County of Flanders
The County of Flanders was a historic territory in the Low Countries. From 862 onwards the Counts of Flanders were one of the twelve peers of the Kingdom of France. For centuries their estates around the cities of Ghent and Ypres formed one of the most affluent regions in Europe, up to 1477, the area under French suzerainty was located west of the Scheldt River and was called Royal Flanders. Aside from this the Counts of Flanders from the 11th century on held land east of the river as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire, an area called Imperial Flanders. Part of the Burgundian Netherlands from 1384, the county was removed from French to Imperial control after the Peace of Madrid in 1526. In 1795 the remaining territory within the Austrian Netherlands was incorporated by the French First Republic, the former County of Flanders, except for French Flanders, is the only part of the medieval French kingdom that is not part of modern-day France. Flanders and Flemish are likely derived from the Frisian *flāndra and *flāmisk, the Flemish people are first mentioned in the biography of Saint Eligius, the Vita sancti Eligii.
This work was written before 684, but only known since 725 and this work mentions the Flanderenses, who lived in Flandris. The geography of the historic County of Flanders only partially overlaps with present-day region of Flanders in Belgium, though there it extends beyond West Flanders. Some of the county is now part of France and the Netherlands. The arms of the County of Flanders were allegedly created by Philip of Alsace, count of Flanders from 1168 to 1191, as a result, the arms of the county live on as arms of the Flemish Community. It is said that Philip of Alsace brought the flag with him from the Holy Land, where in 1177 he supposedly conquered it from a Saracen knight. The simple fact that the lion appeared on his personal seal since 1163, in reality Philip was following a West-European trend. In the same period appeared in the arms of Brabant, Holland, Limburg. It is curious that the lion as a symbol was mostly used in border territories. It was in all likelihood a way of showing independence from the emperor, in Europe the lion had been a well-known figure since Roman times, through works such as the fables of Aesop.
The future county of Flanders had been inhabited since prehistory, during the Iron Age the Kemmelberg formed an important Celtic settlement. During the times of Julius Caesar, the inhabitants were part of the Belgae, for Flanders in specific these were the Menapii, the Morini, the Nervii and the Atrebates
County of Holland
The territory of the County of Holland corresponds roughly with the current provinces of North and South Holland in the Netherlands. The oldest sources refer to the not clearly defined county as Frisia, before 1101, sources talk about Frisian counts, but in this year Floris II, Count of Holland is mentioned as Florentius comes de Hollant. This title was used after Holland was united with Hainault, Bavaria-Straubing. The titles eventually lost their importance, and the last count, Philip II of Spain, around 800, under Charlemagne, the Frankish Empire covered a great deal of Europe. In much of this empire an important unit of administration, corresponding roughly to a shire or county in England, was the gau. A comes or Count ruled over one or more gaue, because of the low trade, the negative trade balance with the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim states, and the disappearance of currency, the economy was more or less reduced to bartering. The kings vassals could only be rewarded by giving them land, from this the system of Feudalism developed.
The vassals, who were appointed by the king, strove for a system of inheritance. This become more and more the rule, and in 877 it was legalised in the Capitulary of Quierzy, upon the death of a king, the Frankish kingdom was frequently divided among his heirs. This partible inheritance often caused internal struggle which made centralized government problematic, the Viking Raids further undermined centralized government. At the end of the reign of Emperor Louis the Pious, the power had weakened because of the flood of 838. Upon Lothairs death in 855, the part of Middle Francia was awarded to his second son Lothair II. The Treaty of Ribemont in 880 added the Kingdom of Lotharingia — of which the Low Countries were part — to East Francia, which attempted to integrate it. However, there were no connections there were between the four German Stem Duchies of east Francia, the Franconia, the Saxony, the Bavaria. Lotharingia took a position with a large amount of self-determination. This became clear when Louis the Child, the last Carolingian of East Francia, while the Stem Duchies flocked to Duke Conrad I of Franconia, Lotharingia chose for the Carolingian Charles the Simple, king of West Francia.
