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Philip the Arab

Marcus Julius Philippus known by his nickname Philip the Arab, was Roman Emperor from February 244 to September 249. He was born in the Roman province of Arabia, in a city situated in modern-day Syria, he went on to become a major figure in the Roman Empire. After the death of Gordian III in February 244, Praetorian prefect, achieved power, he negotiated peace with the Persian Sassanid Empire and returned to Rome to be confirmed by the senate. During his reign, the city of Rome celebrated its millennium, he introduced the Actia-Dusaria Festivities in Bostra, capital of Arabia, symbolizing the union of Rome and the Arabs. Dusaria is the main Nabataean deity. Among early Christian writers, Philip had the reputation of being sympathetic to the Christian faith. For this reason, it was claimed by some that he had converted to Christianity, which would have made him the first Christian emperor, he tried to celebrate Easter with Christians in Antioch, but the bishop Saint Babylas made him stand with the penitents.

Philip and his wife received letters from Origen. Philip was betrayed and killed at the Battle of Verona in September 249 following a rebellion led by his successor, Gaius Messius Quintus Decius. Little is known about political career, he was born in what is today Shahba, about 90 kilometres southeast of Damascus, in the Trachonitis district. At the time this was in the Roman province of Arabia, Glen Bowersock believes that Philip was indeed of Arab origin, he was the son of a local citizen, Julius Marinus of some importance. Allegations from Roman sources that Philip had a humble origin or that his father was a leader of brigands are not accepted by modern historians. While the name of Philip's mother is unknown, he did have a brother, Gaius Julius Priscus, an equestrian and a member of the Praetorian Guard under Gordian III. In 234, Philip married daughter of a Roman Governor, they had three children, a son named Marcus Julius Philippus Severus, born in 238, a daughter called Julia Severa or Severina, known from numismatic evidence but is never mentioned by the ancient Roman sources and a son named Quintus Philippus Severus, born in 247.

Philip's rise to prominence began through the intervention of his brother Priscus, an important official under the emperor Gordian III. His big break came in 243, during Gordian III's campaign against Shapur I of Persia, when the Praetorian prefect Timesitheus died under unclear circumstances. At the suggestion of his brother Priscus, Philip became the new Praetorian prefect, with the intention that the two brothers would control the young Emperor and rule the Roman world as unofficial regents. Following a military defeat, Gordian III died in February 244 under circumstances that are still debated. While some claim that Philip conspired in his murder, other accounts state that Gordian died in battle. Whatever the case, Philip assumed the purple robe following Gordian's death. According to Edward Gibbon: His rise from so obscure a station to the first dignities of the empire seems to prove that he was a bold and able leader, but his boldness prompted him to aspire to the throne, his abilities were employed to supplant, not to serve, his indulgent master.

Philip was not willing to repeat the mistakes of previous claimants, was aware that he had to return to Rome in order to secure his position with the senate. However, his first priority was to conclude a peace treaty with Shapur I of Persia, withdraw the army from a disastrous situation. Although Philip was accused of abandoning territory, the actual terms of the peace were not as humiliating as they could have been. Philip retained Timesitheus’ reconquest of Osroene and Mesopotamia, but he had to agree that Armenia lay within Persia's sphere of influence, he had to pay an enormous indemnity to the Persians of 500,000 gold denarii. Philip issued coins proclaiming that he had made peace with the Persians. Leading his army back up the Euphrates, south of Circesium Philip erected a cenotaph in honor of Gordian III, but his ashes were sent ahead to Rome, where he arranged for Gordian III's deification. Whilst in Antioch, he left his brother Priscus as extraordinary ruler of the Eastern provinces, with the title of rector Orientis.

