Philippi was a major city northwest of the nearby island, Thasos. Its original name was Crenides after its establishment by Thasian colonists in 360/359 BC; the city was renamed by Philip II of Macedon in 356 BC and abandoned in the 14th century after the Ottoman conquest. The present municipality, Filippoi, is located near the ruins of the ancient city and is part of the region of East Macedonia and Thrace in Kavala, Greece, it was classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2016. Thasian colonists established a settlement at Krenides in Thrace in 360/359 BC near the head of the Aegean Sea at the foot of Mt. Orbelos, now called Mt. Lekani, about 13 km north-west of Kavalla, on the northern border of the marsh that, in antiquity, covered the entire plain separating it from the Pangaion Hills to the south. In 356 BC, King Philip II of Macedon renamed it to Philippi; the Macedonian conquerors of the town aimed to take control of the neighbouring gold mines and to establish a garrison at a strategic passage: the site controlled the route between Amphipolis and Neapolis, part of the great royal route which runs east-west across Macedonia and which the Roman Republic reconstructed in the 2nd century BC as part of the Via Egnatia.

Philip II endowed the city with important fortifications, which blocked the passage between the swamp and Mt. Orbelos, sent colonists to occupy it. Philip had the marsh drained, as the writer Theophrastus attests. Philippi preserved its autonomy within the kingdom of Macedon and had its own political institutions; the discovery of new gold mines near the city, at Asyla, contributed to the wealth of the kingdom and Philip established a mint there. The city became integrated into the kingdom during the reign of Philip V of Macedon; the city contained 2,000 people. When the Romans destroyed the Antigonid dynasty of Macedon in the Third Macedonian War, they divided the kingdom into four separate states. Amphipolis became the capital of the eastern Macedonian state. Nothing is known about the city in this period, but archeological remains include walls, the Greek theatre, the foundations of a house under the Roman forum and a little temple dedicated to a hero cult; this monument covers the tomb of a certain Exekestos, is situated on the agora and is dedicated to the κτίστης, the foundation hero of the city.

The city reappears in the sources during the Liberators' civil war that followed the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BC. Caesar's heirs Mark Antony and Octavian confronted the forces of the assassins Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus at the Battle of Philippi on the plain to the west of the city during October in 42 BC. Antony and Octavian won this final battle against the partisans of the Republic, they released some of their veteran soldiers from Legion XXVIII, to colonize the city, refounded as Colonia Victrix Philippensium. From 30 BC Octavian established his control of the Roman state, becoming Roman emperor from 27 BC, he reorganized the colony and established more settlers there and other Italians. The city was renamed Colonia Iulia Philippensis, Colonia Augusta Iulia Philippensis after January, 27 BC, when Octavian received the title Augustus from the Roman Senate. Following this second renaming, after the first, the territory of Philippi was centuriated and distributed to the colonists.

The city kept its Macedonian walls, its general plan was modified only by the construction of a forum, a little to the east of the site of Greek agora. It was a "miniature Rome", under the municipal law of Rome, governed by two military officers, the duumviri, who were appointed directly from Rome; the colony recognized its dependence on the mines that brought it its privileged position on the Via Egnatia. Many monuments evidence its wealth - imposing considering the small size of the urban area: the forum, laid out in two terraces on both sides of the main road, was constructed in several phases between the reigns of the Emperors Claudius and Antoninus Pius, the theatre was enlarged and expanded in order to hold Roman games. An abundance of Latin inscriptions testifies to the prosperity of the city; the New Testament records a visit to the city by the apostle Paul during his second missionary journey. On the basis of the Acts of the Apostles and the letter to the Philippians, early Christians concluded that Paul had founded their community.

Accompanied by Silas, by Timothy and by Luke, Paul is believed to have preached for the first time on European soil in Philippi. According to the New Testament, Paul visited the city on two other occasions, in 56 and 57; the Epistle to the Philippians dates from around 61-62 and is believed to show the immediate effects of Paul's instruction. The development of Christianity in Philippi is indicated by a letter from Polycarp of Smyrna addressed to the community in Philippi around AD 160 and by funerary inscriptions; the first church described in the city is a small building, originally a small prayer-house. This Basilica of Paul, identified by a mosaic inscription on the pavement, is dated around 343 from a mention by the bishop Porphyrios, who attended the Council of Serdica that year. Despite Philippi having one of the oldest congregations in Europe, attestation of a bishopric dates only from the 4th century; the prosperity of the cit


Aniracetam known as N-anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone, is a racetam, sold in Europe as a prescription drug. It is not approved by the Drug Administration for use in the United States. Aniracetam has been shown to positively modulate the AMPA receptor; when ingested orally aniracetam is broken down via first pass hepatic metabolism. The primary metabolites of aniracetam are 2-Pyrrolidinone and p-anisic acid. Plasma concentrations are in the 5–15 μg/L range for aniracetam and 5–15 mg/L range for N-anisoyl-GABA, a pharmacologically-active metabolite, during the first few hours after oral administration of the drug; these two plasma species may be measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The drug was first made in the 1970s by Hoffmann-La Roche. Synthesis can be accomplished by reacting 2-pyrrolidone with anisoyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine. Alternatively, gamma-aminobutyric acid can react with anisoyl chloride. Ring closure can be accomplished in the presence of thionyl chloride. Aniracetam is a schedule 4 substance in Australia under the Poisons Standard.

A schedule 4 substance is classified as "Prescription Only Medicine, or Prescription Animal Remedy – Substances, the use or supply of which should be by or on the order of persons permitted by State or Territory legislation to prescribe and should be available from a pharmacist on prescription." AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulator

Timothy Abbott Conrad

Timothy Abbott Conrad was an American geologist and malacologist. He was from early life an investigator of American paleontology and natural history, devoting himself to the study of the shells of the Tertiary and Cretaceous formations, to existing species of mollusks. In 1831 he began the issue of a work on “American Marine Conchology,” and the year following published the first number of his “Fossil Shells of the Tertiary Formation,”, never completed. A “Monography of the Family Unionidae” was issued between 1835 and 1847; the lithographed plates in his publications were in part his own work. He contributed many articles to the American Journal of Science and the Journal of the Philadelphia Academy of Science; as one of the New York state geologists he prepared the geological report for 1837. He was paleontologist of the New York Geological Survey from 1838 until 1841, wrote the annual reports in that department, he made the reports of paleontological discoveries in the Pacific Railroad Survey and the Mexican Boundary Survey.

He defended the theory of periodical refrigeration, suggested that the Mississippi depression was the consequence of the upheaval of the Appalachians and the elevation of the area of the Rocky Mountains. A list of his scientific papers is given in the catalogue of the Royal Society of England. Works by or about Timothy Abbott Conrad at Internet Archive "Conrad, Timothy Abbott"; the New Student's Reference Work. 1914. Abbott, Charles Conrad. "Timothy Abbott Conrad". Popular Science Monthly. 47