In Frisia the situation was complex, the power was in the hands of Roriks successor Godfrid the Sea King, who became embroiled in the high politics of the Frankish empire. He was allied with the children of the former Carolingian Lotharingian king Lothair II, the main actor in this murder was Everard Saxo, the count of Hamaland
Isabella of Portugal, Duchess of Burgundy
Isabella of Portugal was Duchess of Burgundy as the third wife of Duke Philip the Good. Born a Portuguese infanta of the House of Aviz, Isabella was the surviving daughter of King John I of Portugal. Her son by Philip was Charles the Bold, the last Valois Duke of Burgundy, Isabella was the regent of the Burgundian Low Countries during the absence of her spouse in 1432 and in 1441–1443. She served as her husbands representative in negotiations with England regarding trade relations in 1439, Isabella was born to John I of Portugal and Philippa of Lancaster, who had six children survive infancy. Born in 1397 in Évora, and raised in the Portuguese court in Lisbon, Isabella was the fourth child, phillippa instilled in all her children, including her daughter, a sense of duty and belief in education. Isabella was a reader and held an interest in politics. She was fond of riding and hunting with her brothers, in 1415 Isabella received an offer of marriage from her cousin Henry V of England, an effort for England to form closer links with Portugal against France.
The negotiations failed and Isabella remained unmarried, in 1415 she grieved at the death of her mother on 19 June, with whom she had a close relationship. At age of 30 Isabella was still unmarried when the Burgundian house of Valois provided her with an offer of marriage in 1428, the reigning Duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good, had already been widowed twice - by Michelle of Valois and Bonne of Artois. For his third wife, Philip was anxious to seek a candidate from England or a nation allied to England, Isabella was attractive to Philip as a potential consort being well-bred and accomplished. The delegation waited another month while Isabellas father and brothers met at Aviz to discuss the matter, on 19 January 1429, a formal request for the Infantas hand was made by the Burgundians, and discussions between the two parties began. The Portuguese agreed to the marriage and sent messengers on 2 February to receive the Duke of Burgundys formal response, which was signed on 5 May and received by the Portuguese on 4 June.
The marriage contract was drawn up, and Isabella, still in Portugal, was married to Philip the Good by proxy on 24 July 1429, Isabella did not leave Portugal for another eight weeks. Her father had a fleet and trousseau prepared and on 19 October 1429, with a flotilla of about 20 ships, Isabella—accompanied by almost 2000 Portuguese—left Portugal forever. After an eleven-week journey when the fleet was beset by storms, causing the loss of ships and much of her bridal trousseau. The Duchess disembarked the following day where she and Philip celebrated their formal religious marriage two weeks later, on 7 January 1430 and she returned to Ghent, where she dealt with a potential guild uprising. Isabella was at first unprepared for the style of court life in Burgundy. More upsetting to Isabella, was her husbands behaviour
Margaret of Bavaria
Margaret of Bavaria, was Duchess consort of Burgundy by marriage to John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy. She was the regent of the Burgundian Low countries during the absence of her spouse in 1404–1419, with the death of Philip the Bold in 1404, and Margaret of Dampierre in 1405, John inherited these territories, and Margaret became his consort. They had only one son, Philip the Good, who inherited these territories and she married Adolph I, Duke of Cleves
Isabeau of Bavaria
Isabeau of Bavaria was born into the House of Wittelsbach as the eldest daughter of Duke Stephen III of Bavaria-Ingolstadt and Taddea Visconti of Milan. She became Queen of France when she married King Charles VI in 1385, at age 15 or 16, Isabeau was sent to France on approval to the young French king, the couple wed three days after their first meeting. Isabeau was honored in 1389 with a coronation ceremony and entry into Paris. In 1392 Charles suffered the first attack of what was to become a lifelong and progressive mental illness, the episodes occurred with increasing frequency, leaving a court both divided by political factions and steeped in social extravagances. A1393 masque for one of Isabeaus ladies-in-waiting—an event known as Bal des Ardents—ended in disaster with the King almost burning to death, although the King demanded Isabeaus removal from his presence during his illness, he consistently allowed her to act on his behalf. In this way she became regent to the Dauphin of France, Charles illness created a power vacuum that eventually led to the Armagnac–Burgundian Civil War between supporters of his brother, Louis of Orléans and the royal dukes of Burgundy.
Isabeau shifted allegiances as she chose the most favorable paths for the heir to the throne, when she followed the Armagnacs, the Burgundians accused her of adultery with Louis of Orléans, when she sided with the Burgundians the Armagnacs removed her from Paris and she was imprisoned. In 1407 John the Fearless assassinated Orléans, sparking hostilities between the factions, the war ended soon after Isabeaus eldest son, had John the Fearless assassinated in 1419—an act that saw him disinherited. Isabeau attended the 1420 signing of the Treaty of Troyes, which decided that the English king should inherit the French crown after the death of her husband and she lived in English-occupied Paris until her death in 1435. Isabeau was popularly seen as a spendthrift and irresponsible philanderess, Isabeaus parents were Duke Stephen III of Bavaria-Ingolstadt and Taddea Visconti, whom he married for a 100,000 ducat dowry. She was most likely born in Munich where she was baptized as Elisabeth at the Church of Our Lady and she was great-granddaughter to the Wittelsbach Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV.
