Paradise Lost is an epic poem in blank verse by the 17th-century English poet John Milton. The first version, published in 1667, consisted of ten books with over ten lines of verse. A second edition followed in 1674, arranged into twelve books with minor revisions throughout and it is considered by critics to be Miltons major work, and it helped solidify his reputation as one of the greatest English poets of his time. The poem concerns the Biblical story of the Fall of Man, Miltons purpose, stated in Book I, is to justify the ways of God to men. In his introduction to the Penguin edition of Paradise Lost, the Milton scholar John Leonard notes, John Aubrey tells us that the poem was begun in about 1658 and finished in about 1663. But parts were almost certainly written earlier, and its roots lie in Miltons earliest youth, Leonard speculates that the English Civil War interrupted Miltons earliest attempts to start his epic that would encompass all space and time. Leonard notes that Milton did not at first plan to write a biblical epic, however, in the 1672 edition, Paradise Lost contained twelve books.
Having gone totally blind in 1652, Milton wrote Paradise Lost entirely through dictation with the help of amanuenses, the poem is separated into twelve books or sections, the lengths of which vary greatly. The Arguments at the head of each book were added in subsequent imprints of the first edition, originally published in ten books, a fully Revised and Augmented edition reorganized into twelve books was issued in 1674, and this is the edition generally used today. The poem follows the tradition of starting in medias res. Miltons story has two narrative arcs, one about Satan and the other following Adam and Eve and it begins after Satan and the other rebel angels have been defeated and banished to Hell, or, as it is called in the poem, Tartarus. In Pandæmonium, Satan employs his rhetorical skill to organise his followers, he is aided by Mammon and Moloch are present. At the end of the debate, Satan volunteers to poison the newly created Earth and Gods new and most favoured creation and he braves the dangers of the Abyss alone in a manner reminiscent of Odysseus or Aeneas.
After an arduous traversal of the Chaos outside Hell, he enters Gods new material World, at several points in the poem, an Angelic War over Heaven is recounted from different perspectives. Satans rebellion follows the convention of large-scale warfare. The battles between the angels and Satans forces take place over three days. At the final battle, the Son of God single-handedly defeats the legion of angelic rebels. Following this purge, God creates the World, culminating in his creation of Adam and Eve
Scenic design is the creation of theatrical, as well as film or television scenery. Scenic designers come from a variety of backgrounds, but in recent years, are mostly trained professionals. Scenic designers design sets and scenery that aim to fully immerse the viewer in the production, a designer looks at the details searching for evidence through research to produce conceptual ideas that’s best toward supporting the content and values with visual elements. The subject of, “How do we generate creative ideas. ”The most consuming part of expanding our horizons toward scenic concepts is more than witnessing creativity. It starts with us opening our mind to the possibilities, to have an attitude toward learning and engaging in creativity and to be willing to be adventurous and curious. Whether outside or inside, colorful trees or concerts, star lit skies or the architecture of a great building, discovering what will best clarify and support the story being told. The scenic designer works with the director and other designers to establish a visual concept for the production.
All of these required drawing elements can be created from one accurate 3-D CAD model of the set design. Scenic designers are responsible for creating models of the scenery, paint elevations. Prague, CZ What is Scenography Article illustrating the differences between US and European theatre design practices Special, WhatLinksHere/Julia Anastasopoulos
Battle of Camperdown
The Battle of Camperdown was a major naval action fought on 11 October 1797, between the British North Sea Fleet under Admiral Adam Duncan and a Dutch Navy fleet under Vice-Admiral Jan de Winter. In 1795, the Dutch Republic had been overrun by the army of the French Republic and had reorganised into the Batavian Republic. In early 1797, after the French Atlantic Fleet had suffered losses in a disastrous winter campaign. The rendezvous never occurred, the continental allies failed to capitalise on the Spithead and Nore mutinies that paralysed the British Channel forces, by September, the Dutch fleet under De Winter were blockaded within their harbour in the Texel by the British North Sea fleet under Duncan. At the start of October, Duncan was forced to return to Yarmouth for supplies, when the Dutch fleet returned to the Dutch coast on 11 October, Duncan was waiting, and intercepted De Winter off the coastal village of Camperduin. Attacking the Dutch line of battle in two groups, Duncans ships broke through at the rear and van and were subsequently engaged by Dutch frigates lined up on the other side.
