County of Flanders
The County of Flanders was a historic territory in the Low Countries. From 862 onwards the Counts of Flanders were one of the original twelve peers of the Kingdom of France. For centuries their estates around the cities of Ghent and Ypres formed one of the most affluent regions in Europe. Up to 1477, the area under French suzerainty was located west of the Scheldt River and was called "Royal Flanders". Aside from this the Counts of Flanders from the 11th century on held land east of the river as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire, an area called "Imperial Flanders". Part of the Burgundian Netherlands from 1384, the county was removed from French to Imperial control after the Peace of Madrid in 1526 and the Peace of Ladies in 1529. In 1795 the remaining territory within the Austrian Netherlands was incorporated by the French First Republic and passed to the newly established United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815; the former County of Flanders, except for French Flanders, is the only part of the medieval French kingdom, not part of modern-day France.
Flanders and Flemish are derived from the Frisian *flāndra and *flāmisk, the roots of which are Germanic *flaumaz meaning "overflow, flooding". The coastal area of Flanders was flooded twice per day from the 3rd century to the 8th century by the North Sea at the time when the coast was visited by Frisian traders and largely inhabited by Frisians; the Flemish people are first mentioned in the biography of the Vita sancti Eligii. This work was written before 684, but only known since 725; this work mentions the "Flanderenses", who lived in "Flandris." The geography of the historic County of Flanders only overlaps with present-day region of Flanders in Belgium, though there it extends beyond West Flanders and East Flanders. Some of the historic county is now part of France and the Netherlands; the land covered by the county is spread out over: Belgium: two of the five Flemish provinces: West-Flanders and East-Flanders part of the Flemish province of Antwerp: the land of Bornem part of the Walloon province of Hainaut: Tournaisis and the region around Moeskroen France: French Flanders the French westcorner: the region around Dunkirk and Bailleul, an area where Flemish used to be the main language Walloon Flanders, where the Picard language related to French, was spoken.
Artois: removed from Flanders in 1191 and created as independent county in 1237 Netherlands: Zeelandic Flanders, a region between Belgium and the Western Scheldt in the southern part of the modern province of Zeeland, which from 1581 formed part of the Generality Lands under control of the Dutch Republic. The arms of the County of Flanders were created by Philip of Alsace, count of Flanders from 1168 to 1191. In the story about the Battle of the Golden Spurs, the arms and its corresponding battlecry Vlaendr'n den leeuw plays a crucial role in the forming of a Flemish consciousness, popularised in recent times by the book De Leeuw van Vlaanderen by Hendrik Conscience; as a result, the arms of the county live on as arms of the Flemish Community. It is said that Philip of Alsace brought the lion flag with him from the Holy Land, where in 1177 he conquered it from a Saracen knight, but this is a myth; the simple fact that the lion appeared on his personal seal since 1163, when he had not yet set one step in the Levant, disproves it.
In reality Philip was following a West-European trend. In the same period lions appeared in the arms of Brabant, Holland and other territories, it is curious that the lion as a heraldic symbol was used in border territories and neighbouring countries of the Holy Roman Empire. It was in all likelihood a way of showing independence from the emperor, who used an eagle in his personal arms. In Europe the lion had been a well-known figure since Roman times, through works such as the fables of Aesop; the future county of Flanders had been inhabited since prehistory. During the Iron Age the Kemmelberg formed an important Celtic settlement. During the times of Julius Caesar, the inhabitants were part of the Belgae, a collective name for all Celtic and Germanic tribes in the north of Gallia. For Flanders in specific these were the Morini, the Nervii and the Atrebates. Julius Caesar conquered the area around 54 BC and the population was romanised from the 1st to the 3rd century; the Roman road that connected Cologne with Boulogne-sur-Mer was used as a defense perimeter.