At that period Bavaria counted amongst the most powerful German states, Isabeaus uncle, Duke Frederick of Bavaria-Landshut, suggested in 1383 that she be considered as a bride to King Charles VI of France. Charles, 17, rode in the tourneys at the wedding and he was an attractive, physically fit young man, who enjoyed jousting and hunting and was excited to be married. Charles VIs uncle, Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, thought the proposed marriage ideal to build an alliance with the Holy Roman Empire and against the English. Isabeaus father agreed reluctantly and sent her to France with his brother, her uncle, on the pretext of taking a pilgrimage to Amiens. According to the contemporary chronicler Jean Froissart, Isabeau was 13 or 14 when the match was proposed and about 16 at the time of the marriage in 1385, suggesting a birth date of around 1370. Before her presentation to Charles, Isabeau visited Hainaut for about a month, staying with her granduncle Duke Albert I, ruler of some of Bavaria-Straubing and Count of Holland.
Alberts wife, Margaret of Brieg, replaced Isabeaus Bavarian style of dress, deemed unsuitable as French courtly attire and she learned quickly, suggestive of an intelligent and quick-witted character
Dijon is a city in eastern France, capital of the Côte-dOr département and of the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region. The earliest archaeological finds within the city limits of Dijon date to the Neolithic period, Dijon became a Roman settlement named Divio, located on the road from Lyon to Paris. Population,151,576 within the city limits,250,516 for the greater Dijon area, the city has retained varied architectural styles from many of the main periods of the past millennium, including Capetian and Renaissance. Many still-inhabited town houses in the central district date from the 18th century. Dijon architecture is distinguished by, among other things, toits bourguignons made of tiles glazed in terracotta, green and black, Dijon holds an International and Gastronomic Fair every year in autumn. With over 500 exhibitors and 200,000 visitors every year, Dijon is home, every three years, to the international flower show Florissimo. The historical center of the city has been registered since July 4,2015 as a UNESCO World Heritage site, the earliest archaeological finds within the city limits of Dijon date to the Neolithic period.
Dijon became a Roman settlement called Divio, which may mean sacred fountain, saint Benignus, the citys apocryphal patron saint, is said to have introduced Christianity to the area before being martyred. The Duchy of Burgundy was a key in the transformation of medieval times toward early modern Europe, the Palace of the Dukes of Burgundy now houses city hall and a museum of art. In 1513, Swiss and Imperial armies invaded Burgundy and besieged Dijon, the siege was extremely violent, but the town succeeded in resisting the invaders. After long negotiations, Louis II de la Trémoille managed to persuade the Swiss, during the siege, the population called on the Virgin Mary for help and saw the towns successful resistance and the subsequent withdrawal of the invaders as a miracle. For those reasons, in the following the siege the inhabitants of Dijon began to venerate Notre-Dame de Bon-Espoir. Although a few areas of the town were destroyed, there are no signs of the siege of 1513 visible today. However, Dijons museum of arts has a large tapestry depicting this episode in the towns history.
Dijon is situated at the heart of a plain drained by two small converging rivers, the Suzon, which crosses it mostly underground from north to south, farther south is the côte, or hillside, of vineyards that gives the department its name. Dijon lies 310 km southeast of Paris,190 km northwest of Geneva, the average low of winter is −1 °C, with an average high of 4.2 °C. The average high of summer is 25.3 °C with a low of 14.7 °C. Average normal temperatures are between 2.3 °C and 5.3 °C from November to March, and 17.2 to 19.7 °C from June to August, the climate is oceanic but with a greater temperature range than closer to the Atlantic coastline
Michelle of Valois
Michelle of France was a Duchess consort of Burgundy. She was a daughter of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria and she was named for Saint Michael the Archangel after her father noted an improvement in his health after a pilgrimage to Mont Saint-Michel in 1393. Although rumors persist that Michelle and her siblings were neglected by their parents, queen Isabeau purchased luxurious toys and gifts for her children, and regularly wrote them letters when apart. In times of plague, she ensured they were sent to safety in the countryside, in June 1409, Michelle married the future Philip III, Duke of Burgundy, known as Philip the Good. She became melancholic in 1419 following the involvement of her brother, Michelle had borne a daughter, but she died in infancy. Michelle fell ill and died in Ghent in 1422 while her husband was away preparing for the battle of Cone, all of the inhabitants grieved, as she was much loved by the people. Michelle was interred in the monastery of St Bavon near Ghent, only a fragment of her recumbent tomb still remains.
