click links in text for more info

Philip Melanchthon

Philip Melanchthon was a German Lutheran reformer, collaborator with Martin Luther, the first systematic theologian of the Protestant Reformation, intellectual leader of the Lutheran Reformation, an influential designer of educational systems. He stands next to Luther and John Calvin as a reformer and moulder of Protestantism. Melanchthon along with Luther denounced what they believed was the exaggerated cult of the saints, asserted justification by faith, denounced what they considered to be the coercion of the conscience in the sacrament of penance, which they believed could not offer certainty of salvation. Both rejected the doctrine of transubstantiation, i.e. that the bread and wine of the eucharist are converted by the Holy Spirit into the flesh and blood of Christ. This Lutheran view of sacramental union contrasts with the understanding of the Roman Catholic Church that the bread and wine cease to be bread and wine at their consecration. Melanchthon made his distinction between law and gospel the central formula for Lutheran evangelical insight.

By the "law", he meant God's requirements both in New Testament. He was born Philipp Schwartzerdt on 16 February 1497, at Bretten where his father Georg Schwarzerdt was armorer to Philip, Count Palatine of the Rhine, his birthplace, along with the whole city of Bretten, was burned in 1689 by French troops during the War of the Palatinate Succession. The town's Melanchthonhaus was built on its site in 1897. In 1507 he was sent to the Latin school at Pforzheim, where the rector, Georg Simler of Wimpfen, introduced him to the Latin and Greek poets and to Aristotle, he was influenced by a Renaissance humanist. Philipp was only eleven when in 1508 both father died within eleven days, he and a brother were brought to Pforzheim to live with his maternal grandmother, Elizabeth Reuter, sister of Reuchlin. The next year he entered the University of Heidelberg, where he studied philosophy and astronomy/astrology, became known as a scholar of Greek. Denied the master's degree in 1512 on the grounds of his youth, he went to Tübingen, where he continued humanistic studies but worked on jurisprudence and medicine.

While there he was taught the technical aspects of astrology by Johannes Stöffler. After gaining a master's degree in 1516 he began to study theology. Under the influence of Reuchlin and others, he became convinced that true Christianity was something different from the scholastic theology as taught at the university, he instructed younger scholars. He lectured on oratory, on Virgil and on Livy, his first publications were a number of poems in a collection edited by Jakob Wimpfeling, the preface to Reuchlin's Epistolae clarorum virorum, an edition of Terence, a Greek grammar. Opposed as a reformer at Tübingen, he accepted a call to the University of Wittenberg from Martin Luther on the recommendation of his great-uncle, became professor of Greek there at the age of 21, he studied the Scriptures of Paul, Evangelical doctrine. Attending the disputation of Leipzig as a spectator, he nonetheless participated with his comments. After his views were attacked by Johann Eck, Melanchthon replied based on the authority of Scripture in his Defensio contra Johannem Eckium.

Following lectures on the Gospel of Matthew and the Epistle to the Romans, together with his investigations into Pauline doctrine, he was granted the degree of bachelor of theology, transferred to the theological faculty. He married Katharina Krapp, daughter of Wittenberg's mayor, on 25 November 1520, they had four children: Anna, Philipp and Magdalen. In the beginning of 1521 in his Didymi Faventini versus Thomam Placentinum pro M. Luthero oratio, he defended Luther, he argued that Luther rejected only papal and ecclesiastical practises which were at variance with Scripture. But while Luther was absent at Wartburg Castle, during the disturbances caused by the Zwickau prophets, Melanchthon wavered; the appearance of Melanchthon's Loci communes rerum theologicarum seu hypotyposes theologicae was of subsequent importance for Reformation. Melanchthon presented the new doctrine of Christianity under the form of a discussion of the "leading thoughts" of the Epistle to the Romans. Loci communes began the gradual rise of the Lutheran scholastic tradition, the theologians Martin Chemnitz, Mathias Haffenreffer, Leonhard Hutter expanded upon it.

Melanchthon continued to lecture on the classics. On a journey in 1524 to his native town, he encountered the papal legate, Cardinal Lorenzo Campeggio, who tried to draw him from Luther's cause. In his Unterricht der Visitatorn an die Pfarherrn im Kurfürstentum zu Sachssen Melanchthon presented the evangelical doctrine of salvation as well as regulations for churches and schools. In 1529 he accompanied the elector to the Diet of Speyer, his hopes of inducing the Holy Roman Empire party to a recognition of the Reformation were not fulfilled

Stevie Morrison

Stephen James "Stevie" Morrison is a successful British yachtsman who has enjoyed success in a classes from the International Cadet to the 49er. He is the son of the British Yacht Designer. Morrison was educated at The Beacon Church of England Primary School, a Voluntary Aided state primary school in the port city of Exmouth in Devon, followed by Exeter School, a co-educational independent school in the city of Exeter, in South West England. Together with team mate Ben Rhodes, Morrison became the 2007 World Champion in the 49er dinghy. In 2008 they won the silver medal in the same event, behind the Australians Nathan Outteridge and Ben Austin, while in 2006 they won the bronze medal; that same year Morrison won the European 49er title. Stephen Morrison at World Sailing "Official campaign website". Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2011. CS1 maint: unfit url

