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Philip IV of Spain

Philip IV was King of Spain and Portugal. He ascended the thrones in 1621 and reigned in Portugal until 1640. Philip is remembered for his patronage of the arts, including such artists as Diego Velázquez, his rule over Spain during the Thirty Years' War. By the time of his death in 1665, the Spanish Empire had reached 12.2 million square kilometers in area but in other respects was in decline, a process to which Philip contributed with his inability to achieve successful domestic and military reform. Philip IV was born in Royal Palace of Valladolid, was the eldest son of Philip III and his wife, Margaret of Austria. In 1615, at the age of 10, Philip was married to 13-year-old Elisabeth of France, although the relationship does not appear to have been close. Philip had seven children by Elisabeth, with only one being a son, Balthasar Charles, who died at the age of sixteen in 1646; the death of his son shocked the king, who appears to have been a good father by the standards of the day. Elisabeth was able to conspire with other Spanish nobles to remove Olivares from the court in 1643, for a brief period she held considerable influence over Philip.

Philip remarried following the deaths of both Elisabeth and his only legitimate heir. His choice of his second wife, Maria Anna known as Mariana, Philip's niece and the daughter of the Emperor Ferdinand, was guided by politics and Philip's desire to strengthen the relationship with Habsburg Austria. Maria Anna bore him five children, but only two survived to adulthood, a daughter Margarita Teresa, born in 1651, the future Charles II of Spain in 1661 – but the latter was sickly and considered in frequent danger of dying, making the line of inheritance uncertain. Perceptions of Philip's personality have altered over time. Victorian authors were inclined to portray him as a weak individual, delegating excessively to his ministers, ruling over a debauched Baroque court. Victorian historians attributed the early death of Baltasar to debauchery, encouraged by the gentlemen entrusted by the king with his education; the doctors who treated the Prince at that time in fact diagnosed smallpox, although modern scholars attribute his death to appendicitis.

Historians' estimation of Philip improved in the 20th century, with comparisons between Philip and his father being positive – some noting that he possessed much more energy, both mental and physical, than his diffident father. Philip was idealised by his contemporaries as the model of Baroque kingship. Outwardly he maintained a bearing of rigid solemnity. Philip had a strong sense of his'royal dignity', but was extensively coached by Olivares in how to resemble the Baroque model of a sovereign, which would form a key political tool for Philip throughout his reign. Philip was a fine horseman, a keen hunter and a devotee of bull-fighting, all central parts of royal public life at court during the period. Philip appears to have had a lighter persona; when he was younger, he was said to have a keen sense of humour and a'great sense of fun'. He attended'academies' in Madrid throughout his reign — these were lighthearted literary salons, aiming to analyse contemporary literature and poetry with a humorous touch.

A keen theatre-goer, he was sometimes criticised by contemporaries for his love of these'frivolous' entertainments. Others have captured his private personality as'naturally kind and affable'; those close to him claimed he was academically competent, with a good grasp of Latin and geography, could speak French and Italian well. Like many of his contemporaries, including Olivares, he had a keen interest in astrology, his handwritten translation of Francesco Guicciardini's texts on political history still exists. Although interpretations of Philip's role in government have improved in recent years, Diego Velázquez's contemporary description of Philip's key weakness – that'he mistrusts himself, defers to others too much' — remains relevant. Although Philip's Catholic beliefs no longer attract criticism from English language writers, Philip is still felt to have been'unduly pious' in his personal life. Notably, from the 1640s onwards he sought the advice of a noted cloistered abbess, Sor María de Ágreda, exchanging many letters with her.

This did not stop Philip's becoming known for his numerous affairs with actresses. By the end of the reign, with the health of Carlos José in doubt, there was a real possibility of Juan José's making a claim on the throne, which added to the instability of the regency years. During the reign of Philip's father, Philip III, the royal court had been dominated by the Sandoval noble family, most strikingly by the Duke of Lerma, Philip III's principal favorite and chief minister for all of his reign. Philip IV came to power as the influence of the Sandovals was being undermined by a new noble coalition, led by Don Baltasar de Zúñiga. De Zúñiga regarded it as essential that the Sandovals be unable to gain an influence over the fu

Ann Duquesnay

Ann Duquesnay is an American musical theatre singer/actress and lyricist best known for Bring in'da Noise, Bring in'da Funk, which earned her a Tony Award and Grammy Award nomination. Duquesnay's parents were Southern sharecroppers who moved to Harlem when she was five years old. Although she did not have formal music training until well after her stage years, she developed a passion for theatre, encouraged by director George C. Wolfe. Duquesnay's Broadway debut was in the revue Blues in the Night in 1982 as a standby. Two years she played Glinda in a revival of The Wiz, she was next seen in Jelly's Last Jam as Gran Mimi and Ancestor. She was a replacement on Broadway in "It Ain't Nothin But the Blues", she has toured extensively in the U. S. and internationally. Critically acclaimed for her performance in roles as Alberta Hunter "Cookin at the Cookery". Off-Broadway & Regional "Sheila's Day" at Hartford Stage, Crossroads Theatre, Market Theatre, Johannesburg SA. Narrator in Ken Burns documentaries and the biographical audio book of Aretha Franklin "Aretha From These Roots".

Along with Daryl Waters and Zane Mark, Duquesnay co-wrote the music for Bring in'Da Noise, Bring in'Da Funk in 1996, as well as playing the roles of'Da Singer and Chanteuse. The musical debuted on April 25. For her contributions, she won a Tony for Best Featured Actress in a Musical and was nominated for Best Original Score. In 2006, Duquesnay returned to Broadway in the revue Hot Feet, featuring music by Maurice White of Earth and Fire. Ann Duquesnay at the Internet Broadway Database

Live.03

Recorded on December 7, 2004, at the Launchpad in Albuquerque, New Mexico, Live. 03 is Isis's third live release. It is sourced from an audience bootleg recording, as such, does not have professional sound quality; this is the first live release to feature songs from 2004's Panopticon LP. As with the rest of the live series, the CD version was self-released; the vinyl edition was handled, by Profound Lore Records. Along with all Isis' other live albums, it is set to be re-released on June 28, 2011 in digital format a full year after Isis' dissolution, it marks the third of the series released to a fortnightly schedule. All songs written by Isis. "So Did We" – 8:43 "Backlit" – 8:40 "The Beginning and the End" – 9:24 "In Fiction" – 10:15 "Wills Dissolve" – 7:29 "Grinning Mouths" – 8:51 "Altered Course" – 15:38 Karl Frinkle – Live audio recording Nick Zampiello – Mastering Michael Babcock – Printing at Interrobang Jeff CaxideBass guitar Aaron Harrisdrums Michael Gallagher – Guitar Bryant Clifford Meyer – Electronics, guitar Aaron Turnervocals, design Greg Moss – Live sound