Queen Paola of Belgium
She was born in Forte dei Marmi, Italy, the seventh and youngest child of the World War I Italian flying ace Fulco, Prince Ruffo di Calabria, 6th Duke of Guardia Lombarda. Her mother was Luisa Gazelli dei Conti di Rossana e di Sebastiano, a descendant of the Marquis de Lafayette. She is of Italian and Belgian ancestry and was hailed as one of the beauties of Europe in her youth. Queen Paola is fluent in Italian, French and English, less fluent, and the cause of occasional criticism, is her Dutch, the mother tongue of nearly 60 percent of Belgians. Ademarus Rufus, who died in 1049, held the title of Comes in southern Italy, the family divided into two branches after the 14th century, the Ruffo di Calabria and the Ruffo di Scaletta, to the former of which the Queen belongs. Queen Paola is related to historically eminent Roman and southern Italian noble families, including the Colonna, Pallavicini, among her distinguished ancestors of the French aristocracy were the American general Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette and the Dukes of Noailles.
In 1958, the Prince of Liège went to the Vatican to witness the coronation of Pope John XXIII, at a reception at the Belgian embassy, the Prince met Italian Donna Paola Ruffo di Calabria. We were both shy, so we talked a little, Paola said about their first meeting. Shy but smitten, Prince Albert proposed marriage to Paola and their engagement was announced at the Chateau of Laeken in 1959. The Royal Household wanted to organise the wedding in the Vatican, alberts father, King Leopold III of the Belgians, his aunt ex-Queen Marie-José of Italy, and Paolas brother, the Prince Ruffo, sent a diplomatic mission to the pontifical court. However the Belgian Government never accepted, and objected to the wish of the court, the Pope understood the governments concerns, and never agreed to participate in the wedding. Finally, avoiding a scandal, the Prince of Liège married Donna Paola Ruffo di Calabria at St. Goedele Cathedral in Brussels on 2 July 1959. The couple have three children, King of the Belgians, who married Countess Mathilde dUdekem dAcoz in 1999 and has 4 children, princess Astrid, who married Lorenz, Archduke of Austria-Este in 1984 and has 5 children.
Prince Laurent, who married Claire Louise Coombs in 2003 and has 3 children, by the late 1960s, the marriage had deteriorated, and there were rumors of divorce plans. By the early 1980s, the relations had improved. In the end and Paola chose to stay together, for her 70th birthday interview, Paola, by Queen of the Belgians, weve had our problems, but now we both say that we were meant for each other. On May 17,2016 Paola became a great-grandmother to Archduchess Anna Astrid, in 2015 The court announced Queen Paola was taking a period of total rest following doctors orders. They announce that she had to cancel a visit to the Biennale in Venice
Laeken or Laken is a residential suburb in north-west Brussels in Belgium. It belongs to the municipality of the City of Brussels and is identified by the Belgian postal code, prior to 1921 it was a separate municipality. The Royal Castle of Laeken, official home of the Belgian Royal Family, is situated here, the castle was built between 1782–1784 by Charles de Wailly. It was partly destroyed by fire in 1890 and rebuilt and extended by Alphonse Balat, the French architect Charles Girault gave it its present outline in 1902. It has been the royal residence since the accession to the throne of King Leopold I in 1831, the former King Albert II and Queen Paola live in the Belvedere in the grounds of this castle, while King Philippe and Queen Mathilde live in the main castle. The royal domain contains the magnificent Royal Greenhouses of Laeken and they were designed by Alphonse Balat, with the cooperation of the young Victor Horta. A little north of the palace stand the contrasting Chinese Pavilion.