The loss of their flagship prompted the surviving Dutch ships to disperse and retreat, en route, the fleet was struck by a series of gales and two prizes were wrecked and another had to be recaptured before the remainder reached Britain. The Dutch fleet was broken as an independent fighting force, losing ten ships, in the winter of 1794–1795, forces of the French Republic overran the neighbouring Dutch Republic during the French Revolutionary Wars. The French reorganised the country as a client state named the Batavian Republic, one of the most important Dutch assets of which the French gained control was the Dutch Navy, which had been captured in its frozen harbour in the Texel by French cavalry advancing across the ice. Standing at 64 he was noted for his physical strength and size. In late 1796, after prompting from representatives of the United Irishmen and this too ended in disaster, with twelve ships lost and thousands of men drowned in fierce winter gales. A plan was formulated to merge the French and Dutch fleets, for the Royal Navy, the early years of the war had been successful, but the commitment to a global conflict was creating a severe strain on available equipment and financial resources.
Wages had not been increased since 1653, and were usually months late, rations were terrible, shore leave forbidden and discipline harsh. For a month the fleet remained at stalemate, until Lord Howe was able to negotiate a series of improvements in conditions that enabled the strikers to return to regular service. The mutiny had achieved almost all of its aims, increasing pay, removing unpopular officers and improving conditions for the men serving in the Channel Fleet and, the whole navy. While the upheaval continued at Spithead, Duncan had retained order in the North Sea Fleet at Yarmouth by the force of his personality. Calmed by his subordinates, he assembled his officers and the Royal Marines aboard his ship. Despite his initial success, Duncan was unable to control in the face of a more widespread revolt on 15 May among the ships based at the Nore
Count Alessandro di Cagliostro was the alias of the occultist Giuseppe Balsamo. Cagliostro was an Italian adventurer and self-styled magician and he became a glamorous figure associated with the royal courts of Europe where he pursued various occult arts, including psychic healing and scrying. Later works—such as that of W. R. H, trowbridge in his Cagliostro, the Splendour and Misery of a Master of Magic —attempted a rehabilitation. The history of Cagliostro is shrouded in rumour, some effort was expended to ascertain his true identity when he was arrested because of possible participation in the Affair of the Diamond Necklace. Maria and Giuseppe Bracconeri had three children, Matteo and Felicità, who married Pietro Balsamo, the son of Felicità and Pietro Balsamo was Giuseppe, who was christened with the name of his great-uncle and eventually adopted his surname, too. Felicità Balsamo was still alive in Palermo at the time of Goethes travels in Italy, Cagliostro himself stated during the trial following the Affair of the Diamond Necklace that he had been born of Christians of noble birth but abandoned as an orphan upon the island of Malta.
Giuseppe Balsamo was born to a family in Albergheria, which was once the old Jewish Quarter of Palermo. John of God, from which he was eventually expelled, during his period as a novice in the order, Balsamo learned chemistry as well as a series of spiritual rites. In 1764, when he was twenty one, he convinced Vincenzo Marano—a wealthy goldsmith—of the existence of a treasure buried several hundred years previously at Mount Pellegrino. The young mans knowledge of the occult, Marano reasoned, would be valuable in preventing the duo from being attacked by magical creatures guarding the treasure, in preparation for the expedition to Mount Pellegrino, Balsamo requested seventy pieces of silver from Marano. The next day, Marano paid a visit to Balsamos house in via Perciata, Balsamo had fled to the city of Messina. By 1765–66, Balsamo found himself on the island of Malta, where he became an auxiliary for the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, in early 1768 Balsamo left for Rome, where he managed to land himself a job as a secretary to Cardinal Orsini.
