Philip V of Spain

Philip V was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to his abdication in favour of his son Louis on 14 January 1724, from his reaccession of the throne upon his son's death, 6 September 1724 to his own death on 9 July 1746. Before his reign, Philip occupied an exalted place in the royal family of France as a grandson of King Louis XIV, his father, Grand Dauphin, had the strongest genealogical claim to the throne of Spain when it became vacant in 1700. However, since neither the Grand Dauphin nor Philip's older brother, Duke of Burgundy, could be displaced from their place in the succession to the French throne, the Grand Dauphin's maternal uncle King Charles II of Spain named Philip as his heir in his will, it was well known that the union of France and Spain under one monarch would upset the balance of power in Europe, such that other European powers would take steps to prevent it. Indeed, Philip's accession in Spain provoked the 13-year War of the Spanish Succession, which continued until the Treaty of Utrecht forbade any future possibility of unifying the French and Spanish crowns while confirming his accession to the throne of Spain.

Philip was the first member of the French House of Bourbon to rule as King of Spain. The sum of his two reigns, 45 years and 21 days, is the longest in modern Spanish history. Philip was born at the Palace of Versailles in France as the second son of Louis, Grand Dauphin, the heir apparent to the throne of France, his wife Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria, known as the Dauphine Victoire, he was Duke of Burgundy, the father of Louis XV of France. At birth, Philip was created Duke of Anjou, a traditional title for younger sons in the French royal family, he would be known by this name. Since Philip's older brother, the Duke of Burgundy, was second in line to the French throne after his father, there was little expectation that either he or his younger brother Charles, Duke of Berry, would rule over France. Philip lived his first years under the supervision of the royal governess Louise de Prie and after, tutored with his brothers by François Fénelon, Archbishop of Cambrai; the three were educated by Paul de Beauvilliers.

In 1700, King Charles II of Spain died childless. His will named as successor Philip, grandson of Charles' half-sister Maria Theresa, the first wife of Louis XIV. Upon any possible refusal, the crown of Spain would be offered next to Philip's younger brother, the Duke of Berry to the Archduke Charles of Austria Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. Philip had the better genealogical claim to the Spanish throne, because his Spanish grandmother and great-grandmother were older than the ancestors of the Archduke Charles of Austria. However, the Austrians maintained that Philip's grandmother had renounced the Spanish throne for herself and her descendants as part of her marriage contract; the French claimed. After a long Royal Council meeting in France at which the Dauphin spoke up in favour of his son's rights, it was agreed that Philip would ascend the throne, but he would forever renounce his claim to the throne of France for himself and his descendants; the Royal Council decided to accept the provisions of the will of Charles II naming Philip, King of Spain, the Spanish ambassador was called in and introduced to his new king.

The ambassador, along with his son, knelt before Philip and made a long speech in Spanish, which Philip did not understand. On 2 November 1701, the 18-year-old Philip married the 13-year-old Maria Luisa of Savoy, as chosen by his grandfather King Louis XIV, she was the daughter of Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy, his wife Anne Marie d'Orléans, Philip's first cousin once removed. The Duke and Duchess of Savoy were the parents of Princess Marie Adélaïde of Savoy, Duchess of Burgundy, Philip's sister-in-law. There was a proxy ceremony at Turin, the capital of the Duchy of Savoy, another one at Versailles on 11 September. Maria Luisa proved popular as Queen of Spain, she served as regent for her husband on several occasions. Her most successful term was when Philip was away touring his Italian domains for nine months in 1702, when she was just 14 years old. On entering Naples that year he was presented with Bernini's Boy with a Dragon by Carlo Barberini. In 1714, Maria Luisa died at the age of 26 from tuberculosis, a devastating emotional blow to her husband.

The actions of Louis XIV heightened the fears of the English, the Dutch and the Austrians, among others. In February 1701, Louis XIV caused the Parlement of Paris to register a decree that if Philip's elder brother, the Petit Dauphin Louis, died without an heir Philip would surrender the throne of Spain for the succession to the throne of France, ensuring dynastic continuity in Europe's greatest land power. However, a second act of the French king "justified a hostile interpretation": pursuant to a treaty with Spain, Louis occupied several towns in the Spanish Netherlands; this was the spark that ignited the powder keg created by the unresolved issues of the War of the League of Augsburg and the acceptance of the Spanish inheritance by Louis XIV for his grandson. The War of the Spanish Succession began. Concern among other European powers that Spain and France united under a single Bourbon monarch would upset the balance of power pitted powerful France and weak Spain against the Grand Alliance of England, the Netherlands and Austria.