Moving westward, he gave his brother-in-law Severianus control of the provinces of Moesia and Macedonia. He arrived in Rome in the late summer of 244, where he was confirmed Augustus. Before the end of the year, he nominated his young son Caesar and heir, his wife, Otacilia Severa, was named Augusta, he deified his father Marinus though the latter had never been emperor. While in Rome, Philip claimed an official victory over the Persians with the titles of Parthicus Adiabenicus, Persicus Maximus and Parthicus Maximus. In an attempt to shore up his regime, Philip put a great deal of effort in maintaining good relations with the Senate, from the beginning of his reign, he reaffirmed the old Roman virtues and traditions, he ordered an enormous building program in his home town, renaming it Philippopolis, raising it to civic status, while he populated it with statues of himself and his family. This creation of a new city, piled on top of the massive tribute owed to the Persians, as well as the necessary donative to the army to secure its acceptance of his accession, meant Philip was short of money

United Nations Security Council Resolution 940

United Nations Security Council resolution 940, adopted on 31 July 1994, after recalling resolutions 841, 861, 862, 867, 873, 875, 905, 917 and 933, the Council permitted a United States-led force to restore President Jean-Bertrand Aristide and authorities of the Government of Haiti, extended the mandate of the United Nations Mission in Haiti for an additional six months. The Council began with condemnations of the military regime in Haiti because it had refused to co-operate with the United States; some concern was expressed at the deteriorating humanitarian situation in the country, violations of civil liberties and expulsion of staff from the International Civilian Mission. The resolution claimed an extraordinary situation in Haiti, it was determined. The Council authorised, under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, for Member States to form a multinational force under US command to overthrow current leaders from Haiti, for previous ones to return to an environment in which a United States agreement could be implemented.

An advance team of no more than 60 personnel was established in order to co-ordinate and observe the American operations, requesting the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali to report back on developments relating to the advance team within 30 days. Once the multinational force had completed its mission, UNMIH would take over its functions when a suitable environment had been secured. After extending UNMIH's mandate for six months, it was decided to increase the size of the mission to 6,000 troops with the aim of completing it by February 1996; the safety of United Nations personnel and those from diplomatic missions and international humanitarian organisations would be guaranteed. International sanctions imposed on Haiti would be lifted once Aristide had been returned to power. Resolution 940 was controversially adopted by 12 votes to none, with two abstentions from Brazil and China, while Rwanda was not present when voting took place. There were accusations of US pressure; the vote was the first time the United Nations sanctioned the use of an invading force to "restore democracy."

It was the first time the US has sought and gained UN approval for a military intervention in the Americas. Many Latin American countries were opposed to the resolution. Mexico's UN ambassador, Víctor Flores Olea, spoke out against the resolution, saying that "it sets an dangerous precedent in the field of international relations” because the crisis "does not constitute a threat to peace and international security." Cuban Foreign Minister Roberto Robaina said that the resolution furthers "the repeated attempts by the Security Council to amplify its powers beyond those which were granted it by the Charter." Brazilian President Itamar Franco opposed the UN decision, saying "The Security Council's special powers should not be invoked in an indiscriminate manner in the name of a'search for more rapid means' to respond to attacks on democracy, because it violates the basic principles of peaceful co-existence between nations and normal UN legal procedures." After a visit to Brazil from U. S. Under Secretary of State Peter Tarnoff the week before the vote, Brazil's decision to abstain instead of oppose the resolution can be seen to be the result of enormous U.

S. pressure. Pointing out that the situation in Haiti posed no threat to world peace and security, Uruguay's UN representative Ramiro Piriz Ballon said his country "will not support any military intervention, unilateral or multilateral." Argentina offered to send four marine and infantry companies to join the U. S.-led invasion forces. However, after popular discontent over the decision, President Carlos Menem was forced to back down on the offer. On 17 January 1995, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali issued a 17-page report on the result of the intervention: the report noted the ongoing repression in Haiti, the complete lack of justice for victims of the September 1991 coup d'état, the deteriorating economic situation, the growing impatience of the Haitian people. History of Haiti List of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 901 to 1000 Operation Uphold Democracy Raboteau Massacre Works related to United Nations Security Council Resolution 940 at Wikisource Text of the Resolution at undocs.org

Bulimba Memorial Park

Bulimba Memorial Park is a heritage-listed park at 129 Oxford Street, Queensland, Australia. It was built from 1919 to 1980s, it is known as Bulimba Soldiers & Sailors Memorial Park and Jamieson Park. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992. Part of Bulimba Memorial Park may have been established by the Balmoral Shire Council as early as c. 1904, as Jamieson Park. Following the First World War it was opened on 1 November 1919 by Walter Barnes, Member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly as the Bulimba Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Park, dedicated to Bulimba servicemen and women who had served in the Great War. Robert Jamieson was an early Bulimba farmer and the park is part of his c. 1888 subdivision of portion 7. Bulimba ratepayers had discussed the acquisition of part of Jamieson's land for a recreation ground as early as January 1888, when it was offered to them at a reduced price. Nearly 4 acres of this land was acquired by the Balmoral Shire Council in 1904, in subsequent years a number of adjacent subdivisions were incorporated within the park.

