SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Philip II of Spain

Philip II of Spain was King of Spain, King of Portugal, King of Naples and Sicily, jure uxoris King of England and Ireland. He was Duke of Milan, from 1555, lord of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands; the son of Holy Roman Emperor and King of the Spanish kingdoms Charles V and Isabella of Portugal, Philip was called "Felipe el Prudente" in the Spanish kingdoms. During his reign, the Spanish kingdoms reached the height of its power; this is sometimes called the Spanish Golden Age. Philip led a debt-leveraged regime, seeing state bankruptcies in 1557, 1560, 1569, 1575, 1596; this policy was the cause of the declaration of independence that created the Dutch Republic in 1581. On 31 December 1584 Philip signed the Treaty of Joinville, with Henry I, Duke of Guise signing on behalf of the Catholic League. A devout Catholic, Philip saw himself as the defender of Catholic Europe against the Ottoman Empire and the Protestant Reformation, he sent an armada to invade Protestant England in 1588, with the strategic aim of overthrowing Elizabeth I of England and re-establishing Catholicism there.

Under Philip, about 9,000 men a year on average were recruited from Spain. Between 1567 and 1574, nearly 43,000 men left Spain to fight in the Low Countries. Philip was described by the Venetian ambassador Paolo Fagolo in 1563 as "slight of stature and round-faced, with pale blue eyes, somewhat prominent lip, pink skin, but his overall appearance is attractive"; the Ambassador went on to say "He dresses tastefully, everything that he does is courteous and gracious." Besides Mary I, Philip was married three other times and widowed four times. The son of Charles I and V, King of the Spanish kingdoms and Holy Roman Emperor and his wife, Isabella of Portugal, Philip was born in the Castilian capital of Valladolid on 21 May 1527 at Palacio de Pimentel, owned by Don Bernardino Pimentel; the culture and courtly life of Castile were an important influence in his early life. He was tutored by the future Archbishop of Toledo. Philip displayed reasonable aptitude in letters alike, he would study with more illustrious tutors, including the humanist Juan Cristóbal Calvete de Estrella.

Though Philip had good command over Latin and Portuguese, he never managed to equal his father, Charles V, as a polyglot. While Philip was a German archduke of the House of Habsburg, he was seen as a foreigner in the Holy Roman Empire; the feeling was mutual. Philip felt himself to be culturally Spanish; this would impede his succession to the imperial throne. In April 1528, when Philip was eleven months old, he received the oath of allegiance as heir to the crown from the Cortes of Castile. From that time until the death of his mother Isabella in 1539, he was raised in the royal court of Castile under the care of his mother and one of her Portuguese ladies, Dona Leonor de Mascarenhas, to whom he was devotedly attached. Philip was close to his two sisters, María and Juana, to his two pages, the Portuguese nobleman Rui Gomes da Silva and Luis de Requesens, the son of his governor Juan de Zúñiga; these men would serve Philip throughout their lives, as would Antonio Pérez, his secretary from 1541.

Philip's martial training was undertaken by his governor, Juan de Zúñiga, a Castilian nobleman who served as the commendador mayor of Castile. The practical lessons in warfare were overseen by the Duke of Alba during the Italian Wars. Philip was present at the Siege of Perpignan in 1542 but did not see action as the Spanish army under Alba decisively defeated the besieging French forces under the Dauphin of France. On his way back to Castile, Philip received the oath of allegiance of the Aragonese Cortes at Monzón, his political training had begun a year under his father, who had found his son studious and prudent beyond his years, having decided to train and initiate him in the government of the Spanish kingdoms. The king-emperor's interactions with his son during his stay in Castile convinced him of Philip's precocity in statesmanship, so he determined to leave in his hands the regency of the Spanish kingdoms in 1543. Philip, made the Duke of Milan in 1540, began governing the most extensive empire in the world at the young age of sixteen.

Charles left Philip with experienced advisors—notably the secretary Francisco de los Cobos and the general Duke of Alba. Philip was left with extensive written instructions that emphasised "piety, patience and distrust." These principles of Charles were assimilated by his son, who would grow up to become grave, self-possessed and cautious. Philip spoke and had an icy self-mastery. After living in the Netherlands in the early years of his reign, Philip II decided to return to

Fanny Jane Butler

Dr. Fanny Jane Butler was a medical missionary from England, among the first female doctors to travel to India and the first trained doctor from England to do so. Prior to her work in Kashmir and other parts of India, Butler was a part of the first class of the London School of Medicine for Women, becoming a member of the forefront of female doctors. Butler spent seven years in India until her death in 1889 and opened medical dispensaries in Srinagar and Bhagalpur, where no medical facilities had existed. Butler initiated the building of the first hospital in Srinagar in 1888 called the John Bishop Memorial Hospital and provided necessary medical care for Indian women, for whom little care had been available. Fanny Butler was born on October 5, 1850 in Chelsea, London to Thomas Butler and Jane Isabella North. Butler was the eighth of ten children in her family. Only her brothers received a formal education, they informally taught her before she attended the West London College in 1865 at the age of 15.