Elaina Maxwell

Elaina Maureen Maxwell is an American mixed martial arts fighter, professional kickboxer. As a three-time San Shou Champion & BJJ purple belt, she trains under the guidance of Kirian Fitzgibbons and Cesar Gracie. After winning the first American gold medal at the World Wushu Games in Macau, China in 2003, Elaina began to explore Brazilian jiu-jitsu. With five titles and a San Shou record of 14-1, she was booked to fight at the International Cage Fighting Organization - Warrior's Cup in Stockton, California on August 12, 2006. Maxwell has a fraternal twin sister named Ila, she played volleyball in middle school. Elaina Maxwell won the IKF Amateur San Shou Rules Super Welterweight United States Title by forfeit when her opponent Melissa Alley pulled out of the bout after the event started on July 24, 2004 in San Jose, California. First Defense: July 23, 2005, San Jose, California: Defended her title when she defeated Tiffany Chen of New York, NY with a round kick to Chen's face that split her chin open at 1:27 of round 1 stopping the bout.

Maxwell was part of Strikeforce's first female mixed martial arts bout against Gina Carano on December 8, 2006. She lost the fight via Unanimous Decision, she faced Michelle Maher in an MMA title match on July 2007 at Melee on the Mountain. She won the fight via Split Decision and is the Golden State MMA Light Middleweight Champion. Maxwell faced Miesha Tate at Strikeforce: Melendez vs. Thomson on June 27, 2008, she lost the fight via Unanimous Decision. She was scheduled to face Alexis Davis at Raging Wolf 7: "Mayhem In The Mist 3" on May 8, 2010, but pulled out of the fight due to an injury. Maxwell faced Lizbeth Carreiro at Freestyle Cage Fighting 44 on July 24, 2010, she won the fight via TKO in the first round. Her next fight was against Alexis Davis at Raging Wolf 9 on August 28, 2010; this fight was for the Raging Wolf Women's Flyweight Championship but Maxwell was unable to make the 135 lbs weight limit, so the fight was changed to a non-title, three-round contest. Maxwell won the fight by unanimous decision.

On November 19, 2010, Maxwell faced Shayna Baszler at The Cage Inc. - Battle At The Border 7. Despite controlling the striking exchanges, Maxwell lost the fight by submission due to a kneebar in the first round. Maxwell faced fellow Strikeforce veteran Shana Olsen at Crowbar MMA: Spring Brawl 2 on April 29, 2011 in Fargo, North Dakota, she won the fight by unanimous decision. On July 23, 2011, Maxwell faced Angela Samaro at King of the Cage: Shockwave in Oroville, California, she defeated Samaro by TKO in the third round. Maxwell faced Ashley Sanchez at Resurrection Fighting Alliance 2 on March 30, 2012 in Kearney, Nebraska, she won the fight by unanimous decision. Maxwell was scheduled to face Julia Budd at Invicta Fighting Championships 3 on October 6, 2012, but she was forced to withdraw from the fight due to suffering a concussion in training. Maxwell was featured on MSNBC's Warrior Nation. List of female mixed martial artists Elaina Maxwell Awakening Profile Professional MMA record for Elaina Maxwell from Sherdog Official MySpace Page


R2C2, Inc. owned by Rusty Carroll, is a company located in Carbondale, that operates a group of at least nine sites that sold term papers. According to his attorney, they collectively offered a total of 200,000 to 300,000 papers; the sites include:,, Carroll and his company had been sued by Blue Macellari at Duke University for copyright infringement, false designation of origin, consumer fraud and deception; that suit was settled in 2006. In 2006, a class action suit was placed against the company and the owner in the U. S. District Court for the Southern District of Illinois, Chad Weidner, Karolien Walravens et al. v. Rusty Carroll, R2C2, charging them with copyright violation for reselling papers written by other authors. On January 11, 2010 David Herndon, chief judge of the district court, ruled that Carroll and his company caused continued "irreparable harm" to an indeterminate number of authors; the plaintiffs are being represented pro bono by McDermott Emery.

On February 1, 2010, he further ruled that he would order the site closed unless the owner could prove he has permission from the papers' authors, but would not prohibit him from selling custom-written papers. Many other sites engage in that practice. Plaintiff attorney Eric J. Conn said, “We'd like to stop this practice, or get as close to stopping it as we can.” Added associate Rita Weeks, “In the end, our perseverance did pay off.” The named plaintiff in the case, Dr. Chad Weidner, Assistant Professor at University College Roosevelt in the Netherlands, added his personal perspective: "Real research is both time-consuming and difficult. To think that there is some kind of quick fix, be it a paper sold online, a paper borrowed from a peer or creative rewriting of an academic's work, is just unacceptable."According to Darby Dickenson, Dean of the Stetson University School of Law, "The opinion does help the public see some of the sharp and shady practices of at least some of these companies.

