Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton
Elizabeth Hamilton called Eliza or Betsey, was co-founder and deputy director of the first private orphanage in New York City. She was the wife of American founding father Alexander Hamilton. Elizabeth was born in Albany, New York, the second daughter of Continental Army General Philip Schuyler, a Revolutionary War general, Catherine Van Rensselaer Schuyler; the Van Rensselaers of the Manor of Rensselaerswyck were one of the richest and most politically influential families in the state of New York. She had seven siblings who lived to adulthood, including Angelica Schuyler Church and Margarita "Peggy" Schuyler Van Rensselaer, 14 siblings in total, her family was among the wealthy Dutch landowners who had settled around Albany in the mid-1600s, both her mother and father came from wealthy and well-regarded families. Like many landowners of the time, Philip Schuyler owned slaves, Eliza would have grown up around slavery. Despite the unrest of the French and Indian War, which her father served in and, fought in part near her childhood home, Eliza's childhood was spent comfortably, learning to read and sew from her mother.
Like most Dutch families of the area, her family belonged to the Reformed Dutch Church of Albany, which still survives, though the original 1715 building where Elizabeth was baptized and attended services was demolished in 1806. Her upbringing instilled in her a unwavering faith she would retain throughout her life; when she was a girl, Elizabeth accompanied her father to a meeting of the Six Nations and met Benjamin Franklin when he stayed with the Schuyler family while traveling. She was said to have been something of a tomboy. James McHenry, one of Washington's aides alongside her future husband, would say that "Hers was a strong character with its depth and warmth, whether of feeling or temper controlled, but glowing underneath, bursting through at times in some emphatic expression." Much the son of Joanna Bethune, one of the women she worked alongside to found an orphanage in her life, remembered that "Both were of determined disposition... Mrs. Bethune the more cautious, Mrs. Hamilton the more impulsive."
In early 1780, Elizabeth went to stay with her aunt, Gertrude Schuyler Cochran, in Morristown, New Jersey. There she met Alexander Hamilton, one of General George Washington's aides-de-camp, stationed along with the General and his men in Morristown for the winter. While in Morristown, Eliza met and became friends with Martha Washington, a friendship they would maintain throughout their husbands' political careers. Eliza said of Mrs. Washington, "She was always my ideal of a true woman."The relationship between Eliza and Hamilton grew after he left Morristown for a short mission to negotiate a prisoners exchange, only a month after Eliza had arrived. He returned to Morristown where Elizabeth's father had arrived in his capacity as representative of the Continental Congress and by early April they were engaged, with her father's blessing. Hamilton followed the Army when they decamped in June 1780. In September that year, Eliza learned that Major John André, head of the British Secret Service, had been captured in a foiled plot concocted by General Benedict Arnold to surrender the fort of West Point to the British.
André had once been a houseguest in the Schuyler Mansion in Albany as a prisoner of war en route to Pennsylvania in 1775. Hamilton, while jealous of André for his "accomplishments," promised Eliza he would do what he could to treat the British intelligence chief accordingly. After two more months of separation punctuated by their correspondence, on December 14, 1780, Alexander Hamilton and Elizabeth Schuyler were married at the Schuyler Mansion. After a short honeymoon at the Pastures, Eliza's childhood home, Hamilton returned to military service in early January 1781. Eliza soon joined him at New Windsor, where Washington's army was now stationed, she rekindled her friendship with Martha Washington as they entertained their husbands' fellow officers. Soon, however and Hamilton had a falling-out, the newlywed couple relocated first back to Eliza's father's house in Albany to a new home across the river from the New Windsor headquarters. There Eliza busied herself in creating a home for them and in aiding Alexander with his political writings—parts of his thirty-one-page letter to Robert Morris, laying out much of the financial knowledge, to aid him in his career, are written in her handwriting.
Soon, Eliza would relocate again, this time back to her parents' house in Albany. This coincided with the discovery that she was pregnant with her first child, who would be born the next January and named Philip, for her father. While apart, Alexander wrote her numerous letters telling her not to worry for his safety. Meanwhile, the war would come close to home. According to some accounts, the family was spared from any harm, thanks to her sister Pegg
The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the ex-British colonies that became the United States of America. Established by a resolution of the Congress on June 14, 1775, it was created to coordinate the military efforts of the Thirteen Colonies in their revolt against the rule of Great Britain; the Continental Army was supplemented by local militias and volunteer troops that remained under control of the individual states or were otherwise independent. General George Washington was the commander-in-chief of the army throughout the war. Most of the Continental Army was disbanded in 1783; the 1st and 2nd Regiments went on to form the nucleus of the Legion of the United States in 1792 under General Anthony Wayne. This became the foundation of the United States Army in 1796; the Continental Army consisted of soldiers from all 13 colonies and, after 1776, from all 13 states. When the American Revolutionary War began at the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, the colonial revolutionaries did not have an army.