After her death, it was believed she had been poisoned by an attendant from Germany, Dame de Viesville
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic
Rogier van der Weyden
Rogier van der Weyden or Roger de la Pasture was an Early Netherlandish painter whose surviving works consist mainly of religious triptychs and commissioned single and diptych portraits. By the latter half of the 15th century, he had eclipsed Jan van Eyck in popularity, however his fame lasted only until the 17th century, and largely due to changing taste, he was almost totally forgotten by the mid-18th century. There are few facts of van der Weydens life. What else is known of him has come from records and secondary sources. However the paintings now attributed to him are generally accepted, despite a tendency in the 19th century to attribute his work to others, all of his forms are rendered with rich, warm colourisation and a sympathetic expression, while he is known for his expressive pathos and naturalism. His portraits tend to be half length and half profile, Van der Weyden used an unusually broad range of colours and varied tones, in his finest work the same tone is not repeated in any other area of the canvas, even the whites are varied.
Due to the loss of archives in 1695 and again in 1940, Rogelet de le Pasture was born in Tournai in 1399 or 1400. His parents were Henri de le Pasture and Agnes de Watrélos and he married around 1426, to Elisabeth Goffaert, and was made town painter of Brussels in 1436, and changed his name from the French to the Flemish format, becoming van der Weyden. The Pasture family had settled before in the city of Tournai where Rogiers father worked as a maître-coutelier, in 1426 Rogier married Elisabeth, the daughter of a Brussels shoemaker Jan Goffaert and his wife Cathelyne van Stockem. Rogier and Elisabeth had four children, who became a Carthusian monk, was born in 1427, a daughter Margaretha in 1432. Before 21 October 1435 the family settled in Brussels where the two children were born, Pieter in 1437 and Jan in 1438, who would go on to become a painter. On his move to Brussels, Rogier began using the Flemish version of his name, little is known about Rogiers training as a painter. The archival sources from Tournai were completely destroyed during World War II, the sources on his early life are confusing and have led to different interpretations by scholars.
It is known that the city council of Tournai offered eight pitchers of wine in honour of a certain Maistre Rogier de le Pasture on the 17th November 1426. However, on 5 March of the year the records of the painters guild show a Rogelet de le Pasture entered the workshop of Robert Campin together with Jacques Daret. Records show that de le Pasture was already established as a painter, only five years later, on the first of August 1432, de le Pasture obtained the title of a Master painter. His entry into apprenticeship might be explained by the fact that during the 1420s the city of Tournai was in crisis, the late apprenticeship may have been a legal formality. Also Jacques Daret was in his twenties and had living and working in Campins household for at least a decade
A fire striker is a piece of carbon steel from which sparks are struck by the sharp edge of flint, chert or similar rock. A Fire Striker is a tool used in firemaking. In early times, percussion firemaking was often used to start fires, before the advent of steel, a variety of iron pyrite or marcasite was used with flint and other stones to produce a high-temperature spark that could be used to create fire. There are indications that the Iceman called Ötzi may have used iron pyrite to make fire, from the Iron Age forward, until the invention of the friction match, the use of flint and steel was a common method of firelighting. Percussion fire-starting was prevalent in Europe during ancient times, the Middle Ages, when flint and steel were used, the fire steel was often kept in a metal tinderbox together with flint and tinder. In Tibet and Mongolia they were carried in a leather pouch called a chuckmuck. In Japan, percussion firemaking was performed, using agate or quartz and it was used as a ritual to bring good luck or ward off evil.
