The Roman Forum known by its Latin name Forum Romanum, is a rectangular forum surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome. Citizens of the ancient city referred to this space a marketplace, as the Forum Magnum, or the Forum. For centuries the Forum was the center of day-to-day life in Rome: the site of triumphal processions and elections. Here statues and monuments commemorated the city's great men; the teeming heart of ancient Rome, it has been called the most celebrated meeting place in the world, in all history. Located in the small valley between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, the Forum today is a sprawling ruin of architectural fragments and intermittent archaeological excavations attracting 4.5 million or more sightseers yearly. Many of the oldest and most important structures of the ancient city were located on or near the Forum; the Roman Kingdom's earliest shrines and temples were located on the southeastern edge. These included the ancient former royal residence, the Regia, the Temple of Vesta, as well as the surrounding complex of the Vestal Virgins, all of which were rebuilt after the rise of imperial Rome.
Other archaic shrines to the northwest, such as the Umbilicus Urbis and the Vulcanal, developed into the Republic's formal Comitium. This is; the Senate House, government offices, temples and statues cluttered the area. Over time the archaic Comitium was replaced by the larger adjacent Forum and the focus of judicial activity moved to the new Basilica Aemilia; some 130 years Julius Caesar built the Basilica Julia, along with the new Curia Julia, refocusing both the judicial offices and the Senate itself. This new Forum, in what proved to be its final form served as a revitalized city square where the people of Rome could gather for commercial, political and religious pursuits in greater numbers. Much economic and judicial business would transfer away from the Forum Romanum to the larger and more extravagant structures to the north; the reign of Constantine the Great saw the construction of the last major expansion of the Forum complex—the Basilica of Maxentius. This returned the political center to the Forum until the fall of the Western Roman Empire two centuries later.
Unlike the imperial fora in Rome—which were self-consciously modelled on the ancient Greek plateia public plaza or town square—the Roman Forum developed organically, piecemeal over many centuries. This is the case despite attempts, with some success, to impose some order there, by Sulla, Julius Caesar and others. By the Imperial period, the large public buildings that crowded around the central square had reduced the open area to a rectangle of about 130 by 50 meters, its long dimension was oriented northwest to southeast and extended from the foot of the Capitoline Hill to that of the Velian Hill. The Forum's basilicas during the Imperial period—the Basilica Aemilia on the north and the Basilica Julia on the south—defined its long sides and its final form; the Forum proper included this square, the buildings facing it and, sometimes, an additional area extending southeast as far as the Arch of Titus. The site of the Forum had been a marshy lake where waters from the surrounding hills drained.
This was drained by the Tarquins with the Cloaca Maxima. Because of its location, sediments from both the flooding of the Tiber and the erosion of the surrounding hills have been raising the level of the Forum floor for centuries. Excavated sequences of remains of paving show that sediment eroded from the surrounding hills was raising the level in early Republican times; as the ground around buildings rose, residents paved over the debris, too much to remove. Its final travertine paving, still visible, dates from the reign of Augustus. Excavations in the 19th century revealed one layer on top of another; the deepest level excavated was 3.60 meters above sea level. Archaeological finds show human activity at that level with the discovery of carbonized wood. An important function of the Forum, during both Republican and Imperial times, was to serve as the culminating venue for the celebratory military processions known as Triumphs. Victorious generals entered the city by the western Triumphal Gate and circumnavigated the Palatine Hill before proceeding from the Velian Hill down the Via Sacra and into the Forum.
From here they would mount the Capitoline Rise up to the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the summit of the Capitol. Lavish public banquets ensued back down on the Forum; the original, low-lying, grassy wetland of the Forum was drained in the 7th century BC with the building of the Cloaca Maxima, a large covered sewer system that emptied into the Tiber, as more people began to settle between the two hills. According to tradition, the Forum's beginnings are connected with the alliance between Romulus, the first king of Rome controlling the Palatine Hill, his rival, Titus Tatius, who occupied the Capitoline Hill. An alliance formed after combat had been halted by the cries of the Sabine women; because the valley lay between the two settlements, it was the designated place for th
Macedonia (Roman province)
The Roman province of Macedonia was established in 146 BC, after the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus defeated Andriscus of Macedon, the last self-styled King of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia in 148 BC, after the four client republics established by Rome in the region were dissolved. The province incorporated ancient Macedonia, with the addition of Epirus and parts of Illyria and Thrace; this created a much larger administrative area. The Dardanians, to the north of the Paeonians, were not included, because they had supported the Romans in their conquest of Macedonia. After the reforms of Diocletian in the late 3rd century, Epirus Vetus was split off, sometime in the 4th century, the province of Macedonia itself was divided into Macedonia Prima in the south and Macedonia Secunda or Salutaris in the north; these provinces were all subordinate to the Diocese of Macedonia, one of three dioceses comprising the praetorian prefecture of Illyricum. When the Prefecture was divided between the Western and Eastern Empires in 379, the Macedonian provinces were included in Eastern Illyricum.