Each colony had relied upon the militia, made up of part-time citizen-soldiers, for local defense, or the raising of temporary "provincial regiments" during specific crises such as the French and Indian War of 1754–63. As tensions with Great Britain increased in the years leading to the war, colonists began to reform their militias in preparation for the perceived potential conflict. Training of militiamen increased after the passage of the Intolerable Acts in 1774. Colonists such as Richard Henry Lee proposed forming a national militia force, but the First Continental Congress rejected the idea. On April 23, 1775, the Massachusetts Provincial Congress authorized the raising of a colonial army consisting of 26 company regiments. New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut soon raised similar but smaller forces. On June 14, 1775, the Second Continental Congress decided to proceed with the establishment of a Continental Army for purposes of common defense, adopting the forces in place outside Boston and New York.
It raised the first ten companies of Continental troops on a one-year enlistment, riflemen from Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia to be used as light infantry, who became the 1st Continental Regiment in 1776. On June 15, 1775, the Congress elected by unanimous vote George Washington as Commander-in-Chief, who accepted and served throughout the war without any compensation except for reimbursement of expenses. On July 18, 1775, the Congress requested all colonies form militia companies from "all able bodied effective men, between sixteen and fifty years of age." It was not uncommon for men younger than sixteen to enlist as most colonies had no requirement of parental consent for those under twenty-one. Four major-generals and eight brigadier-generals were appointed by the Second Continental Congress in the course of a few days. After Pomeroy did not accept, John Thomas was appointed in his place; as the Continental Congress adopted the responsibilities and posture of a legislature for a sovereign state, the role of the Continental Army became the subject of considerable debate.
Some Americans had a general aversion to maintaining a standing army. As a result, the army went through several distinct phases, characterized by official dissolution and reorganization of units. Soldiers in the Continental Army were citizens who had volunteered to serve in the army, at various times during the war, standard enlistment periods lasted from one to three years. Early in the war the enlistment periods were short, as the Continental Congress feared the possibility of the Continental Army evolving into a permanent army; the army never numbered more than 17,000 men. Turnover proved a constant problem in the winter of 1776–77, longer enlistments were approved. Broadly speaking, Continental forces consisted of several successive armies, or establishments: The Continental Army of 1775, comprising the initial New England Army, organized by Washington into three divisions, six brigades, 38 regiments. Major General Philip Schuyler's ten regiments in New York were sent to invade Canada; the Continental Army of 1776, reorganized after the initial enlistment period of the soldiers in the 1775 army had expired.
Washington had submitted recommendations to the Continental Congress immediately after he had accepted the position of Commander-in-Chief, but the Congress took time to consider and implement these. Despite attempts to broaden the recruiting base beyond New England, the 1776 army remained skewed toward the Northeast both in terms of its composition and of its geographical focus; this army consisted of 36 regiments, most standardized to a single battalion of 768 men strong and formed into eight companies, with a rank-and-file strength of 640. The Continental Army of 1777–80 evolved out of several critical reforms and political decisions that came about when it became apparent that the British were sending massive forces to put an end to the American Revolution; the Continental Congress passed the "Eighty-eight Battalion Resolve", ordering each state to contribute one-battalion regiments in proportion to their population, Washington subsequently received authority to raise an additional 16 battalions.
Enlistment terms extended to three years or to "the length of the war" to avoid the year-end crises that deplet
1st United States Congress
The First United States Congress, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives, met from March 4, 1789, to March 4, 1791, during the first two years of George Washington's presidency, first at Federal Hall in New York City and at Congress Hall in Philadelphia. With the initial meeting of the First Congress, the United States federal government began operations under the new frame of government established by the 1787 Constitution; the apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the provisions of Article I, Section 2, Clause 3 of the Constitution. Both chambers had a Pro-Administration majority. Twelve articles of amendment to the Constitution were passed by this Congress and sent to the states for ratification. April 1, 1789: House of Representatives first achieved a quorum and elected its officers April 6, 1789: Senate first achieved a quorum and elected its officers. April 6, 1789: The House and Senate, meeting in joint session, counted the Electoral College ballots certified that George Washington had been unanimously elected President of the United States and John Adams was elected as Vice president.