The job proved boring to Balsamo and he started leading a double life, selling magical Egyptian amulets and engravings pasted on boards. Of the many Sicilian expatriates and ex-convicts he met during this period, one introduced him to a girl named Lorenza Seraphina Feliciani, known as Serafina. The couple moved in with Lorenzas parents and her brother in the vicolo delle Cripte, Balsamos coarse language and the way he incited Lorenza to display her body contrasted deeply with her parents deep rooted religious beliefs. After a heated discussion, the couple left. At this point Balsamo befriended Agliata, a forger and swindler, in return, Agliata sought sexual intercourse with Balsamos young wife, a request to which Balsamo acquiesced. Cagliostro traveled throughout Europe, especially to Courland, Poland and his fame grew to the point that he was even recommended as a physician to Benjamin Franklin during a stay in Paris
Chiswick is a district of west London, England. Most of it is in the London Borough of Hounslow, other parts of the W4 postcode area, including Chiswick Park tube station, Acton Green, and much of Bedford Park are in the London Borough of Ealing. It occupies a meander of the River Thames used for competitive and recreational rowing, the finishing post for the Boat Race is just downstream of Chiswick Bridge. Chiswick was historically the ancient parish of St Nicholas in the county of Middlesex, with an agrarian and it became the Municipal Borough of Brentford and Chiswick in 1932 and has formed part of Greater London since 1965, when it was merged into the London Borough of Hounslow. On a border, the Chiswick or Great West Road Roundabout is the start of the North Circular Road, South Circular Road with the eponymous road flying over this. West of Chiswicks Hogarth Roundabout, the Great West Road from central London converts to the M4 motorway, providing a second mode of transport connection to Heathrow Airport, the Great Chertsey Road runs south-west from the Hogarth Roundabout, becoming the M3 motorway.
Historic figures who lived in Chiswick include the poets Alexander Pope, the Italian revolutionary Ugo Foscolo, the Impressionist painter Camille Pissarro and the novelist E. M. Forster. Chiswick was first recorded c.1000 as the Old English Ceswican meaning Cheese Farm, Chiswick grew up as a village around St Nicholas Church from c. The area included three small settlements, the fishing village of Strand-on-the-Green, Little Sutton and Turnham Green on the west road out of London. A decisive skirmish took place on Turnham Green early in the English Civil War, in November 1642, royalist forces under Prince Rupert, marching from Oxford to retake London, were halted by a larger parliamentarian force under the Earl of Essex. The royalists retreated and never threatened the capital. In 1864, John Isaac Thornycroft, founder of the John I, Thornycroft & Company shipbuilding company, established a yard at Church Wharf at the west end of Chiswick Mall. The shipyard built the first naval destroyer, HMS Daring of the Daring class, to cater for the increasing size of warships, Thornycroft moved its shipyard to Southampton in 1909.
In 1822, the Royal Horticultural Society leased 33 acres of land in the south of the High Road between what are now Sutton Court Road and Duke’s Avenue. This site was used for its fruit tree collection and its first school of horticulture, the area was reduced to 10 acres in the 1870s, and the lease was terminated when the Society’s garden at Wisley, was set up in 1904. Some of the pear trees still grow in the gardens of houses built on the site. The population of Chiswick grew almost tenfold during the 19th century, reaching 29,809 in 1901, suburban building began in Gunnersbury in the 1860s and in Bedford Park, on the borders of Chiswick and Acton, in 1875. During the Second World War, Chiswick was bombed repeatedly, with incendiary and high explosive bombs
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther, a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian. Luthers efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation in the German-speaking territories of the Holy Roman Empire. Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone and this is in contrast to the belief of the Catholic Church, defined at the Council of Trent, concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition. In addition, Lutheranism accepts the teachings of the first seven ecumenical councils of the undivided Christian Church, unlike Calvinism, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lords Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, the purpose of Gods Law, the grace, the concept of perseverance of the saints.
Today, Lutheranism is one of the largest denominations of Protestantism, with approximately 80 million adherents, it constitutes the third most common Protestant denomination after historically Pentecostal denominations and Anglicanism. The Lutheran World Federation, the largest communion of Lutheran churches, Other Lutheran organizations include the International Lutheran Council and the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference, as well as independent churches. The name Lutheran originated as a term used against Luther by German Scholastic theologian Dr. Johann Maier von Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519. Eck and other Catholics followed the practice of naming a heresy after its leader. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term Evangelical, which was derived from euangelion, the followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition began to use that term. To distinguish the two groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed.
As time passed by, the word Evangelical was dropped, Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Philippists and Calvinists. In 1597, theologians in Wittenberg defined the title Lutheran as referring to the true church, Lutheranism has its roots in the work of Martin Luther, who sought to reform the Western Church to what he considered a more biblical foundation. Lutheranism spread through all of Scandinavia during the 16th century, as the monarch of Denmark–Norway, through Baltic-German and Swedish rule, Lutheranism spread into Estonia and Latvia. Since 1520, regular Lutheran services have been held in Copenhagen, under the reign of Frederick I, Denmark-Norway remained officially Catholic. Although Frederick initially pledged to persecute Lutherans, he adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers. During Fredericks reign, Lutheranism made significant inroads in Denmark, at an open meeting in Copenhagen attended by the king in 1536, the people shouted, We will stand by the holy Gospel, and do not want such bishops anymore.
