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Philip Sclater

Philip Lutley Sclater was an English lawyer and zoologist. In zoology, he was an expert ornithologist, identified the main zoogeographic regions of the world, he was Secretary of the Zoological Society of London for 42 years, from 1860–1902. Sclater was born at Tangier Park, in Wootton St Lawrence, where his father William Lutley Sclater had a country house. George Sclater-Booth, 1st Baron Basing was Philip's elder brother. Philip grew up at Hoddington House, he was educated in school at Twyford and at thirteen went to Winchester College and Corpus Christi College, Oxford where he studied scientific ornithology under Hugh Edwin Strickland. In 1851 he was admitted a Fellow of Corpus Christi College. In 1856 he travelled to America and visited Lake Superior and the upper St. Croix River, canoeing down it to the Mississippi. Sclater wrote about this in "Illustrated travels". In Philadelphia he met Spencer Baird, John Cassin and Joseph Leidy at the Academy of Natural Sciences. After returning to England, he practised law for several years and attended meetings of the Zoological Society of London.

In 1858, Sclater published a paper in the Proceedings of the Linnean Society, setting up six zoological regions which he called the Palaearctic, Indian, Australasian and Neotropical. These zoogeographic regions are still in use, he developed the theory of Lemuria during 1864 to explain zoological coincidences relating Madagascar to India. In 1874 he became private secretary to his brother George Sclater-Booth, MP, he was offered a permanent position in civil service but he declined. In 1875, he became President of the Biological Section of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, which he joined in 1847 as a member. Sclater was the editor of The Ibis, the journal of the British Ornithologists' Union, he was Secretary of the Zoological Society of London from 1860 to 1902. He was succeeded by his son, before the Council of the Society made a long-term appointment. In 1901 he described the okapi to western scientists, his office at 11 Hanover Square became a meeting place for all naturalists in London.

Travellers and residents shared notes with him and he corresponded with thousands. His collection of birds grew to nine thousand and these he transferred to the British Museum in 1886. At around the same time the museum was augmented by the collections of Gould and Godman, others to become the largest in the world. Among Sclater's more important books were Exotic Ornithology and Nomenclator Avium, both with Osbert Salvin. H. Hudson. In June 1901 he received an honorary doctorate of Science from the University of Oxford. On 16 October 1862 he married Jane Anne Eliza Hunter Blair, their eldest son, William Lutley Sclater, was an ornithologist. Their third son, Captain Guy Lutley Sclater, died on 26 November 1914, aged 45, in the accidental explosion that sank HMS Bulwark. Philip Sclater is buried in Odiham Cemetery. Sclater's lemur Dusky-billed parrotlet. Sclater's monal Erect-crested penguin Ecuadorian cacique. Mexican chickadee Bay-vented cotinga Sclater's antwren Sclater's cassowary... now considered con-specific with the Dwarf Cassowary.

Colombian longtail snake Although eclipsed by his contemporaries, Sclater may be considered as a precursor of biogeography and pattern cladistics. For instance he writes in 1858 that "...little or no attention is given to the fact that two or more of these given geographical divisions may have much closer relations to each other than to any third...". Catalogue of a collection of American birds. 1862. List of the vertebrated animals now or living in the gardens of the Zoological Society of London. 1862. 7th edition. 1879. Report on the birds collected during the voyage of H. M. S. Challenger in the years 1873–1876. 1880. Monograph on the jacamars and puff-birds. 1882. Argentine ornithology. A descriptive catalogue of the birds of the Argentine Republic; the geographical distribution of birds. 1891. With Oldfield Thomas: The book of antelopes.. With William Lutley Sclater: Geography of mammals. 1899. Obituary. Ibis 1913:642–686 Elliot, D. G. In memoriam. Auk 1914:31 Works written by or about Philip Lutley Sclater at Wikisource Works by Philip Sclater at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Philip Sclater at Internet Archive

Fools and Heroes

Fools and Heroes is a non-profit fantasy live-action role-playing game, started in the autumn of 1985 by John Naylor, who placed a small advertisement looking for players in TableTop Games, Daybrook Nottingham. The first events were run in 1986 and the rules system was written and published by John Naylor and Steve Bell in 1986, by which point the national branch structure had been established; the Society has multiple branches around the country. Most branches contain 15–20 members who play at least once a month, though some have as many as thirty. Members can travel between branches allowing them to play in various areas and interact in different plotlines. There are yearly gatherings which involve multiple branches the largest of, the Summerfest. At present there are twenty FnH branches across the UK; each branch elects a volunteer to act as Liaison Officer, responsible for the administration of the branch. The LO represents the branch's opinions on rules issues and various other topics during national meetings.