April 30, 1789: George Washington was inaugurated as the nation's first president at Federal Hall in New York City January 8, 1790: President Washington gave the first State of the Union Address June 20, 1790: Compromise of 1790: James Madison agreed to not be "strenuous" in opposition to the assumption of state debts by the federal government. Held March 4, 1789, through September 29, 1789, at Federal Hall in New York City June 1, 1789: An act to regulate the time and manner of administering certain oaths, ch. 1, 1 Stat. 23 July 4, 1789: Tariff of 1789, ch. 2, 1 Stat. 24 July 27, 1789: United States Department of State was established named the Department of Foreign Affairs, ch. 4, 1 Stat. 28. July 31, 1789: Regulation of the Collection of Duties on Tonnage and Merchandise, ch.5, 1 Stat. 29, which established the United States Customs Service and its ports of entry. August 7, 1789: Department of War was established, ch. 7, 1 Stat. 49. September 2, 1789: United States Department of the Treasury was established, ch.
12, 1 Stat. 65 September 24, 1789: Judiciary Act of 1789, ch. 20, 1 Stat. 73, which established the federal judiciary and the office of Attorney General Held January 4, 1790, through August 12, 1790, at Federal Hall in New York City March 1, 1790: Made provisions for the first Census, ch. 2, 1 Stat. 101 March 26, 1790: Naturalization Act of 1790, ch. 3, 1 Stat. 103 April 10, 1790: Patent Act of 1790, ch. 7, 1 Stat. 109 April 30, 1790: Crimes Act of 1790, ch. 9, 1 Stat. 112 May 31, 1790: Copyright Act of 1790, ch. 15, 1 Stat. 124 July 16, 1790: Residence Act, ch. 28, 1 Stat. 130, established Washington, D. C. as the seat of government of the United States. July 22, 1790: Indian Intercourse Act of 1790, ch. 33, 1 Stat. 137, regulated commerce with the Indian tribes. August 4, 1790: Funding Act of 1790, ch. 34, 1 Stat. 138, authorized the "full assumption" of state debts by the federal government. August 4, 1790: Collection of Duties Act, ch.35, 1 Stat. 145, among its provisions is Sec. 1 Stat. 175, authorizing establishment of the Revenue-Marine, since 1915 the United States Coast Guard.
August 10, 1790: Tariff of 1790, ch. 39, 1 Stat. 180 Held December 6, 1790, through March 3, 1791, at Congress Hall in Philadelphia February 18, 1791: Admission of Vermont postdated to March 4, ch. 10, 1 Stat. 191 February 25, 1791: First Bank of the United States, ch. 10, 1 Stat. 191 March 3, 1791: Whiskey Act, ch. 15, 1 Stat. 199, which triggered the Whiskey Rebellion September 25, 1789: Approved 12 amendments to the United States Constitution establishing specific guarantees of personal freedoms and rights, clear limitations on government power, submitted them to the state legislatures for ratification. 1 Stat. 97: Article one has not been ratified and is still pending before the states. Article two was much ratified on May 7, 1992, as the Twenty-seventh Amendment. Articles three through twelve, known as the "Bill of Rights," were ratified on December 15, 1791. November 21, 1789: North Carolina became the 12th state to ratify the U. S. Constitution and thereby joined the Union. May 29, 1790: Rhode Island became the 13th state to ratify the U.
S. Constitution and thereby joined the Union. May 26, 1790: Territory South of the River Ohio organized from land ceded by North Carolina. There were no political parties in this Congress. Members are informally grouped into factions of similar interest, based on an analysis of their voting record. Details on changes are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section. During this congress, two Senate seats were added for North Carolina and Rhode Island when each ratified the Constitution. During this congress, five House seats were added for North Carolina and one House seat was added for Rhode Island when they ratified the Constitution. President: John Adams President pro tempore: John Langdon Speaker: Frederick Muhlenberg This list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed by class, Representatives are listed by district. Skip to House of Representatives, below Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress.
Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, all Senators were newly elected, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1790.