Fredericks son Christian was openly Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his fathers death, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in 1537 he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark-Norway
Francesco Giuseppe Casanova
Francesco Giuseppe Casanova was a painter of Italian parentage who specialized in battle scenes. His older brother was Giacomo Casanova, the adventurer, and his younger brother was Giovanni Casanova. He was born in London, where his parents, Zanetta Farussi, an actress, and Gaetano Casanova and it was rumored that his father was actually the Prince of Wales, whether for scurrilous motives or publicity is unclear. They returned to Venice when he was young and, after his fathers death in 1733, he. His career began in the workshops of Giovanni Antonio Guardi, an unpleasant time for him. Later, he moved to the studios of Antonio Joli, who was a set designer for the theaters owned by the Grimanis and this was also, unsatisfactory and he took up studies with the battle painter, Francesco Simonini. In 1751, upon his brother Giovannis advice, he went to Paris, the following year, after Parrocels death, he went to Dresden and spent a year studying the battle paintings at the Gallery of the Electors of Saxony.
In 1758, he returned to Paris and set himself up as a free-lance artist, success did not come immediately, and his first exhibition was a failure. In 1761, he became a member of the Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture and was promoted to full member in 1763. As a result of criticism from Denis Diderot, he began to receive commissions from the aristocracy. Diderot would express negative opinions about Casanovas work, but his reputation was already made and his fame soon spread eastward and he received commissions from Catherine the Great for the Hermitage, beginning in 1768. Two years later, he produced his four famous disaster paintings, in 1771, he exhibited two large canvases depicting scenes from the Thirty Years War and once again won Diderots approval. In 1762, he had married Marie-Jean Jolivet a ballerina with the theater of the Comédie-Italienne who was known as Mademoiselle dAlancour and her professional connections supplied him with many clients. In 1775, two years after her death, he married the recently widowed Jeanne Cathérine Delachaux, the marriage turned out to be a disaster, so he abandoned her in 1783, aided and abetted by Giacomo.
He took refuge in Vienna, under the protection of Prince Charles Joseph de Ligne and it appears that Francesco was almost as extroverted and entertaining as his brother Giacomo, so he quickly became popular at the Viennese Court. In addition to his paintings, he produced designs for tapestries, from 1770 to 1787, the Royal Beauvais Manufactory utilized more than seventy of his patterns. Despite his success and his many clients, he squandered his money, was perpetually in debt. The year is given as 1803, although some sources have 1805 or 1807
A portrait miniature is a miniature portrait painting, usually executed in gouache, watercolour, or enamel. They were especially valuable in introducing people to other over distances. Soldiers and sailors might carry miniatures of their loved ones while traveling, the first miniaturists used watercolour to paint on stretched vellum. During the second half of the 17th century, vitreous enamel painted on copper became increasingly popular, in the 18th century, miniatures were painted with watercolour on ivory, which had now become relatively cheap. As small in size as 40 mm ×30 mm, portrait miniatures were used as personal mementos or as jewellery or snuff box covers. The portrait miniature developed from the manuscript, which had been superseded for the purposes of book illustration by techniques such as woodprints. Lucas Horenbout was another Netherlandish miniature painter at the court of Henry VIII and these might be paintings, or finished drawings with some colour, and were produced by François Clouet, and his followers.
Following these men we find Simon Renard de St. André, others whose names might be mentioned were Joseph Werner, and Rosalba Carriera. The colours are opaque, and gold is used to heighten the effect and they are often signed, and have frequently a Latin motto upon them. Hilliard worked for a while in France, and he is identical with the painter alluded to in 1577 as Nicholas Belliart. Hilliard was succeeded by his son Lawrence Hilliard, his technique was similar to that of his father, but bolder, Isaac Oliver and his son Peter Oliver succeeded Hilliard. Isaac was the pupil of Hilliard, Peter was the pupil of Isaac. The two men were the earliest to give roundness and form to the faces they painted and they signed their best works in monogram, and painted not only very small miniatures, but larger ones measuring as much as 10 in ×9 in. They copied for Charles I of England on a small scale many of his famous pictures by the old masters, other miniaturists at about the same date included Balthazar Gerbier, George Jamesone, Penelope Cleyn and her brothers.