With the permanent division of the Empire in 395, Macedonia passed to the East, which would evolve into the Byzantine Empire. Achaea or Achaia was part of the Roman Province of Macedonia, it became a separate Province by the Augustan Settlement of 27 BC, which established the Roman Empire. Epirus Epirus Vetus, was a province in the Roman Empire that corresponded to the region of Epirus. Between 146 BC and 27 BC, it was part of the province of Macedonia, after which it became part of Achaea, before becoming a separate province under Emperor Trajan. Epirus Nova or Illyria Graeca or Illyris proper was a province of the Roman Empire established by Diocletian during his restructuring of provincial boundaries; until the province belonged to the province of Macedonia. Dyrrachium was established as the capital of Epirus Nova; the region of Epirus Nova corresponded to a portion of Illyria, "partly Hellenic and Hellenized". Macedonia Prima was a province encompassing most of the kingdom of Macedonia, coinciding with most of the modern Greek region of Macedonia, had Thessalonica as its capital.
Macedonia Salutaris known as Macedonia Secunda was a province encompassing Dardania and the whole of Paeonia, the second being most of the present-day Republic of North Macedonia. The town of Stobi located to the junction of the Erigon and Axios rivers, the former capital of Paeonia, arose in the capital city of Macedonia Salutaris; this province was encompassing the area of ancient Thessaly, right in the south of ancient Macedonia. Herein are being mentioned the subdivisions of Thessalia Prima and Thessalia Secunda; the reign of Augustus began a long period of peace and wealth for Macedonia, although its importance in the economic standing of the Roman world diminished when compared to its neighbor, Asia Minor. The economy was stimulated by the construction of the Via Egnatia, the installation of Roman merchants in the cities, the founding of Roman colonies; the Imperial government brought, along with its roads and administrative system, an economic boom, which benefited both the Roman ruling class and the lower classes.
With vast arable and rich pastures, the great ruling families amassed huge fortunes in the society based on slave labor. The improvement of the living conditions of the productive classes brought about an increase in the number artisans and craftspeople to the region. Stonemasons, blacksmiths, etc. were employed in every kind of commercial activity and craft. Greek people were widely employed as tutors and doctors throughout the Roman world; the export economy was based on agriculture and livestock, while iron and gold along with such products as timber, pitch, hemp and fish were exported. Another source of wealth was the kingdom's ports, such as Dion, Thessalonica, Cassandreia. Damon of Thessalonica 2nd century BC Diocese of Macedonia Macedon Macedonia
Battle of Mutina
The Battle of Mutina took place on 21 April 43 BC between the forces loyal to the Senate under consuls Gaius Vibius Pansa and Aulus Hirtius, supported by the legions of Caesar Octavian, the Caesarian legions of Mark Antony who were besieging the troops of Decimus Brutus. The latter, one of Caesar's assassins, held the city of Mutina in Cisalpine Gaul; the battle took place after the bloody and uncertain Battle of Forum Gallorum had ended with heavy losses on both sides and the mortal wounding of consul Vibius Pansa. Six days after Forum Gallorum, the other consul Aulus Hirtius and the young Caesar Octavian launched a direct attack on the camps of Mark Antony in order to break the front of encirclement around Mutina; the fighting was fierce and bloody. Hirtius himself was killed in the melee while attacking Antony's camp, leaving the army and republic leaderless. Octavian saw action in the battle, recovered Hirtius' body, managed to avoid defeat. Decimus Brutus participated in the fighting with part of his forces locked up in the city.