After one year of school, Butler returned home to help with housework and went to Saint Simon Zelotes Church in Chelsea. Butler was interested in religion and had become a Sunday school teacher earlier when she was 14 years old. In 1872, Butler went to live in Birmingham to nurse her elder sister. In Birmingham, Butler encountered an article by prominent Scottish medical missionary William Elmslie, which solicited female missionaries to aid the women in India; this article sparked Butler's interest in medical missionary work, two years in 1874 she was accepted to the India Female Normal School and Instruction Society, a non-denominational missionary group that became the Church of England Zenana Missionary Society in 1880. That year, Butler was admitted to the first class of the London School of Medicine for Women, the first medical school for women in England. Butler obtained a formal medical education there and graduated with high marks, receiving the prize of pathology in 1879 and the prize of anatomy in 1880.

At the time, the opportunities available in England for female physicians were limited. However, Butler's medical training could be used elsewhere. In parts of India, female doctors were needed because the purdah women who lived there were not comfortable receiving care from male doctors. In response to this need, Butler was sent to India by the Church of Zenana Missionary Society, an Anglican group devoted to Christianizing the women of India through various methods including medical missionary work. Butler arrived in India in 1880, first staying in Jabalpur traveling to Bhagalpur, where she remained for four and a half years. In Bhagalpur, Bulter ran two medical dispensaries and saw several thousand patients, dressing wounds, performing surgery, administering medication. After going back to England for an eleven-month furlough, Butler returned to India in August 1888 and was appointed to work in Kashmir, she moved to Srinagar, a city in Kashmir, but resided four miles outside of the city because foreigners were not allowed to live there, traveling into the city daily by pony or boat.

Butler continued to see patients in Srinagar, using a translator to communicate, delivered religious speeches to those she treated and with whom she worked. In the first 7 months and her staff saw 8832 outpatients and did 500 operations, she was able to obtain enough land from the government to build a dispensary, missionary house, hospital for women. At that time, Butler met an English woman named Isabella Bird, visiting Kashmir. Bird was interested in medical missionary work and gave Butler the money to build the medical facilities, thus Butler established the John Bishop Memorial Hospital, built in memory of Isabella Bird's late husband. While working in Kashmir, Butler fell ill and died of dysentery on October 26, 1889, she was buried in a cemetery in Srinagar. Butler left a lasting legacy in India for both international women, she was a pioneer in the medical field for female doctors. Butler provided Indian women medical care, not available, although she did not live to see its completion, Butler initiated the creation of the John Bishop Memorial Hospital, the first hospital in Srinagar, which still functions today in its new location in Anantnag.

Butler was remembered for her method of a "double cure," treating Indian women both medically and spiritually. After she died, the London School of Medicine for Women established a scholarship in her honor

Udine Cathedral

Udine Cathedral is a Catholic cathedral located in Udine, north-eastern Italy. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Udine; the cathedral's construction began in 1236 by will of Berthold, patriarch of Aquileia, on a Latin cross-shaped plan with three aisles and side-chapels. The style should follow that of the contemporary Franciscan churches; the church was consecrated in 1335 as Santa Maria Maggiore. In 1348 an earthquake damaged the building, restored starting from 1368. In this occasion, the larger previous rose window of the façade was replaced by the smaller current one. At the beginning of the 18th century a radical transformation project involving both the exterior and the interior was undertaken at the request and expense of the Manin family; the designer was architect Domenico Rossi, the work being finished in 1735. The church has two main portals, one of which, called Portale della Redenzione, executed by an unknown German master in the 14th century, it pointed internal arches. The other one is known as Portale dell'Incoronazion, was executed by a German sculptor in 1395-1396.

It has figures of one the upper tympanum, scenes of the Life of Jesus. The interior has two aisles separated by pillars. At the sides are four chapels communicating with each other. In contrast with the Romanesque-Gothic exterior, the Baroque interior has monumental dimensions and contains many works of art by Maffeo Verona, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Pomponio Amalteo, Ludovico Dorigny; the painter Pellegrino da San Daniele contributed to the altarpiece of Saint Joseph and the organ doors. On the ground floor of the bell tower is a chapel, adorned with frescoes by Vitale da Bologna; the cathedral houses an important museum of religious decorative arts, the Museo del Duomo di Udine. John Sobieslaw of Moravia Official website Museo del Duomo di Udine