Each branch has referees who are responsible for running adventures. Most branches run sessions at least once a month, some as as once a week. Most sessions consist of two adventures over a single day, members will play one game as their character and act as "monsters" in the other game; the advantage of this play style is that, unlike systems where dedicated crew teams must be employed and Heroes sessions have low operating costs. Other than an annual society membership fee to cover administration costs there is no charge to attend these sessions; every branch has its own plot, controlled by a team of referees. There is a "national" plotline that all branches can take part in, this is controlled by volunteers elected from the society in general. Fools and Heroes main event is Summerfest, which runs the weekend of the bank holiday in August, was the first LARP to break the 1000-attendee mark in the early 1990s, it is a four-day event with on site camping and allows players to finish a national plot line, running over the previous 12 months.

Once again because of the format of missions the operating costs of these fests are lower than usual: large Fools and Heroes events such as this one cost little to attend. FnH uses latex weapons designed for use in live role play to ensure players' safety; as an additional precaution players are asked not to pull their blows. The combat system is referred to as location based. To determine the effects of this the body is separated into locations, two arms, two legs and head; each location on a standard human has one hit point and if damaged must be healed before being able to be used again. Wounds to the head or body are known as lethal wounds, which cause unconsciousness and lead to death if untreated. A player is allowed one character, a player character or PC. A PC is a member of a professional guild or a church following one of several gods, their abilities depend on their position within their guild or church, which advances automatically after the character has played missions during a specific number of months.

Players are allowed to play special characters, those that do not fit into the standard rules set, which must be vetted by the society before starting play. FnH is a medieval fantasy game, drawing inspiration from Warhammer Fantasy, Dungeons & Dragons, The Lord of the Rings and various other fictional and historical sources; the world itself is based on our own but countries and cities have different names, for example the equivalent of England is called "Ithron", Lancashire is called "Lanshore" and Newcastle is called "Newcroft". A fictional country named "Axir" exists, it is the home of the Axirian Empire, based on the Roman Empire and with a strong influence over the FnH world. Members may play characters from any of the standard fantasy races, provided they are willing and able to physically represent this appropriately. Nonhuman races possess varying natural abilities, conversely suffer varying amounts of discrimination. An example of this is. Additional unique characters such as goblins, half-orcs and fey are permissible, though such variants must be approved by senior referees.

Fools and Heroes has three different concepts which are analogous to character classes in other games. Most characters will be members of at least one of the eight guilds. Guilds are most similar to character classes in other games; the Guild of Scouts allows the finding of traps and tracking footprints. They wear leather armour; the Guild of Mercenaries are the front line of a battle, protecting their allies and suited with metal armour. The Guild of Alchemists spend their time away from adventures brewing potions for use in the field; some typical potions include those used to heal a wound to protect yourself from a single blow, or become invisible for a short time. The Guild of Blacksmiths, much like Alchemists, use their downtime to make armour and weapons for adventurers, but they can repair armour out in the field, making them useful in a tough fight; the Guild of Physicians are the medicinal healers of the FnH world. Using their different drugs, they can heal wounds, stitch up cuts, reattach a severed limb.

Physicians are worth their weight in gold on any party. The

2017 Gent–Wevelgem (women's race)

The sixth edition of Gent–WevelgemIn Flanders Fields was held on Sunday 26 March 2016. It was the women's event of Gent–Wevelgem cycling race, held in Belgium, it was the fourth race of the 2017 UCI Women's World Tour season. Finland's Lotta Lepistö won the race in a bunch sprint finish ahead of home rider Jolien D'Hoore American Coryn Rivera completed the podium; the Kemmelberg is the centerpiece of the race. This edition, the second ascent of the Kemmelberg was addressed via its steepest road; the first ascent was via the traditional route with a maximum gradient of 17% but, the second was addressed via this steeper road, which has a maximum gradient of 23% near the top. Race director Hans De Clercq stated that it is a tribute to the historical significance of the Kemmelberg, as it is that road being used the first time the Kemmelberg was included in the men's race, in 1955. According to COTACOL, a Belgian standard work that has examined and graded every climb in the country, the "new" Kemmelberg ascent is the toughest climb in all Flemish races.

They have given it an overall score of 183 points, more than the Koppenberg, the Muur van Geraardsbergen or the traditional Kemmelberg road. 25 teams competed in the race. 2017 in women's road cycling Official website