Samuel Cooper was a nephew and student of the elder Hoskins and he spent much of his time in Paris and Holland, and very little is known of his career. His work has a breadth and dignity, and has been well called life-size work in little. His portraits of the men of the Puritan epoch are remarkable for their truth to life and he painted upon card, chicken skin and vellum, and on two occasions upon thin pieces of mutton bone. The use of ivory was not introduced until long after his time and his work is frequently signed with his initials, generally in gold, and very often with the addition of the date
University of Strasbourg
The University of Strasbourg in Strasbourg, France, is the second largest university in France, with about 46,000 students and over 4,000 researchers. On 1 January 2009, the fusion of three universities reconstituted a united University of Strasbourg. With as many as 18 Nobel laureates, the university is now ranked among the best in the League of European Research Universities, the university emerged from a Lutheran humanist German Gymnasium, founded in 1538 by Johannes Sturm in the Free Imperial City of Strassburg. It was transformed to a university in 1621 and elevated to the ranks of a university in 1631. Among its earliest university students was Johann Scheffler who studied medicine and converted to Catholicism and became the mystic and poet Angelus Silesius. The Lutheran German university still persisted even after the annexation of the City by King Louis XIV in 1681, during the German Empire the university was greatly expanded and numerous new buildings were erected because the university was intended to be a showcase of German against French culture in Alsace.
In 1918, Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France, so a reverse exodus of Germanophone teachers took place, during the Second World War, when France was occupied and equipment of the University of Strasbourg were transferred to Clermont-Ferrand. In its place, the short-lived German Reichsuniversität Straßburg was created, the university campus covers a vast part near the center of the city, located between the Cité Administrative and Gallia bus-tram stations. Modern architectural buildings include, the Doctoral College of Strasbourg, Pangloss, the student residence building for the Doctoral College of Strasbourg was designed by London-based Nicholas Hare Architects in 2007. The structures are depicted on the inner wall of the Esplanade university restaurant, accompanied by the names of their architects. The administrative organisms, attached to the university, are located in the Agora building
Kingdom of France
The Kingdom of France was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was one of the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and it was an early colonial power, with possessions around the world. France originated as West Francia, the half of the Carolingian Empire. A branch of the Carolingian dynasty continued to rule until 987, the territory remained known as Francia and its ruler as rex Francorum well into the High Middle Ages. The first king calling himself Roi de France was Philip II, France continued to be ruled by the Capetians and their cadet lines—the Valois and Bourbon—until the monarchy was overthrown in 1792 during the French Revolution. France in the Middle Ages was a de-centralised, feudal monarchy, in Brittany and Catalonia the authority of the French king was barely felt. Lorraine and Provence were states of the Holy Roman Empire and not yet a part of France, during the Late Middle Ages, the Kings of England laid claim to the French throne, resulting in a series of conflicts known as the Hundred Years War.
Subsequently, France sought to extend its influence into Italy, but was defeated by Spain in the ensuing Italian Wars, religiously France became divided between the Catholic majority and a Protestant minority, the Huguenots, which led to a series of civil wars, the Wars of Religion. France laid claim to large stretches of North America, known collectively as New France, Wars with Great Britain led to the loss of much of this territory by 1763. French intervention in the American Revolutionary War helped secure the independence of the new United States of America, the Kingdom of France adopted a written constitution in 1791, but the Kingdom was abolished a year and replaced with the First French Republic. The monarchy was restored by the great powers in 1814. During the years of the elderly Charlemagnes rule, the Vikings made advances along the northern and western perimeters of the Kingdom of the Franks, after Charlemagnes death in 814 his heirs were incapable of maintaining political unity and the empire began to crumble.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 divided the Carolingian Empire into three parts, with Charles the Bald ruling over West Francia, the nucleus of what would develop into the kingdom of France. Viking advances were allowed to increase, and their dreaded longboats were sailing up the Loire and Seine rivers and other waterways, wreaking havoc. During the reign of Charles the Simple, Normans under Rollo from Norway, were settled in an area on either side of the River Seine, downstream from Paris, that was to become Normandy. With its offshoots, the houses of Valois and Bourbon, it was to rule France for more than 800 years. Henry II inherited the Duchy of Normandy and the County of Anjou, and married Frances newly divorced ex-queen, Eleanor of Aquitaine, after the French victory at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214, the English monarchs maintained power only in southwestern Duchy of Guyenne. The death of Charles IV of France in 1328 without male heirs ended the main Capetian line, under Salic law the crown could not pass through a woman, so the throne passed to Philip VI, son of Charles of Valois