In the south the Gallo-Romanic population was able to maintain itself, while the north became a no-mans land that suffered from regular floods from the North Sea. In the coastal and Scheldt areas Saxon tribes appeared. For the Romans, Saxon was a general term, included Angles, Saxons and Erules; the coastal defense around Boulogne and Oudenburg, the Litus Saxonicum, remained functional until about 420. These forts were manned by Saxon soldiers. From their base land Toxandria the Salian Franks further expanded into the Roman empire; the first incursion into the lands of the Atrebates was turned away in 448 at Vicus Helena. But after the murder of the Roman general Flavius Aëtius in 454 and Roman emperor Valentinianus III in 455, the Salic Franks encounterd hardly any resistance. From Duisburg, king Chlodio conquered Cambrai and Tournai, he reached the Somme. After his death two Salic kingdoms
County of Holland
The County of Holland was a State of the Holy Roman Empire and from 1432 part of the Burgundian Netherlands, from 1482 part of the Habsburg Netherlands and from 1648 onward the leading province of the Dutch Republic, of which it remained a part until the Batavian Revolution in 1795. The territory of the County of Holland corresponds with the current provinces of North Holland and South Holland in the Netherlands; the oldest sources refer to the not defined county as Frisia, west of the Vlie. Before 1101, sources talk about Frisian counts, but in this year Floris II, Count of Holland is mentioned as Florentius comes de Hollant. Holland is Old Dutch for holt lant "wood land," The counts of Holland kept to this single title until 1291, when Floris V, Count of Holland decided to call himself Count of Holland and Zeeland, lord of Friesland; this title was used after Holland was united with Hainault, Bavaria-Straubing, the Duchy of Burgundy. The titles lost their importance, the last count, Philip II of Spain, only mentioned them halfway through his long list of titles.
Around 800, under Charlemagne, the Frankish Empire covered much of Europe. In much of this empire, an important unit of regional administration was pagus. A comes ruled one or more gaue; because of the low volume of trade, the negative trade balance with the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim states and the disappearance of currency, the economy was more-or-less reduced to barter. The king's vassals could only be rewarded with usufruct. From this, feudalism developed; the vassals, who were appointed by the king, strove for a system of inheritance. This became more and more the rule, in 877 it was legalised in the Capitulary of Quierzy. Upon the death of a king, the Frankish kingdom was divided among his heirs; this partible inheritance caused internal strife, which made centralized government problematic. The Viking raids further undermined centralized government. At the end of the reign of Emperor Louis the Pious, royal power had weakened because of the flood of 838 and infighting between the king's sons.
After Louis died in 840 his son, Emperor Lothair I, rewarded the Danish brothers Rorik and Harald with Frisia — present-day Holland — in an attempt to resist Viking attacks. When Lothair died in 855, the northern part of Middle Francia was awarded to his second son Lothair II and was called Lotharingia; the 880 Treaty of Ribemont added the Kingdom of Lotharingia to East Francia, which attempted to integrate it. However, there were no connections like those between the four German stem duchies of east Francia: Franconia, the Saxony, the Bavaria and the Swabia. Lotharingia had considerable self-determination. Although the stem duchies flocked to Duke Conrad I of Franconia, Lotharingia chose Carolingian king of West Francia Charles the Simple. In Frisia, the situation was complex. Power was in the hands of Rorik's successor, who became embroiled in the politics of the Frankish empire and was allied with the children of Lothair II. Danish rule ended in 885 with the murder of Godfrid at Herispijk, all Danes east of the coastal areas of West Frisia were killed or driven out in must have been a complex, successful conspiracy led by Henry of Franconia in which a coalition of Babenberg Franks, Hamaland Saxons and Teisterbant Frisians outsmarted Godfrid and the Danes.
The chief conspirator in the murder was count of Hamaland. One of those who profited most from the power vacuum was the Frisian Gerolf, comes Fresonum, from Westergo in the present-day province of Friesland. Gerolf, Godfrid's former envoy to the emperor, demanded lands in the Moselle valley from the emperor to provoke a war. After the elimination of a large portion of the Danish population, Gerulf controlled a large Frisian part of the county of Holland; this fait accompli was recognised when Gerolf was given lands in full ownership on 4 August 889 by the East Frankish king Arnulf of Carinthia, who needed strong warlords in the delta region to keep the Danes and other Vikings out. The lands in question included an area outside Gerulf's county, in Teisterbant, which included Tiel and Asch, it involved a forest and field between the mouth of the Old Rhine, the border between the former Frankish counties of Rijnland and Kennemerland. King Charles the Simple gave the church in Egmond and its possessions to Count Dirk I of Holland in 922 in gratitude for Dirk's support in the Battle of Soissons to suppress a rebellion of his West Frankish vassals.