French and Indian War
The French and Indian War pitted the colonies of British America against those of New France, each side supported by military units from the parent country and by American Indian allies. At the start of the war, the French colonies had a population of 60,000 settlers, compared with 2 million in the British colonies; the outnumbered French depended on the Indians. The European nations declared a wider war upon one another overseas in 1756, two years into the French and Indian war, some view the French and Indian War as being the American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63; the name French and Indian War is used in the United States, referring to the two enemies of the British colonists, while European historians use the term Seven Years' War, as do English-speaking Canadians. French Canadians call it the Fourth Intercolonial War; the British colonists were supported at various times by the Iroquois and Cherokee tribes, the French colonists were supported by Wabanaki Confederacy member tribes Abenaki and Mi'kmaq, the Algonquin, Ojibwa, Ottawa and Wyandot tribes.
Fighting took place along the frontiers between New France and the British colonies, from the Province of Virginia in the south to Newfoundland in the north. It began with a dispute over control of the confluence of the Allegheny River and Monongahela River called the Forks of the Ohio, the site of the French Fort Duquesne in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; the dispute erupted into violence in the Battle of Jumonville Glen in May 1754, during which Virginia militiamen under the command of 22-year-old George Washington ambushed a French patrol. In 1755, six colonial governors met with General Edward Braddock, the newly arrived British Army commander, planned a four-way attack on the French. None succeeded, the main effort by Braddock proved a disaster. British operations failed in the frontier areas of the Province of Pennsylvania and the Province of New York during 1755–57 due to a combination of poor management, internal divisions, effective Canadian scouts, French regular forces, Indian warrior allies.
In 1755, the British captured Fort Beauséjour on the border separating Nova Scotia from Acadia, they ordered the expulsion of the Acadians soon afterwards. Orders for the deportation were given by Commander-in-Chief William Shirley without direction from Great Britain; the Acadians were expelled, both those captured in arms and those who had sworn the loyalty oath to the King. Indians were driven off the land to make way for settlers from New England; the British colonial government fell in the region of Nova Scotia after several disastrous campaigns in 1757, including a failed expedition against Louisbourg and the Siege of Fort William Henry. William Pitt came to power and increased British military resources in the colonies at a time when France was unwilling to risk large convoys to aid the limited forces that they had in New France, preferring to concentrate their forces against Prussia and its allies who were now engaged in the Seven Years' War in Europe. Between 1758 and 1760, the British military launched a campaign to capture French Canada.
They succeeded in capturing territory in surrounding colonies and the city of Quebec. The British lost the Battle of Sainte-Foy west of Quebec, but the French ceded Canada in accordance with the Treaty of Paris. France ceded its territory east of the Mississippi to Great Britain, as well as French Louisiana west of the Mississippi River to its ally Spain in compensation for Spain's loss to Britain of Spanish Florida. France's colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, confirming Great Britain's position as the dominant colonial power in America. In British America, wars were named after the sitting British monarch, such as King William's War or Queen Anne's War. There had been a King George's War in the 1740s during the reign of King George II, so British colonists named this conflict after their opponents, it became known as the French and Indian War; this continues as the standard name for the war in the United States, although Indians fought on both sides of the conflict.
It led into the Seven Years' War overseas, a much larger conflict between France and Great Britain that did not involve the American colonies. Less used names for the war include the Fourth Intercolonial War and the Great War for the Empire. In Europe, the French and Indian War is conflated into the Seven Years' War and not given a separate name. "Seven Years" refers to events in Europe, from the official declaration of war in 1756—two years after the French and Indian War had started—to the signing of the peace treaty in 1763. The French and Indian War in America, by contrast, was concluded in six years from the Battle of Jumonville Glen in 1754 to the capture of Montreal in 1760. Canadians conflate both the American conflicts into the Seven Years' War. French Canadi
United States Secretary of the Treasury
The Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with financial and monetary matters, until 2003 included several federal law enforcement agencies. This position in the federal government of the United States is analogous to the Minister of Finance in many other countries; the Secretary of the Treasury is a member of the President's Cabinet, is nominated by the President of the United States. Nominees for Secretary of the Treasury undergo a confirmation hearing before the United States Senate Committee on Finance before being voted on by the United States Senate; the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Secretary of Defense are regarded as the four most important cabinet officials because of the importance of their departments. The Secretary of the Treasury is a non-statutory member of the U. S. National Security Council and fifth in the United States presidential line of succession; the Secretary of the Treasury is the principal economic advisor to the President and plays a critical role in policy-making by bringing an economic and government financial policy perspective to issues facing the government.