The Chinese Pavilion was commissioned by King Leopold II, the halls are designed in Louis XIV-style and Louis-XVI-style and decorated with Chinese motifs and silverware. The Japanese Tower is a pagoda, inspired by a construction Leopold saw at the Paris Exposition of 1900, King Leopold II asked its architect Alexandre Marcel to build him a similar one in Laken. The architect was Joseph Poelaert, designer of the famed Brussels Palace of Justice, the church contains the royal crypt, where the members of the Belgian Royal Family are buried. In February each year, a mass for deceased members of the royal family is held at the church. The cemetery behind the church is known as the Belgian Père Lachaise because it used to be the place of the rich. It harbours the graves of, among others, Fernand Khnopff and Maria Malibran, other places of interest in Laeken are the Atomium, the former goods station of Thurn und Taxis, the King Baudouin Stadium and the Heysel exhibition park. Paul Ooghe, war veteran Belgian royal family Stromae, Belgian singer, megapixel view of the Royal Domain shot from the top of a nearby building Pictures taken in the crypt of the cemetery of Laken
Prince Lorenz of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este
Prince Lorenz of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este is a member of the Belgian Royal Family and an Austrian-Belgian citizen. Since 1996 he is head of the House of Austria-Este. On 22 September 1984 in Brussels, Lorenz married Princess Astrid of Belgium, after finishing school, Archduke Lorenz made his military service in the regiment of Gebirgsjäger of the Federal Austrian Army and was promoted as Reserve Leutnant in 1980. Lorenz studied economics at the University of St. Gallen in Switzerland and he worked at various banks in London and Rome. In 1983 he joined the Gutzwiller private bank in Basel where he became a Managing Partner. In 1993, he spent one year as a consultant to Swift, in 1995, he became Advisor to the Board of Directors of BNP Paribas Bank in Paris. He was formerly a director of UCB, Sita and of Ondeo Nalco, since 2004, Lorenz has been the honorary president of the Council of the Koninklijke Vereniging der Historische Woonsteden van België/Association Royale des Demeures Historiques de Belgique.
Since 2005, he has been the Patron of Europae Thesauri, Lorenz has served as deputy chairman of the Société des Amis of the Almanach de Gotha. He is named member of the Royal Crown Coucil of Romania in 2015.1 of the constitution of the Kingdom of Belgium, in addition he bears the traditional Habsburg titles of Prince Royal of Hungary and Bohemia. The Este suffix descended by male primogeniture and is borne by Lorenz, the title Prince of Belgium was granted to him by Royal Decree of 10 November 1995 by his father-in-law, King Albert II of the Belgians
Belgian National Day
Belgian National Day is the national holiday of Belgium celebrated on 21 July each year. It is one of ten public holidays in Belgium, the kings vow marked the start of the independent state of Belgium under a constitutional monarchy and parliament. After some fighting in August-September 1830, the Dutch were forced out of much of the region, a National Congress was created to write a Constitution for the new state. The Congress called upon Leopold of Saxe-Cobourg-Gotha, a German nobleman, accepting the invitation, Leopold travelled from England to Brussels. Originally, Belgian National Day was celebrated on 27 September as the commemoration of the Dutch militarys final withdrawal from Brussels after several days of fighting in mid-September, in 1890, the date of the festival was changed to 21 July to commemorate Leopold Is accession to the throne. In 1991, the 27 September was selected as the observance of the French Community of Belgium. The day typically starts with a Catholic Te Deum service in Cathedral of Brussels attended by the King, in the afternoon, the Belgian Army and police are reviewed by the King, and parade past the Royal Palace and around the Parc de Bruxelles.
There is a flypast by the airforce, many notable buildings in Brussels that are usually closed are open to the public on National Day. A variety of entertainment is presented in venues around the city. In the evening, a fireworks display occurs in the Parc de Bruxelles. Smaller events occur in towns and cities across Belgium and in Belgian émigré communities abroad, on National Day 2013, King Albert II officially resigned his position as King of the Belgians and his son, ascended to the throne. De Belgische Natie Viert, De Belgische Nationale Feesten, 1830-1914, fête nationale, les festivités se poursuivent à Bruxelles
Leopold III of Belgium
Leopold III reigned as King of the Belgians from 1934 until 1951, when he abdicated in favour of the heir apparent, his son Baudouin. From 1944 until 1950, Leopolds brother, served as regent while Leopold was declared unable to rule. In 1950, the debate about whether Leopold could resume his royal functions provoked a crisis known as the Royal Question. Leopold was born in Brussels and succeeded to the throne of Belgium on 23 February 1934 following the death of his father, King Albert I. He was invested as Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece in Spain in 1923, Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword in 1927, Prince Leopold, Duke of Brabant, was sent by his father to Eton College in the United Kingdom in 1915. After the war, in 1919, the Duke visited the Old Mission and Saint Anthony Seminary in Santa Barbara and he married Princess Astrid of Sweden in a civil ceremony in Stockholm on 4 November 1926, followed by a religious ceremony in Brussels on 10 November. The marriage produced three children, Joséphine-Charlotte, Princess of Belgium, born at the Royal Palace of Brussels on 11 October 1927 and she was married on 9 April 1953 to Prince Jean, Grand-Duke of Luxembourg.