The West Frankish king was able to do this because the lands and churches he granted to Dirk were outside his jurisdiction. He founded Egmond Abbey, Holland oldest monastery; when Charles the Simple was deposed in 923, King Henry the Fowler of East Francia allied with Count Gilbert of Hainaut and re-conquered Lotharingia. By 925, the Lotharingian nobles accepted Lotharingia became a fifth German stem duchy. Henry's power was limited by his vassal, whose power was limited to his own counties; the rising status of the House of Holland was shown when in 938 Count Dirk II the grandson of Count Dirk I, married at the age
Isabella of Portugal, Duchess of Burgundy
Isabella of Portugal was Duchess of Burgundy as the third wife of Duke Philip the Good. Born a Portuguese infanta of the House of Aviz, Isabella was the only surviving daughter of King John I of Portugal and his wife Philippa of Lancaster, her son by Philip was the last Valois Duke of Burgundy. Isabella was the regent of the Burgundian Low Countries during the absence of her spouse in 1432 and in 1441–1443, she served as her husband's representative in negotiations with England regarding trade relations in 1439 and those with the rebellious cities of Holland in 1444. Isabella was born to John I of Portugal and Philippa of Lancaster, who had six children survive infancy. Born in 1397 in Évora, raised in the Portuguese court in Lisbon, Isabella was the fourth child and only daughter to survive to adulthood. Phillippa instilled in all her children, including her daughter, a sense of duty and belief in education. Isabella held an interest in politics, her father ensured that she was given a good understanding of politics, joining her brothers in their instructions in affairs of state and she became proficient in Latin, French and Italian during her studies with the princes.
She was fond of hunting with her brothers. In 1415 Isabella received an offer of marriage from her cousin Henry V of England, an effort for England to form closer links with Portugal against France; the negotiations failed and Isabella remained unmarried. In 1415 she grieved at the death of her mother on 19 June, with whom she had a close relationship. At age of 30 Isabella was still unmarried when the Burgundian house of Valois provided her with an offer of marriage in 1428; the reigning Duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good, had been widowed twice - by Michelle of Valois and Bonne of Artois. Neither marriage left surviving issue. For his third wife, Philip was anxious to seek a candidate from England or a nation allied to England, since he wanted to secure his alliance with England further. Isabella was attractive to Philip as a potential consort being well-bred and accomplished. On 19 October 1428, Philip sent a delegation from Sluys led by his chief counsellor, the Seigneur de Roubaix, that arrived in Lisbon on 16 December after calling at Sandwich until 2 December and acquiring two more ships.
The delegation waited another month while Isabella's father and brothers met at Aviz to discuss the matter. On 19 January 1429, a formal request for the Infanta's hand was made by the Burgundians, discussions between the two parties began; the Portuguese agreed to the marriage and sent messengers on 2 February to receive the Duke of Burgundy's formal response, signed on 5 May and received by the Portuguese on 4 June. The marriage contract was drawn up, Isabella, still in Portugal, was married to Philip the Good by proxy on 24 July 1429, with Roubaix acting as groom. Isabella did not leave Portugal for another eight weeks, her father had a fleet and trousseau prepared and on 19 October 1429, with a flotilla of about 20 ships, Isabella—accompanied by 2000 Portuguese—left Portugal forever. After an eleven-week journey when the fleet was beset by storms, causing the loss of several ships and much of her bridal trousseau, the convoy reached Sluys on 25 December 1429; the Duchess disembarked the following day where she and Philip celebrated their formal religious marriage two weeks on 7 January 1430.
With her husband, accompanied by the Countess of Namur, Jeanne de Harcourt, Isabella travelled through the main territories of Burgundy: from Ghent to Kortrijk to Lille, to Brussels, Arras, Péronne-en-Mélantois, Mechelen and, by mid-March Noyon, where Isabella, now pregnant, chose to rest through the spring, only leaving when Joan of Arc led a campaign against the nearby Compiègne. She returned to Ghent, where she dealt with a potential guild uprising. Isabella was at first unprepared for the lavish style of court life in Burgundy, one of the most extravagant in Europe; the Portuguese infanta, described by the Burgundian embassy that had negotiated her marriage as appearing to their eyes as a nun when they had first met, now dressed in loose clothing and flat over-panels to hide her pregnancy, looked dowdy at her new court. More upsetting to Isabella, was her husband's behaviour, he had showered gifts on her when she had first arrived, still more when she had become pregnant. He kept numerous women as his lovers, most living away from the court, as many as 50 illegitimate children.