The first memorials erected in the park were the Oxford Road formal entrance gateway and an adjacent pillar. A plaque on the memorial pillar records that the park is dedicated to the soldiers and nurses who enlisted from Bulimba for service in the Great War 1914–1919. Between 1919 and 1923 trees were planted along the Stuart and Oxford Street frontages; each tree bore a commemorative plaque honouring a serviceman killed in action. These plaques have since disappeared, only six names are recorded. Most of the surviving memorial trees are located along Oxford Street; the grandstand on the Godwin Street side was built about 1923 through local fund raising efforts. It has been suggested that the architect was George Henry Male Addison, who designed the nearby Bulimba ferry wharf building. In 1925, the park became the property of the Brisbane City Council, following the creation of Greater Brisbane. A shelter shed near the corner of Oxford and Stuart Streets appears to date from the 1920s. Other structures on the site include playground equipment adjacent to the shelter shed and 1950s Girl Guides and Boy Scouts buildings.

The former Boy Scout Hut has been extended. The Babs Shield Senior Citizens Club was built c. 1983. Other buildings include a canteen. During the 1980s the Brisbane City Council found that not all the subdivisions which comprised the park were Council owned; these were acquired, including the unformed James Street, by 1990 the park contained over 4.6 hectares. The park has been a venue for local cricket, rugby and other recreational uses since early this century, it is adjacent to the local shopping centre and it is the only remaining open park land with sporting facilities in the district. Bulimba Memorial Park comprises 4.6 hectares of land in the heart of the suburb of Bulimba, bounded by Godwin Street to the west, Oxford Street on the north, Stuart Street to the east, housing and sections of Barramul Street to the south. The extensive perimeter is delineated by spaced timber posts, the roadway boundaries ensure free access and visibility and plenty of street parking for park users; the ground is flat, apart from some perimeter plantings comprises open playing fields.

The park contains a number of elements intended as memorials to local persons who served in the First World War. These include: memorial gateway, a wrought iron arch bearing the words Memorial Park, supported by a pair of solid timber posts, is located along the Oxford Street boundary memorial pillar, adjacent to the Oxford Street gateway, resembles a small solid lectern constructed of concrete, it has a short pedestal with cornice. A brass memorial plaque is set on the face of the lectern. Memorial trees, principally figs with alternating palms; the mature trees along Oxford Street, provide shade for spectators and locals enjoying the park's open space. Memorial grandstand, a two-storeyed timber structure with a gable roof of corrugated iron, located midway along the Godwin Street side of the park; the symmetrical front facade is dominated by a wide gabled bay, flanked by access stairs that lead to the raked- back seating in the upper level. The sloped seating is balanced by the angle of the skillion roof of the rear changing rooms at ground level.

The grandstand is open-sided, the roof being supported by slender timber columns with winged brackets. Decorative elements include lattice valance panels. Other structures within the park include a shelter shed near the corner of Oxford and Stuart Streets, Girl Guides' Hall, former Scout Hut, senior citizens' club, public toilets and canteen; the c. 1920s shelter shed is an open-sided structure, with timber posts with winged brackets supporting a short-ridged roof of corrugated iron. The soccer club is a L-shaped building with a corrugated iron gable roof; the ground floor is constructed of concrete bricks while the first floor is weatherboard, there is an extensive timber deck at first floor level. The Girl Guides' Hall is a two- storeyed weatherboard structure with a gable roof of corrugated iron; the senior citizens' club, at the corner of Stuart and Barramul Streets, is a brick and glass, L-shaped structure. Near the 1923 grandstand are brick public toilets and a concrete block canteen, both with flat roofs.

Bulimba Memorial Park was listed on the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 October 1992 having satisfied the following criteria. The place is important in demons