She died at Fischbach Castle on 10 January 2005, Prince of Liège, Prince of Belgium, who became the sixth King of the Belgians as Albert II, born at Stuyvenberg on 6 June 1934. Leopold married Lilian Baels on 11 September 1941 in a secret, religious ceremony, with no validity under Belgian law. They originally intended to wait until the end of the war for the marriage, but as the new Princesse de Réthy was soon expecting their first child. They had three children in total, Prince of Belgium, born in Brussels on 18 July 1942, in 1991, he married Lea Inga Dora Wohlman, a marriage revealed only seven years later. He died on 29 November 2009, marie-Christine, Princess of Belgium, born in Brussels on 6 February 1951. Her first marriage, to Paul Drucker in 1981, lasted 40 days, marie-Esméralda, Princess of Belgium, born in Brussels on 30 September 1956, a journalist, her professional name is Esmeralda de Réthy. She married Salvador Moncada, a noted pharmacologist, in 1998 and they have a son and a daughter.
When World War II broke out in September 1939, the French and his government refused, maintaining Belgiums neutrality. On 10 May 1940, the Wehrmacht invaded Belgium, after a short running battle that eventually involved the armies of all four belligerents, Belgium was overwhelmed by the numerically superior and better-prepared Germans. Nevertheless, the Belgian perseverance prevented the British Expeditionary Force from being outflanked and cut off from the coast, after his military surrender, Leopold remained in Brussels to surrender to the victorious invaders, while his entire civil government fled to Paris and to London. On 24 May 1940, having assumed command of the Belgian Army, the ministers urged the king to leave the country with the government
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic
Brussels, officially the Brussels-Capital Region, is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels which is the capital of Belgium. The Brussels-Capital Region is a part of both the French Community of Belgium and the Flemish Community, but is separate from the region of Flanders or Wallonia. The region has a population of 1.2 million and an area with a population of over 1.8 million. Brussels is the de facto capital of the European Union as it hosts a number of principal EU institutions, the secretariat of the Benelux and the headquarters of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization are located in Brussels. Today, it is considered an Alpha global city, historically a Dutch-speaking city, Brussels has seen a language shift to French from the late 19th century onwards. Today, the majority language is French, and the Brussels-Capital Region is a bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. All road signs, street names, and many advertisements and services are shown in both languages, Brussels is increasingly becoming multilingual with increasing numbers of migrants and minority groups speaking their own languages.
The most common theory of the origin of Brussels name is that it derives from the Old Dutch Broekzele or Broeksel, meaning marsh, Saint Vindicianus, the bishop of Cambrai made the first recorded reference to the place Brosella in 695 when it was still a hamlet. The origin of the settlement that was to become Brussels lies in Saint Gaugericus construction of a chapel on an island in the river Senne around 580. The official founding of Brussels is usually situated around 979, when Duke Charles of Lower Lotharingia transferred the relics of Saint Gudula from Moorsel to the Saint Gaugericus chapel, Charles would construct the first permanent fortification in the city, doing so on that same island. Lambert I of Leuven, Count of Leuven gained the County of Brussels around 1000 by marrying Charles daughter, as it grew to a population of around 30,000, the surrounding marshes were drained to allow for further expansion. The Counts of Leuven became Dukes of Brabant at about this time, in the 13th century, the city got its first walls.
After the construction of the city walls in the early 13th century, to let the city expand, a second set of walls was erected between 1356 and 1383. Today, traces of it can still be seen, mostly because the small ring, Brabant had lost its independence, but Brussels became the Princely Capital of the prosperous Low Countries, and flourished. In 1516 Charles V, who had been heir of the Low Countries since 1506, was declared King of Spain in St. Michael and St. Gudula Cathedral in Brussels. Upon the death of his grandfather, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor in 1519 and it was in the Palace complex at Coudenberg that Charles V abdicated in 1555. This impressive palace, famous all over Europe, had expanded since it had first become the seat of the Dukes of Brabant. In 1695, during the Nine Years War, King Louis XIV of France sent troops to bombard Brussels with artillery, together with the resulting fire, it was the most destructive event in the entire history of Brussels
Prince Gabriel of Belgium
Prince Gabriel of Belgium is the first son and second child of King Philippe of Belgium and Queen consort Mathilde of Belgium. He is currently second in line to the throne of Belgium after his older sister Elisabeth, Gabriel was born in the Erasmus Hospital in Anderlecht, Brussels, on 20 August 2003. His older sister, precedes him in the line of following the 1991 adoption of absolute primogeniture. Gabriel has a brother, Prince Emmanuel, and a younger sister. His godparents are, his uncle, Count Charles-Henri dUdekem dAcoz. Gabriel is styled as His Royal Highness Prince Gabriel of Belgium and his official website The official website of the Belgian Royal Family