Command of the deceased consul Hirtius' legions devolved on Caesar Octavian. Decimus Brutus, marginalized after the battle, soon fled Italy in the hopes of joining fellow assassins Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. En route, Decimus Brutus was captured and executed, thus becoming the first of Caesar's assassins to be killed. After the battle, Mark Antony decided to give up the siege and skilfully retreated westward along the Via Aemilia, escaping the enemy forces and rejoining the reinforcements of his lieutenant Publius Ventidius Bassus; the battle of 21 April 43 BC brought the brief war of Mutina to a victorious end for the Republicans allied with Caesar Octavian, but the situation would change the following autumn with the formation of the Second Triumvirate of Antony and Lepidus. Mark Antony had dominated the political situation in Rome for only a short time after the Assassination of Julius Caesar on 15 March 44 BC. An incongruous coalition among some of Caesar's assassins, the resurgent Senatorial faction led by Marcus Tullius Cicero, the followers of the dictator's young heir, Caesar Octavian—the future emperor Augustus—had caused difficulties for the consul Antony by eroding his consensus of support within the Caesarian camp.
Relations between the Roman Senate and Antony broke down around one year after Julius Caesar's murder. Antony was unhappy with the province he was due to govern, after his one-year term as consul expired. Macedonia was too far away if trouble were to threaten him in the capital, Rome, so he sought to exchange the post for a five-year term in Cisalpine Gaul. From that region he could overawe the capital, if need be intervene directly, as Caesar did in 44 BC. However, a different governor had been selected for Cisalpine Gaul, namely Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, in possession of the province with three legions with the consent of the Senate. Decimus Brutus was a distant relative of Marcus Junius Brutus and a one-time follower of Julius Caesar who had lost confidence in the dictator and taken part in his assassination on the Ides of March. Antony attempted to preempt the hostile attitude of his opponents by marching his legions of Caesarian veterans from Macedonia north to force Decimus Junius Brutus to surrender the province of Cisalpine Gaul to him.
On 28 November 44 BC, Mark Antony left Rome and took command of four legions of veterans that had landed at Brundisium from Macedonia, as well as Legio V Alaudae, deployed earlier along the Via Appia. The cohesion of this force was, however compromised by the defection at Brundisium of two of the best Caesarian legions, the Martia and the IIII Macedonica, who abandoned the consul for young Caesar Octavian. Despite exhortations and punishments, Mark Antony could not restore discipline to these two legions, who buttressed the forces of Caesar's heir, which included a substantial number of veterans recruited in Campania. At the end of the year, Mark Antony reached Cisalpine Gaul with his three remaining legions and a legion of reactivated veterans; as Decimus Brutus refused to abandon the province to him, Antony invested Mutina, located just south of the Padus River on the Via Aemilia. Meanwhile, in Rome, a formidable coalition was coming together in support of Decimus Brutus and in opposition to Antony since Cicero's return to the Senate in late 44 BC. Cicero delivered a series of uncompromising speeches against Antony, called the Philippics.
On 1 January 43 BC, two moderate Caesarians, Aulus Hirtius and Gaius Vibius Pansa, took office as consuls, whereupon the republican faction took the initiative, declaring Antony a public enemy, legalizing the actions of Decimus Brutus and Caesar Octavian, recruiting new legions. Though Octavian had no love for Decimus Brutus, one of his adoptive father's assassins, he gained legitimacy by using his legions in support of the Senate against Antony. Therefore, after being appointed a propraetor by the Senate, he joined his forces with those of the new consul Hirtius, who had assumed command as Octavian's superior in January 43 BC at Ariminum, for the relief of Brutus; the forces of Caesar Octavian included the two legions that had defected and three legions of recalled veterans. From Ariminum and Octavian advanced along the Via Aemilia while Mark Antony continued to press the siege of Mutina. On 19 March 43 BC, the other new consul, was sent north from Rome to join up with Hirtius and Octavian, at Forum Gallorum.
Pansa had four legions of recruits. Antony marched on 14 April with his praetorian cohort, the II a
Augustus was a Roman statesman and military leader, the first emperor of the Roman Empire, reigning from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. His status as the founder of the Roman Principate has consolidated an enduring legacy as one of the most effective and controversial leaders in human history; the reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana. The Roman world was free from large-scale conflict for more than two centuries, despite continuous wars of imperial expansion on the Empire's frontiers and the year-long civil war known as the "Year of the Four Emperors" over the imperial succession. Augustus was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia, his maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, Octavius was named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir. Along with Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus, he formed the Second Triumvirate to defeat the assassins of Caesar. Following their victory at the Battle of Philippi, the Triumvirate divided the Roman Republic among themselves and ruled as military dictators.