Inside Spain, the Crown of Castile supported Philip o

Croatia in the Eurovision Song Contest 2005

Croatia was represented at the Eurovision Song Contest 2005 by Boris Novkovic and Lado Members with the song "Vukovi umiru sami". The song was written by Boris Novković and composed by Franjo Valentić. Boris Novković was born on 25 December 1967 in Sarajevo to a family of musicians, his father Đorđe Novković is one of the greatest Croatian pop composers and songwriters and his mother Ozana is a music teacher. During his impressive career, spanning 20 years, Boris has released 14 albums of which Ostvaren san is his most recent release in 2004. Boris competed in the Yugoslavian finals for Eurovision in 1989 with the song "Dajana" which came in second. Boris competed in the International Festival in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, he has won many prizes. Dora 2005 was the Croatian national selection which selected Croatia's entry for the Eurovision Song Contest 2005. Notable participants included former Croatian representatives Magazin, Danijela Martinović. Between 7 and 18 February 2004, a quarter-final was held with 20 songs being presented on HRT over the course of 10 shows.

From 21 to 24 February 2004, 4 more shows were broadcast where 18 semi-finalists were chosen by televoting and an "expert" jury. The first semi-final took place on 3 March 2005 at the HRT TV Studios in Zagreb, hosted by Nina Badrić and Robert Ferlin. Nine entries participated and seven advanced to the final; the qualifiers were determined based on the votes of an "expert" jury. The second semi-final took place on 4 March 2005 at the HRT TV Studios in Zagreb, hosted by Nina Badrić and Robert Ferlin. Nine entries participated and seven advanced to the final; the qualifiers were determined based on the votes of an "expert" jury. The final took place on 5 March 2005 at the HRT TV Studios in Zagreb, hosted by Nina Badrić and Robert Ferlin; the winner was selected over two rounds of voting. In the first round, a three-member "expert" jury panel and televoting determined the top three entries to proceed to the superfinal. In the superfinal, the winner was selected by the televote; the eventual winner was Boris Novković featuring members of the ethno group Lado, with the song "Vukovi umiru sami".

At Eurovision, Boris delivered a simple performance accompanied by a bagpipe and the Lado members in the background. One of the main features of his performance was the drum player who not only made a spectacle out of his drum playing, but jumped around the stage and did some gymnastics; the song remained in Croatian. The song is considered a Balkan ballad for having Croatian folk influence; because Croatia placed 12th at the 2004 contest,Boris Novković feat. Lado members were forced to compete in the Eurovision semi-final, held two days before the final. Croatia qualified to the final, placing 4th in scoring 169 points. In the final, Croatia performed 18th, preceding the Greece. Croatia placed 11th in the final, scoring 115 points, meaning that Croatia automatically qualified for the final in the 2006 contest; the spokesperson who revealed Croatia's votes for other countries was Barbara Kolar, an HRT host

Lih-Ling Highe

Lih-Ling Highe is a mechanical engineer. She works for Bechtel and her major projects have included the redevelopment of St Pancras International station, her most influential colleague at Bechtel was Ailie MacAdam. Highe is now project manager for the changes to the Tottenham Court Road station for Crossrail. Highe is an alumna of St Paul's Girls' School, having studied there from 1984 to 1986, she has a degree in mechanical engineering from University College London, where she was one of four women in a class of 54. Highe's first job after graduating from university was for a mechanical seals company in Singapore, she worked as a process systems engineer at Bechtel in petrochemical plant design. During this time she was involved in many international projects, including India's Jamnagar Refinery. After a 14-month secondment in Houston, USA, Highe returned to London to work in project controls, producing bids for oil and chemical sector contracts. Highe worked as a civil engineer on the High Speed 1 rail project in a risk management role.

She became a field engineer on the project, working on St Pancras International station. After this project, Highe began working on the Crossrail project, first as a cost engineer and as an interface manager, she is the project manager for the new Tottenham Court Road station for the London Underground Elizabeth Line and was featured in this role in the documentary The Fifteen Billion Pound Railway in 2019. Highe's father and two siblings are mechanical engineers, she has two children