in the days of his captivity, as is evident from the correspondence with his children, his wife, and his councilors.
Friends and foes were compelled to acknowledge his calm behavior, his unwavering faith, though offered several opportunities to be set free, if he would but compromise his faith and convictions, he steadfastly refused, and urged his sons to remain strong and faithful