The Triumvirate was torn apart by the competing ambitions of its members. Lepidus was driven into exile and stripped of his position, Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by Octavian in 31 BC. After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Augustus restored the outward façade of the free Republic, with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate, the executive magistrates, the legislative assemblies. In reality, however, he retained his autocratic power over the Republic as a military dictator. By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including supreme military command, those of tribune and censor, it took several years for Augustus to develop the framework within which a formally republican state could be led under his sole rule. He rejected monarchical titles, instead called himself Princeps Civitatis; the resulting constitutional framework became known as the Principate, the first phase of the Roman Empire. Augustus enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Pannonia and Raetia, expanding possessions in Africa, completing the conquest of Hispania, but suffered a major setback in Germania.
Beyond the frontiers, he secured the Empire with a buffer region of client states and made peace with the Parthian Empire through diplomacy. He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army, established the Praetorian Guard, created official police and fire-fighting services for Rome, rebuilt much of the city during his reign. Augustus died in AD 14 at the age of 75 from natural causes. However, there were unconfirmed rumors, he was succeeded as emperor by his adopted son Tiberius. As a consequence of Roman customs and personal preference, Augustus was known by many names throughout his life: Gaius Octavius Thurinus: He received his birth name, after his biological father, in 63 BC. "Gaius" was his praenomen, "Octavius" was his nomen, "Thurinus" was his cognomen. His rival Mark Antony used the name "Thurinus" as an insult, to which Augustus replied, surprised that "using his old name was thought to be an insult".
Gaius Julius Caesar: After he was adopted by Julius Caesar, he adopted Caesar's name in accordance with Roman naming conventions. While he dropped all references to the gens Octavia, people colloquially added the epithet Octavianus to his legal name, either to differentiate him from his adoptive father or to highlight his more modest origins. Modern historians refer to him using the anglicized form "Octavian" between 44 BC and 27 BC. Gaius Julius Caesar Divi Filius: Two years after his adoption, he founded the Temple of Caesar additionally adding the title Divi Filius to his name in attempt to strengthen his political ties to Caesar's former soldiers, following the deification of Caesar. Imperator Caesar Divi Filius: From 38 BC, Octavian opted to use Imperator, the title by which troops hailed their leader after military success, his name is translated as "Commander Caesar, Son of the Divine". Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus: Following his 31 BC defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on his own insistence, the Roman Senate granted him the additional name, "Augustus", which he added to his previous names thereafter.
Historians use this name to refer to him from 27 BC until his death in AD 14. While his paternal family was from the town of Velletri 40 kilometres from Rome, Augustus was born in the city of Rome on 23 September 63 BC, he was born at Ox Head, a small property on the Palatine Hill close to the Roman Forum. He was given the name Gaius Octavius Thurinus, his cognomen commemorating his father's victory at Thurii over a rebellious band of slaves. Suetonius wrote: "There are many indications that the Octavian family was in days of old a distinguished one at Velitrae; this man was leader in a war with a neighbouring town..." Due to the crowded nature of Rome at the time, Octavius was taken to his father's home village at Velletri to be raised. Octavius mentions his father's equestrian family only in his memoirs, his paternal great-grandfather Gaius Octavius was a military tribune in Sicily during the Second Punic War. His grandfather had served in several lo
Illyricum (Roman province)
Illyricum was a Roman province that existed from 27 BC to sometime during the reign of Vespasian. The province comprised Pannonia. Illyria included the area along the east coast of its inland mountains. With the creation of this province it came to be called Dalmatia, it was in the south. Illyria/Dalmatia stretched from the River Drin to the River Sava in the north; the area corresponded to modern northern Albania, Montenegro and Herzegovina and coastal Croatia. Pannonia was the plain which lies to its north, from the mountains of Illyria/Dalmatia to the westward bend of the River Danube, included modern Vojvodina, northern Croatia and western Hungary; as the province developed, Salona became its capital. Illyricum is a Latin term derived from Greek Illyris. A distinction was made between Illyris Barbara or Romana, which comprised the Adriatic coast down to today's northern Albania, Illyris Greaca, the rest of Albania called Epirus Nova; this latter area derived its name from the fact that, being close to Greece, it was influenced by the Greeks.