The Secretary is responsible for formulating and recommending domestic and international financial and tax policy, participating in the formulation of broad fiscal policies that have general significance for the economy, managing the public debt. The Secretary oversees the activities of the Department in carrying out its major law enforcement responsibilities; the Chief Financial Officer of the government, the Secretary serves as Chairman Pro Tempore of the President's Economic Policy Council, Chairman of the Boards and Managing Trustee of the Social Security and Medicare Trust Funds, as U. S. Governor of the International Monetary Fund, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the Inter-American Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development; the Secretary along with the Treasurer of the United States must sign Federal Reserve notes before they can become legal tender. The Secretary manages the United States Emergency Economic Stabilization fund.
Most of the Department's law enforcement agencies such as the U. S. Customs Service, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives, the U. S. Secret Service were reassigned to other departments in 2003 in conjunction with the creation of the Department of Homeland Security; the salary of the Secretary of the Treasury is $205,700 annually. Parties No party Federalist Democratic-Republican Democratic Whig Republican Status 1 William Jones served as acting secretary between the resignation of Alexander J. Dallas and appointment of William H. Crawford. 2 Deputy Secretary of the Treasury M. Peter McPherson served as Acting Secretary of the Treasury from August 17, 1988, to September 15, 1988. 3 Because of the resignation of Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Roger Altman in August 1994, Under Secretary of Treasury for Domestic Finance Frank N. Newman served from December 22, 1994, to January 11, 1995 as Acting Secretary of the Treasury. 4 Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Kenneth W. Dam served as Acting Secretary of the Treasury from December 31, 2002, to February 3, 2003.
5 Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Robert M. Kimmitt served as Acting Secretary of the Treasury from June 30, 2006, to July 9, 2006. 6 Under Secretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence Stuart A. Levey served as Acting Secretary of the Treasury from January 20, 2009, until the confirmation of Timothy Geithner, which occurred January 26, 2009. 7 Deputy Secretary of the Treasury Neal Wolin served as Acting Secretary of the Treasury from January 25, 2013, until the confirmation of Jack Lew which occurred February 28, 2013. 8 Acting Under Secretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence Adam J. Szubin served as Acting Secretary of the Treasury from January 20, 2017, until the confirmation of Steven Mnuchin which occurred February 13, 2017. If both the Secretary and the Deputy Secretary of the Treasury are unable to carry out the duties of the office of Secretary of the Treasury whichever Treasury official of Under Secretary rank sworn in earliest assumes the role of Acting Secretary. Positions listed on the Department of the Treasury website include the Under Secretary for Domestic Finance, the Under Secretary for International Affairs, the Under Secretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence.
As of April 2019, there are eleven living former Secretaries of the Treasury, the oldest being George P. Shultz; the most recent Secretary of the Treasury to die, as well as the most serving Secretary to die, was Lloyd M. Bentsen, Jr. on May 23, 2006. "Secretaries of the Treasury". History of the Treasury. United States Department of the Treasury. Retrieved April 9, 2006. Official website
Simeon De Witt
Simeon De Witt was Geographer and Surveyor General of the Continental Army during the American Revolution and Surveyor General of the State of New York for the fifty years from 1784 until his death. De Witt was born in Ulster County, New York, one of fourteen children of physician Dr. Andries De Witt and Jannetje Vernooy De Witt, both of Dutch ancestry, he was the only graduate in the class of 1776 at Queens College – now Rutgers College of Rutgers University – in New Brunswick, New Jersey. After the capture of New Brunswick by the British during the war, De Witt fled to New York City where he joined the Revolutionary Army. In June 1778, having been trained as a surveyor by James Clinton, the husband of De Witt's Aunt Mary, De Witt was appointed as assistant to the Geographer and Surveyor of the Army, Colonel Robert Erskine, contributed to a number of significant maps. After Erskine's death in 1780, De Witt was appointed to his post. After the American Revolutionary War, De Witt attempted, but failed, to get the Continental Congress interested in a national mapping project.
DeWitt was appointed New York State Surveyor General in 1784, New York being one of the few states which had such an office. De Witt died 50 years still holding that position, having been re-appointed and re-elected several times. Although he was a first cousin of DeWitt Clinton – the most powerful politician in the state, both the Mayor of New York City and a State Senator – and was a Democratic-Republican, De Witt was never removed from office. Both Federalists and Bucktails recognized his outstanding qualification for the office. In 1796, George Washington favored De Witt to become the Surveyor General of the United States, but De Witt turned down the nomination. Washington wrote to Thomas Jefferson about De Witt "I can assure you, he is modest, sober and deserving of favors, he is esteemed a good mathematician," but despite this praise, none of De Witt's various proposals gained traction during Jefferson's presidency, De Witt had nothing to do with the Land Ordinance of 1785, despite what some sources claim.