Isabella gave birth to her first child on 30 December 1430 at Coudenberg in Brussels, a year after her marriage. The child, sickly at birth, was christened on 16 January 1431, soon after both parents left to attend to ducal business. By the autumn of that year, Isabella was once again pregnant with Joseph; because of this, when Charles VII of France began attacking Burgundy in January 1432, Philip—leaving Coudenburg to defend Dijon—ordered that she represent him during his absence. Antoine and Joseph both died in 1432, but the duchess gave birth to the future Charles the Bold on 10 November 1433. Isabella was a intelligent woman who liked to be surrounded by artists and poets, she was a generous patron of the arts. In politics, she had a great influence on her son, but more so on her husband, whom she represented on several diplomatic conferences and for whom she governed when he was absent. Mos
Margaret of Bavaria
Margaret of Bavaria, was Duchess consort of Burgundy by marriage to John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy. She was the regent of the Burgundian Low countries during the absence of her spouse in 1404–1419 and the regent in French Burgundy during the absence of her son in 1419–1423, she became most known for her successful defense of French Burgundy against John IV, Count of Armagnac in 1419. Margaret was the fifth child of Albert, Duke of Bavaria-Straubing, Count of Hainault and Zeeland and Lord of Frisia, Margaret of Brieg. In 1385, at the Burgundian double wedding in Cambrai, she married John, Count of Nevers, the son and heir of Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy and Margaret of Dampierre, Countess of Flanders and Burgundy. With the death of Philip the Bold in 1404, Margaret of Dampierre in 1405, John inherited these territories, Margaret became his consort, they had only one son, Philip the Good, who inherited these territories, seven daughters. Margaret, Countess of Gien and Montargis, married, on 30 August 1404, Dauphin of France on 10 October 1422, Arthur de Richemont, Constable of France, the future Duke of Brittany Catherine Mary.
She married Adolph Duke of Cleves. Philip the Good, his successor Isabella, Countess of Penthièvre, married at Arras on 22 July 1406 to Olivier de Châtillon-Blois, Count of Penthièvre and Périgord Joan, d. young Anne, married John, Duke of Bedford Agnes, married Charles I, Duke of Bourbon Bayley, The Bailleuls of Flanders and the Bayleys of Willow Hall
Isabeau of Bavaria
Isabeau of Bavaria was born into the House of Wittelsbach as the eldest daughter of Duke Stephen III of Bavaria-Ingolstadt and Taddea Visconti of Milan. She became Queen of France when she married King Charles VI in 1385. At age 15 or 16, Isabeau was sent to France on approval to the young French king. Isabeau was honored in 1389 with entry into Paris. In 1392 Charles suffered the first attack of what was to become a lifelong and progressive mental illness, resulting in periodic withdrawal from government; the episodes occurred with increasing frequency, leaving a court both divided by political factions and steeped in social extravagances. A 1393 masque for one of Isabeau's ladies-in-waiting—an event known as Bal des Ardents—ended in disaster with the King burning to death. Although the King demanded Isabeau's removal from his presence during his illness, he allowed her to act on his behalf. In this way she became regent to the Dauphin of France, sat on the regency council, allowing far more power than was usual for a medieval queen.
Charles' illness created a power vacuum that led to the Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War between supporters of his brother, Louis of Orléans and the royal dukes of Burgundy. Isabeau shifted allegiances; when she followed the Armagnacs, the Burgundians accused her of adultery with Louis of Orléans. In 1407 John the Fearless assassinated Orléans; the war ended soon after Isabeau's eldest son, had John the Fearless assassinated in 1419—an act that saw him disinherited. Isabeau attended the 1420 signing of the Treaty of Troyes, which decided that the English king should inherit the French crown after the death of her husband, Charles VI, she lived in English-occupied Paris until her death in 1435. Isabeau was popularly seen as a irresponsible philanderess. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries historians re-examined the extensive chronicles of her lifetime, concluding that many elements of her reputation were unearned and stemmed from factionalism and propaganda. Isabeau's parents were Duke Stephen III of Bavaria-Ingolstadt and Taddea Visconti, whom he married for a 100,000 ducat dowry.