The type and hardness of steel used is important, high carbon steels generate sparks easily. The steel must be hardened but softer than the flint-like material scraping off the spark, old files and coil springs, and rusty gardening tools are common, re-purposed sources of strikers. Besides flint, many other hard, non-porous rocks can be used, the sharp edge of the flint is used to violently strike the fire steel at an acute angle in order to cleave or shave off small particles of metal. The force of shaving the steel heats the pieces to state where it oxides in the air, the molten, oxidizing sparks ignite the fine tinder. Tinder is best held next to the flint and the striker quickly slid down against the flint casting sparks into the tinder. Charcloth or amadou is often used to catch the low-temperature sparks, firelighting Coat of arms of Serbia Tinderbox Fire piston Viking Age Fire-Steels and Strike-A-Lights Flint and Marcasite
David of Burgundy
David of Burgundy was a bishop of Utrecht. He served as bishop of Thérouanne from 1451 to 1456 and he is the third longest-reigning bishop of Utrecht after Balderic and Willibrord. David of Burgundy was bishop of Thérouanne from 1451, thanks to a joint effort between the Cods and Burgundy, he was appointed as bishop of Utrecht by the pope. The Utrecht chapters, had elected the Hook-favoured provost Gijsbrecht van Brederode as bishop, but Philip the Good forced the Nedersticht to accept Davids appointment on 3 August 1456 at the treaty of IJselstein. The Oversticht had to be forcefully convinced as well, deventer was besieged for five weeks before it surrendered. The opposition against him remained and therefore David left Utrecht in 1459 to settle in the newly acquired Wijk bij Duurstede, thanks to Burgundian support and clever politics, his authority rose. Another effective measure was the creation of the Schive, a court of appeal that was above city law. A breakthrough meant the capture of Gijsbrecht van Brederode and his brother Reinoud in 1470 and this led to the First Utrecht Civil War, won by David.
Because of the Burgundian power of time, David of Burgundy was one of the most powerful bishops in Europe. He appointed the schout, wrested criminal jurisdiction from the council, controlled the tolls, the death of his half-brother Charles the Bold in 1477 changed everything. Davids politics led to a revolt of supporters of the Hook party in 1481, a new civil war erupted and David was captured. Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor had to intervene to free the bishop, David reconquered Utrecht in the Battle of Westbroek, only to be driven out again in 1483. After the successful Siege of Utrecht, the revolt came to an end in 1483, David of Burgundy was an art lover, he attracted artists to his court and gave a powerful impulse to the construction of the Dom Church in Utrecht. He modernised his residence, the Duurstede Castle at Wijk bij Duurstede, the Museum Catharijneconvent holds a beautiful Cope of David of Burgundy. David died in 1496 and was buried in the church of Wijk bij Duurstede
Anthony, bastard of Burgundy
Anthony, known to his contemporaries as the Bastard of Burgundy or Le grand bâtard, was the natural son of Philip III, Duke of Burgundy, and one of his mistresses, Jeanne de Presle. He was comte de La Roche, de Grandpré, de Sainte-Menehould et de Guînes, seigneur de Crèvecoeur, Beveren et Tournehem, together with his older illegitimate half-brother Corneille, bastard of Burgundy, he was the favourite amongst the many natural children of Philip the Good. In 1459, he married Marie de la Viesville by whom he had five children and he fought for his father on several campaigns, from at least 1451 onwards, and in 1464 left for a crusade against the Moors when he helped raise the siege of Ceuta. In 1456 he was awarded the prestigious Order of the Golden Fleece and he took part in the Battle of Montlhéry, when he is said to have saved the life of the Count of Charolais after he was separated from his men and wounded in the neck. During this visit, which extended into the summer of 1467, Anthonys father, Philip the Good, died, in 1468, Charles appointed him first Chamberlain, head of 99 other chamberlains and thirteen chaplains, all of whom served the duke.
This loyalty was never called into question even when in 1473 he was accused by Charles of accepting a gift of 20,000 gold écus from Charles sworn enemy. Charles the Bold won the Brussels contest every year between 1466 and 1471, at the disastrous siege of Beauvais in 1472, Antoine reportedly lost his best jewels. In the middle of these travels, he managed to find time to call in at the siege of Neuss, but Antoine had no interest in making trouble, and he offered Louis his services to help stabilize the precarious political situation. He was instrumental in arranging the marriage of Duchess Mary, his niece and only child and successor of Charles the Bold and he was a significant collector of illuminated manuscripts, mostly newly commissioned from the best Flemish illuminators and scribes. He had at least forty-five volumes, of which it is estimated that thirty were contemporary illuminated volumes. Many volumes with his inscription of ownership survive in various libraries, the young King Charles VIII of France legitimized Anthony in 1485 and awarded him the Order of Saint Michael.
He died at Tournehem near Calais in 1504, Charles the Bold, The Last Valois Duke of Burgundy. Philip the Good, The Apogee of Burgundy, ed. H. Beaune & J. dArbaumont, Paris 1888