De Witt was appointed in 1807 by the state legislature, at the request of the New York City Common Council, to a three-man commission, to determine how the city's future streets would be laid out. Frustrated by opposition from landowners, who wanted to determine for themselves where streets would go as they developed their properties, interference from various political factions, the Council had called on the state for assistance; the Commission was given "exclusive power to lay out streets and public squares, of such width and direction, as to them shall seem most conducive to public good, to shut up, or direct to be shut up, any streets or parts thereof which have been heretofore laid out... not accepted by the Common Council." The commissioners were authorized to be paid $4 a day for their work – although De Witt was the only one, compensated. De Witt, however wanted additional compensation for the days he spent traveling from his home in Albany to New York City, for Sundays he was required, because of Commission business, to stay in the city.
The result of the work of the commission was the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, which laid out Manhattan's streets above 14th Street – and to a certain extent between 14th and Houston Streets – in a regular rectilinear gridiron pattern, which has garnered both praise and intense criticism since it was presented to the public. Considering the massive effect on Manhattan of the Commissioners' Plan, De Witt himself did not much like New York City, he never took up residence there, seems to have held his time there to a minimum. In addition to his work on New York City, De Witt laid out rectilinear street grids in Albany, New York. From 1810 to 1816, De Witt was a member of the first Erie Canal Commission, a project dear to the heart of his cousin, De Witt Clinton, he ordered the making of surveys. As well as being Surveyor General of New York, from 1829 until his death in 1834, De Witt was the Chancellor of the University of the State of New York and thus the head of the Board of Regents; the Board of Regents is the governing body for the University of the State of New York – not to be confused with the State University of New York – which regulates many public and private institutions in New York State, licensing and setting standards for schools operating in New York State, from pre-kindergarten through professional and graduate school, as well as for the practice of a wide variety of professions.
De Witt was given credit for giving Classical Greek and Roman names to the twenty-eight central New York Military Tract townships that his office mapped after the war, to be given to veterans in payment for their military service. More credit has been given to his clerk Robert Harpur a reader of classical literature. De Witt did not leave much in the way of writings, he wrote a treatise published in 1813 on perspective drawing, one in 1819 which argued for the establishment of a state agricultural college, had some letters published on scientific topics. In 1802, De Witt produced a detailed map of the state of New York, engraved by Gideon Fairman; the map i
A soldier is one who fights as part of an army. A soldier can be a conscripted or volunteer enlisted person, a non-commissioned officer, or an officer; the word soldier derives from the Middle English word soudeour, from Old French soudeer or soudeour, meaning mercenary, from soudee, meaning shilling's worth or wage, from sou or soud, shilling. The word is related to the Medieval Latin soldarius, meaning soldier; these words derive from the Late Latin word solidus, referring to an Ancient Roman coin used in the Byzantine Empire. In most armies use of the word "soldier" has taken on a more general meaning due to the increasing specialization of military occupations that require different areas of knowledge and skill-sets; as a result, "soldiers" are referred to by names or ranks which reflect an individual's military occupation specialty arm, service, or branch of military employment, their type of unit, or operational employment or technical use such as: trooper, commando, infantryman, paratrooper, ranger, engineer, craftsman, medic, or a gunner.
In many countries soldiers serving in specific occupations are referred to by terms other than their occupational name. For example, military police personnel in the British Army are known as "red caps" because of the colour of their caps. Infantry are sometimes called "grunts" or "squaddies", while U. S. Army artillery crews, or "gunners," are sometimes referred to as "redlegs", from the service branch color for artillery. U. S. soldiers are called "G. I.s". French Marine Infantry are called marsouins because of their amphibious role. Military units in most armies have nicknames of this type, arising either from items of distinctive uniform, some historical connotation or rivalry between branches or regiments; some soldiers, such as conscripts or draftees, serve a single limited term. Others choose to serve until retirement. In the United States, military members can retire after 20 years. In other countries, the term of service is 30 years, hence the term "30-year man". According to the United Nations, 10-30% of all soldiers worldwide are women.
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