She was most born in Munich where she was baptized as Elisabeth at the Church of Our Lady. She was great-granddaughter to the Wittelsbach Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV. At that period Bavaria counted amongst the most powerful German states and divided between members of the House of Wittelsbach. Isabeau's uncle, Duke Frederick of Bavaria-Landshut, suggested in 1383 that she be considered as a bride to King Charles VI of France; the match was proposed again at the lavish Burgundian double wedding in Cambrai in April 1385—John the Fearless and his sister Margaret of Burgundy married Margaret and William of Bavaria-Straubing respectively. Charles 17, rode in the tourneys at the wedding, he was an attractive, physically fit young man, who enjoyed jousting and hunting and was excited to be married. Charles VI's uncle, Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, thought the proposed marriage ideal to build an alliance with the Holy Roman Empire and against the English. Isabeau's father agreed reluctantly and sent her to France with his brother, her uncle, on the pretext of taking a pilgrimage to Amiens.
He was adamant that she was not to know she was being sent to France to be examined as a prospective bride for Charles, refused permission for her to be examined in the nude, customary at the time. According to the contemporary chronicler Jean Froissart, Isabeau was 13 or 14 when the match was proposed and about 16 at the time of the marriage in 1385, suggesting a birth date of around 1370. Before her presentation to Charles, Isabeau visited Hainaut for about a month, staying with her granduncle Duke Albert I, ruler of some of Bavaria-Straubing and Count of Holland. Albert's wife, Margaret of Brieg, replaced Isabeau's Bavarian style of dress, deemed unsuitable as French courtly attire, taught her etiquette suitable to the French court, she learned suggestive of an intelligent and quick-witted character. On 13 July 1385 she traveled to Amiens to be presented to Charles. Froissart writes of the meeting in his Chronicles, saying that Isabeau stood motionless while being inspected, exhibiting perfect behavior by the standards of her time.
Arrangements were made for the two to be married in Arras, but on the first meeting Charles felt "happiness and love enter his heart, for he saw that she was beautiful and young, thus he desired to gaze at her and possess her". She did not yet speak French and may not have reflected the idealized beauty of the period inheriting her mother's dark Italian features unfashionable, but Charles most approved of her because the couple were married three days later. Froissart documented the royal wedding, joking about the lascivious guests at the feast and the "hot young couple". Charles loved his young wife, lavishing gifts on her. On the occasion of their first New Year in 1386, he gave her a red velvet palfrey saddle, trimmed with copper and decorated with an intertwined K and E, he continued to give her gifts of rings and clothing; the uncles too were pleased with the match, which contemporary chroniclers, notably Froissart and Michel Pintoin, describe as a match rooted in desire and based on her beauty.
The day after the wedding, Charles went on a military campaig
Dijon is a city in eastern France, capital of the Côte-d'Or département in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region. The earliest archaeological finds within the city limits of Dijon date to the Neolithic period. Dijon became a Roman settlement named Divio, located on the road from Lyon to Paris; the province was home to the Dukes of Burgundy from the early 11th until the late 15th centuries and Dijon was a place of tremendous wealth and power, one of the great European centres of art and science. Population: 151,576 within the city limits; the city has retained varied architectural styles from many of the main periods of the past millennium, including Capetian and Renaissance. Many still-inhabited town houses in the city's central district date from the 18th century and earlier. Dijon architecture is distinguished by, among other things, toits bourguignons made of tiles glazed in terracotta, green and black and arranged in geometric patterns. Dijon holds an Gastronomic Fair every year in autumn. With over 500 exhibitors and 200,000 visitors every year, it is one of the ten most important fairs in France.
Dijon is home, every three years, to the international flower show Florissimo. Dijon is famous for Dijon mustard which originated in 1856, when Jean Naigeon of Dijon substituted verjuice, the acidic "green" juice of not-quite-ripe grapes, for vinegar in the traditional mustard recipe; the historical centre of the city has been registered since July 4, 2015 as a UNESCO World Heritage site. The earliest archaeological finds within the city limits of Dijon date to the Neolithic period. Dijon became a Roman settlement called Divio, which may mean sacred fountain, located on the road from Lyon to Paris. Saint Benignus, the city's apocryphal patron saint, is said to have introduced Christianity to the area before being martyred; this province was home to the Dukes of Burgundy from the early 11th until the late 15th century, Dijon was a place of tremendous wealth and power and one of the great European centres of art and science. The Duchy of Burgundy was a key in the transformation of medieval times toward early modern Europe.