It was part of the Roman province of Macedonia. Illyria stretched from the River Drilon in modern northern Albania to Istria and the River Savus in the north, it comprised the coastal plain, the mountains of the Dinaric Alps which stretch along the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea for 645 kilometres with a width of about 150 kilometres) and, in the north-west, the Istrian Peninsula. There were numerous islands off the coast; the mountains were cultivated towards the coast. Lack of water and poor or arid soil made much of Illyria poor agricultural area and this gave rise to piracy; the interior of the southern part of Illyricum was more fertile. Illyria was inhabited by dozens of tribal groupings. Most of them were labelled as Illyrians. In the north there were Celtic tribes; the Pannonian plain in the north was more fertile. Its tribes were labelled as Pannonian. Archaeological finds and toponyms show that the Pannonians differed culturally from the Illyrians and the eastern Celts who lived to their west, in what is now Austria.
They were Celticised following a Celtic invasion of the northern part of the region at the beginning of the 4th century BC. Some tribes in the area were Celtic; the Pannonians had cultural similarities with the Illyrians. Iron mining and production was an important part of their economy in the pre-Roman days; the Romans fought three Illyrian wars between 229 BC and 168 BC. The First Illyrian War broke out due to concerns about attacks on the ships of Rome's Italian allies in the Adriatic Sea by Illyrian pirates and the increased power of the Ardiaei. With a powerful fleet The Ardiaei had invaded the Greek cities of Epidamnos Pharos, the island of Corfu and attacked Elis and Messenia in the Peloponnese and Phoenice in Epirus, whose trade with Italy was thriving. Numerous attacks on Italian ships prompted Rome to intervene; the Roman attacked the Ardiaei. Peace terms were agreed. In 220 BC the Ardiaei carried out attacks on the Greek coast in the west and southeast, they attacked Roman allies in southern Illyria.
This led to the Second Illyrian War. In 168 BC, during the Third Macedonian War between Rome and the Kingdom of Macedon, the Ardiaei joined the fight against the Romans, but they were defeated; the Romans imposed a tribute, half the amount they had been paying in taxes to their king on the cities which had fought them and five neighbouring tribes which had fought them. The cities and a tribe which had sided with the Romans were exempted from this tribute; the territory of the Ardaei and the neighbouring tribes was declared free and was divided into three cantons. Each was headed by its own council. We only have limited and scattered information about the subsequent Roman involvement in Illyria for the next 120 years, it seems. Most of what we know is through the work of Appian. In 156 BC the Dalmatae made an attack of the Illyrian subjects of Rome and refused to see Roman ambassadors; the consul Gaius Marcius Figulus undertook a campaign against them. While he was preparing his camp the Dalmatae drove him out of the camp.
He fled through the plain as far as the river Naro. He hoped to catch the Dalmatae unawares as they went back home for the winter, but they had assembled because they had heard of his arrival. Still, he drove them into the city of Delminium, he could not attack this fortified town. Thus he attacked other towns which were deserted because of the Dalmatae concentrating their forces at Delminium, he returned to Delminium and catapulted flaming projectiles. The greater part of the town was burned. Livy's Periochae recorded the campaign of Gaius Marcius Figulus and noted that in the next year, 155 BC, the consul Cornelius Nasica subdued the Dalmatae. In 135 BC two Illyrian tribes, the Ardiaei and the Palarii, made a raid on Roman Illyria while the Romans were busy with the Numantine War in Hispania
Marcus Antonius known in English as Mark Antony or Anthony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire. Antony was a supporter of Julius Caesar, served as one of his generals during the conquest of Gaul and the Civil War. Antony was appointed administrator of Italy while Caesar eliminated political opponents in Greece, North Africa, Spain. After Caesar's death in 44 BC, Antony joined forces with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, another of Caesar's generals, Octavian, Caesar's great-nephew and adopted son, forming a three-man dictatorship known to historians as the Second Triumvirate; the Triumvirs defeated Caesar's murderers, the Liberatores, at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC, divided the government of the Republic between themselves. Antony was assigned Rome's eastern provinces, including the client kingdom of Egypt ruled by Cleopatra VII Philopator, was given the command in Rome's war against Parthia.