The fact that someone was willing to take on the company and litigate for several years is significant." In September 2010, the following statement was posted on Carroll's numerous term-paper websites: "Your rights may be affected by a class action settlement regarding the unauthorized copying and distribution of copyrighted works on websites operated by Rusty Carroll and R2C2, Inc. including,,,, Authors Chad Weidner and Karolien Walravens filed a class action lawsuit against Rusty Carroll and R2C2, Inc. in the United States District Court for the Southern District of Illinois on October 6, 2006, alleging violations of the Copyright Act on behalf of themselves and a class of individuals situated. What Does Settlement Provide? The settlement, if court-approved, enjoins Defendants from operating or participating in the ownership or operation of any website that hosts works of authorship and provides for a judgment in the amount of $300,000 against Defendants.

Plaintiffs agree to stay the execution of the $300,000 judgment so long as Defendants continue to comply with the terms of a permanent injunction requiring the permanent shut down of all of Defendants’ Term Paper Websites. The settlement provides that Defendants pay $20,000 to be paid over the course of 7 years to cover: notice to class members of the settlement. Who is Included? The settlement class includes "all persons or entities who are the owners of the materials offered to the public through Carroll’s Term Paper Websites" except those individuals who both have the legal authority to grant and who granted Defendants proper authorization to use their materials. What Should I Do? You do not have the right to exclude yourself from the settlement in this case; the case was certified under Fed. R. Civ. P. 23 as a "non-opt out" class action. Therefore, you will be bound by any judgments or orders that are entered in this Action and, if the settlement is approved, you will be deemed to have released Defendants Rusty Carroll and R2C2, Inc. from all claims that were or could have been asserted in this case or otherwise included in the release in the settlement, other than your right to obtain the relief provided to you, if any, by the settlement.

Although you cannot opt out of the settlement agreement, you can object to the settlement and ask the Court not to approve the settlement in its current form. The Court will hold a hearing in this case, Weidner, et al. v. Carroll, et al. Case No. 06-782-DRH-PMF, at 2:00 PM CST on January 20, 2011, to consider whether to approve the settlement agreement. You may ask to appear at the hearing, but it is not required." The court decision has brought attention to the issue of term paper mills and academic integrity: "Academic performance in its pure form is exercised from the student-outward. This sets an example to other websites who may provide a similar service." Another respondent added: "Why is he fined only $20,000?" A poster called jbarman was more direct: "You must be kidding. Over and above the copyright issues, this is a guy who contributed to the widespread and growing cheating and plagiarism problems that take so much of our collective time as educators." Walkerst asserts that a term paper website "facilitates plagiarism and more"

Townsville mutiny

The Townsville mutiny was a mutiny by predominantly African American servicemen of the United States Army while serving in Townsville, during World War II. About 600 African American troops from the 96th Battalion, US Army Corps of Engineers, were stationed at a base outside of Townsville called Kelso Field, they were a labour battalion and their main job was to build bridges and barracks. The troops had been the subject of regular racial abuse by some of their white officers, the rumour that a black sergeant had died at the hands of a white superior resulted in the troops of A and C company mutinying. On May 22, 1942, aiming to kill their commander, Captain Francis Williams of Columbus, the black troopers began firing machine guns at the tents of white officers, resulting in an eight hour siege. At least one person was killed and dozens injured, Australian Army soldiers were called in to roadblock the rioters. American journalist Robert Sherrod wrote a report on the mutiny but it was suppressed, as future US president Lyndon B.

Johnson a young congressman, was visiting Townsville at the time. The mutiny was revealed by a historian in 2012. Report on the mutiny at Oz at War

Ryōmō Line

The Ryōmō Line is a Japanese railway line connecting Oyama in Tochigi Prefecture with Maebashi in Gunma Prefecture. 84.4 km long, the line is operated by the East Japan Railway Company. The name refers to the fact that Gunma and Tochigi prefectures were once part of an ancient province called Keno, split into Kōzuke and Shimotsuke; this line connects both halves of the old province. Most Ryōmō Line services terminate at Takasaki on the Joetsu Line. Local trains run about once in an hour during the day between Oyama and Maebashi and twice or three times as between Maebashi and Takasaki; some rapid services from Ueno and the Shōnan-Shinjuku Line travel through onto the Ryōmō Line, but they stop at every station. Akagi limited express services travel to Maebashi from Shinjuku. On the weekdays some Akagi services are branded Swallow Akagi; the following train types are used on the Ryōmō Line. 107 series 115 series 185 series 211 series 651 series E231-1000 series E233-3000 series EMUs The Oyama to Kiryu section was opened in 1888 by the Ryomo Railway, extended to Shin-Maebashi the following year.

The company merged with the Nippon Railway in 1897, that company was nationalised in 1906. This article incorporates material from the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia. Stations of the Ryōmō Line