The Palace of the Dukes of Burgundy now houses a museum of art. In 1513, Swiss and Imperial armies invaded Burgundy and besieged Dijon, defended by the governor of the province, Louis II de la Trémoille; the siege was violent, but the town succeeded in resisting the invaders. After long negotiations, Louis II de la Trémoille managed to persuade the Swiss and the Imperial armies to withdraw their troops and to return three hostages who were being held in Switzerland. During the siege, the population called on the Virgin Mary for help and saw the town's successful resistance and the subsequent withdrawal of the invaders as a miracle. For those reasons, in the years following the siege the inhabitants of Dijon began to venerate Notre-Dame de Bon-Espoir. Although a few areas of the town were destroyed, there are nearly no signs of the siege of 1513 visible today. However, Dijon's museum of fine arts has a large tapestry depicting this episode in the town's history: it shows the town before all subsequent destruction and is an example of 16th-century art.
Dijon was occupied by anti-Napoleonic coalitions in 1814, by the Prussian army in 1870–71, by Nazi Germany beginning in June 1940, during WWII, when it was bombed by US Air Force B-17 Flying Fortresses, before the liberation of Dijon by the French Army and the French Resistance, 11 September 1944. Dijon is situated at the heart of a plain drained by two small converging rivers: the Suzon, which crosses it underground from north to south, the Ouche, on the southern side of town. Farther south is the hillside, of vineyards that gives the department its name. Dijon lies 310 km southeast of Paris, 190 km northwest of Geneva, 190 km north of Lyon; the average low of winter is −1 °C, with an average high of 4.2 °C. The average high of summer is 25.3 °C with an average low of 14.7 °C. Average normal temperatures are between 2.3 °C and 5.3 °C from November to March, 17.2 to 19.7 °C from June to August. The climate is oceanic but with a greater temperature range than closer to the Atlantic coastline. Dijon has a large number of churches, including Notre Dame de Dijon, St. Philibert, St. Michel, Dijon Cathedral, dedicated to the apocryphal Saint Benignus, the crypt of, over 1,000 years old.
The city has retained varied architectural styles from many of the main periods of the past millennium, including Capetian and Renaissance. Many still-inhabited town houses in the city's central district date from the 18th century and earlier. Dijon architecture is distinguished by, among other things, toits bourguignons made of tiles glazed in terracotta, green and black and arranged in geometric patterns. Dijon was spared the destruction of wars such as the 1870 Franco-Prussian War and the Second World War, despite the city being occupied. Therefore, many of the old buildings such as the half-timbered houses dating from the 12th to the 15th centuries are undamaged, at least by organized violence. Dijon is home to many museums, including the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon in part of the Ducal Palace, it contains, among other things, ducal kitchens dating back to the mid-15th century, a substantial collection of European art, from Roman times through the present. Am
Michelle of Valois
Michelle of France was a Duchess consort of Burgundy. She was a daughter of Charles VI of Isabeau of Bavaria, she was named for Saint Michael the Archangel after her father noted an improvement in his health after a pilgrimage to Mont Saint-Michel in 1393. Although rumors persist that Michelle and her siblings were neglected by their parents, this was not the case. Queen Isabeau purchased luxurious toys and gifts for her children, wrote them letters when apart. In times of plague, she ensured. In June 1409, Michelle married the future Philip III, Duke of Burgundy known as Philip the Good, she became melancholic in 1419 following the involvement of her brother, the future King Charles VII of France, in the murder of her father-in-law, John the Fearless. Michelle had borne a daughter, but she died in infancy. Michelle fell ill and died in Ghent in 1422 while her husband was away preparing for the battle of Cone. All of the inhabitants grieved. Michelle was interred in the monastery of St Bavon near Ghent.
Only a fragment of her recumbent tomb still remains. After her death, it was believed she had been poisoned by a lady attendant from Germany, Dame de Viesville, a close confidante, dismissed to Aire just before Michelle's death; the lady was never charged. Possible Portrait