Relations among the triumvirs were strained. Civil war between Antony and Octavian was averted in 40 BC, when Antony married Octavian's sister, Octavia. Despite this marriage, Antony carried on a love affair with Cleopatra, who bore him three children, further straining Antony's relations with Octavian. Lepidus was expelled from the association in 36 BC, in 33 BC disagreements between Antony and Octavian caused a split between the remaining Triumvirs, their ongoing hostility erupted into civil war in 31 BC, as the Roman Senate, at Octavian's direction, declared war on Cleopatra and proclaimed Antony a traitor. That year, Antony was defeated by Octavian's forces at the Battle of Actium. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. With Antony dead, Octavian became the undisputed master of the Roman world. In 27 BC, Octavian was granted the title of Augustus, marking the final stage in the transformation of the Roman Republic into an empire, with himself as the first Roman emperor. A member of the plebeian Antonia gens, Antony was born in Rome on 14 January 83 BC.
His father and namesake was Marcus Antonius Creticus, son of the noted orator by the same name, murdered during the Marian Terror of the winter of 87–86 BC. His mother was a distant cousin of Julius Caesar. Antony was an infant at the time of Lucius Cornelius Sulla's march on Rome in 82 BC. According to the Roman orator Marcus Tullius Cicero, Antony's father was incompetent and corrupt, was only given power because he was incapable of using or abusing it effectively. In 74 BC he was given military command to defeat the pirates of the Mediterranean, but he died in Crete in 71 BC without making any significant progress; the elder Antony's death left Antony and his brothers and Gaius, in the care of their mother, who married Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura, an eminent member of the old Patrician nobility. Lentulus, despite exploiting his political success for financial gain, was in debt due to the extravagance of his lifestyle, he was a major figure in the Second Catilinarian Conspiracy and was summarily executed on the orders of the Consul Cicero in 63 BC for his involvement.
Antony's early life was characterized by a lack of proper parental guidance. According to the historian Plutarch, he spent his teenage years wandering through Rome with his brothers and friends gambling and becoming involved in scandalous love affairs. Antony's contemporary and enemy, claimed he had a homosexual relationship with Gaius Scribonius Curio. There is little reliable information on his political activity as a young man, although it is known that he was an associate of Publius Clodius Pulcher and his street gang, he may have been involved in the Lupercal cult as he was referred to as a priest of this order in life. By age twenty, Antony had amassed an enormous debt. Hoping to escape his creditors, Antony fled to Greece in 58 BC, where he studied philosophy and rhetoric at Athens. In 57 BC, Antony joined the military staff of Aulus Gabinius, the Proconsul of Syria, as chief of the cavalry; this appointment marks the beginning of his military career. As Consul the previous year, Gabinius had consented to the exile of Cicero by Antony's mentor, Publius Clodius Pulcher.
Hyrcanus II, the Roman-supported Hasmonean High Priest of Judea, fled Jerusalem to Gabinius to seek protection against his rival and son-in-law Alexander. Years earlier in 63 BC, the Roman general Pompey had captured him and his father, King Aristobulus II, during his war against the remnant of the Seleucid Empire. Pompey had deposed Aristobulus and installed Hyrcanus as Rome's client ruler over Judea. Antony achieved his first military distinctions after securing important victories at Alexandrium and Machaerus. With the rebellion defeated by 56 BC, Gabinius restored Hyrcanus to his position as High Priest in Judea; the following year, in 55 BC, Gabinius intervened in the political affairs of Ptolemaic Egypt. Pharaoh Ptolemy XII Auletes had been deposed in a rebellion led by his daughter Berenice IV in 58 BC, forcing him to seek asylum in Rome. During Pompey's conquests years earlier, Ptolemy had received the support of Pompey, who named him an ally of Rome. Gabinius' invasion sought to restore Ptolemy to his throne.
This was done against the orders of the Senate but with the approval of Pompey Rome's leading politician, only after the deposed king provided a 10,000 talent bribe. The Greek historian Plutarch records it was Antony who convinced Gabinius to act. After defeating the frontier forces of the Egyptian kingdom, Gabinius's army proceeded to attack the palace guards but they surrendered before a battle commenced
Appian of Alexandria was a Greek historian with Roman citizenship who flourished during the reigns of Emperors of Rome Trajan and Antoninus Pius. He was born c. 95 in Alexandria. After holding the chief offices in the province of Aegyptus, he went to Rome c. 120, where he practised as an advocate, pleading cases before the emperors. It was in 147 at the earliest that he was appointed to the office of procurator in Egypt, on the recommendation of his friend Marcus Cornelius Fronto, a well-known litterateur; because the position of procurator was open only to members of the equestrian order, his possession of this office tells us about Appian's family background. His principal surviving work was written in Greek in 24 books, before 165; this work more resembles a series of monographs than a connected history. It gives an account of various peoples and countries from the earliest times down to their incorporation into the Roman Empire, survives in complete books and considerable fragments; the work is valuable for the period of the civil wars.
The Civil Wars, five of the books in the corpus, concern the end of the Roman Republic and take a conflict-based view and approach history. Despite the apparent lack of sources for his works, his books 13–17 of the Roman History are the only comprehensive description of these nine momentous centuries of the Roman Empire. Little is known of the life of Appian of Alexandria, he wrote an autobiography, completely lost. Information about Appian is distilled from his own writings and a letter by his friend Cornelius Fronto. However, it is certain that Appian was born around the year AD 95 in Alexandria, the capital of Roman Egypt. Since his parents were Roman citizens capable of paying for their son's education, it can be inferred that Appian belonged to the wealthy upper classes, it is believed. In the introduction to his Roman History, he boasts "that he pleaded cases in Rome before the emperors." The emperors he claims to have addressed must have been either Hadrian or Marcus Aurelius and Antoninus Pius, for Appian remained in Egypt at least until the end of the reign of Trajan.
In the letter of Cornelius Fronto, it is revealed that a request on behalf of Appian to receive the rank of procurator occurred during the co-regency of Marcus Aurelius and his brother Lucius Verus between 147 and 161. Although Appian won this office, it is unclear whether it was an honorific title; the only other certain biographical datum is that Appian's Roman History appeared sometime before 162. This is one of the few primary historical sources for the period. Appian began writing his history around the middle of the second century AD. Only sections from half of the original 24 books survive today; the most important remnants of Appian's work are the five books on the Civil Wars—books 13–17 of the Roman History. These five books stand out because they are the only comprehensive, meticulous source available on an significant historical period, during which Roman politics were in turmoil because of factional strife. Notable is this work's ethnographic structure. Appian most used this structure to facilitate his readers' orientation through the sequence of events, which are united only by their relationship to Rome.
A literary example of this can be found from Appian's Civil Wars. It states, "And now civil discord broke out again worse than and increased enormously…so in the course of events in the Roman empire was partitioned…by these three men: Antony and the one, first called Octavius…shortly after this division they fell to quarrelling among themselves…Octavius…first deprived Lepidus of Africa…and afterward, as the result of the battle of Actium, took from Antony all the provinces lying between Syria and the Adriatic gulf." One might expect that a historical work covering nine centuries and countless different peoples would involve a multitude of testimonials from different periods. However, Appian's sources remain uncertain, as he only mentions the source of his information under special circumstances, he may have relied on one author for each book, whom he did not follow uncritically, since Appian used additional sources for precision and correction. At our present state of knowledge questions regarding Appian’s sources cannot be resolved.
Appiani Alexandrini Historia Publio Candido interprete Ac praeterea Anonymi Compendium historiae ab excessu Constantini usque ad Ioannem XXIII. World Digital Library. Retrieved 2014-02-28. Editio princeps, 1551 Schweighäuser, 1785 Bekker, 1852 Ludwig Mendelssohn, 1878–1905, Appiani Historia Romana, Bibliotheca Teubneriana Paul Goukowsky, 1997–, Appien. Histoire romaine, Collection Budé. Carsana, Chiara. Commento storico al libro II delle Guerre Civili di Appiano. Pisa: Edizioni ETS, 2007. 309 pp.. English translationsW. B. 1578 – William Barker – used by Shakespeare J. D, 1679 Horace White, 1899. Books XIII–XVII, trans. John Carter, Harmondsworth, 1996 William Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Vol. 1, pp. 247–248 Works written by or about Appian at Wikisource Appian's Foreign Wars at Livius.org Appian's Civil Wars at La