The Philippine Revolution, called the Tagalog War by the Spanish, was a revolution and subsequent conflict fought between the people and insurgents of the Philippines and the Spanish colonial authorities of the Spanish East Indies, under the Spanish Empire. The Philippine Revolution began in August 1896, when the Spanish authorities discovered the Katipunan, an anti-colonial secret organization; the Katipunan, led by Andrés Bonifacio, began to influence much of the Philippines. During a mass gathering in Caloocan, the leaders of the Katipunan organized themselves into a revolutionary government, named the newly established government "Haring Bayang Katagalugan", declared a nationwide armed revolution. Bonifacio called for an attack on the capital city of Manila; this attack failed. In particular, rebels in Cavite led by Mariano Álvarez and Emilio Aguinaldo won early major victories. A power struggle among the revolutionaries led to Bonifacio's death in 1897, with command shifting to Aguinaldo, who led the newly formed revolutionary government.
That year, the revolutionaries and the Spanish signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, which temporarily reduced hostilities. Aguinaldo and other Filipino officers exiled themselves in the British colony of Hong Kong in southern China. However, the hostilities never ceased. On April 21, 1898, after the sinking of USS Maine in Havana Harbor and prior to its declaration of war on April 25, the United States launched a naval blockade of the Spanish colony island of Cuba, off its southern coast of the peninsula of Florida; this was the first military action of the Spanish–American War of 1898. On May 1, the U. S. Navy's Asiatic Squadron, under Commodore George Dewey, decisively defeated the Spanish Navy in the Battle of Manila Bay seizing control of Manila. On May 19, unofficially allied with the United States, returned to the Philippines and resumed attacks against the Spaniards. By June, the rebels had gained control of nearly all of the Philippines, with the exception of Manila. On June 12, Aguinaldo issued the Philippine Declaration of Independence.
Although this signified the end date of the revolution, neither Spain nor the United States recognized Philippine independence. The Spanish rule of the Philippines ended with the Treaty of Paris of 1898, which ended the Spanish–American War. In the treaty, Spain ceded control of other territories to the United States. There was an uneasy peace around Manila, with the American forces controlling the city and the weaker Philippines forces surrounding them. On February 4, 1899, in the Battle of Manila, fighting broke out between the Filipino and American forces, beginning the Philippine–American War. Aguinaldo ordered "hat peace and friendly relations with the Americans be broken and that the latter be treated as enemies". In June 1899, the nascent First Philippine Republic formally declared war against the United States; the Philippines would not become an internationally recognized independent state until 1946. The main influx of revolutionary ideas came at the start of the 19th century, when the Philippines was opened for world trade.
In 1809, the first English firms were established in Manila, followed by a royal decree in 1834 which opened the city to world trade. The Philippines had been governed from Mexico since 1565, with colonial administrative costs sustained by subsidies from the galleon trade. Increased competition with foreign traders brought the galleon trade to an end in 1815. After its recognition of Mexican independence in 1821, Spain was forced to govern the Philippines directly from Madrid and to find new sources of revenue to pay for the colonial administration. At this point, post-French Revolution ideas entered the country through literature, which resulted in the rise of an enlightened principalia class in the society; the 1868 Spanish Revolution brought the autocratic rule of Queen Isabella II to an end. The autocratic government was replaced by a liberal government led by General Francisco Serrano. In 1869, Serrano appointed Carlos María de la Torre as the 91st governor-general; the leadership of de la Torre introduced the idea of liberalism to the Philippines.
The election of Amadeo of Savoy to the throne of Spain led to the replacement of de la Torre in 1871. In 1872, the government of the succeeding governor-general, Rafael de Izquierdo, experienced the uprising of Filipino soldiers at the Fort San Felipe arsenal in Cavite el Viejo. Seven days after the mutiny, many people were tried. Three of these were secular priests: José Burgos, Mariano Gómez and friar Jacinto Zamora, who were hanged by Spanish authorities in Bagumbayan, their execution had a profound effect on many Filipinos. Many Filipinos who were arrested for possible rebellion were deported to Spanish penal colonies; some of them, managed to escape to Hong Kong, Singapore, London and some parts of Spain. These people met other exiles who had escaped from penal colonies. Bound together by common fate, they established an organization known as the Propaganda Movement; these émigrés used their writings to condemn Spanish abuses and seek reforms to the colonial government. José Rizal's novels, Noli Me Tángere and El Filibusterismo, exposed Spanish abuses in socio-political and religious aspects.
The publication of his first novel brought the infamous agrarian conflict in
Plains Music is an album released in 1991 by Manfred Mann's Plain Music, a project initiated by Manfred Mann after he retired his Earth Band in the late 1980s. "This album is called Plains Music, as it consists of the melodies of the North American Plains Indians. We do not pretend that it is in any sense representative of the original ethnic music, its source material. I tried to make a simple album of plain music, using as few notes as possible and keeping the tracks short and to the point." - Manfred Mann 1991 Mann recorded some of the album in his homeland, which he had been exiled from for nearly three decades because of his opposition to apartheid. The album was released in 1991 and was re-mastered digitally with three additional tracks in 1998. Side one"Kiowa" – 3:16 "Medicine Song" – 4:15 "Wounded Knee" – 4:51 "Laguna" – 4:56Side two"Sikelele I" – 3:43 "Hunting Bow" – 1:35 "Instrumedicine Song" – 4:06 "Sikelele II" – 4:03 "Hunting Bow " – 2:40Bonus Tracks"Salmon Fishing" – 4:02 "L. I.
A. S. O. M." – 3:51 "Medicine Song" – 4:16 Manfred Mann - keyboards Noel McCalla - vocals Barbara Thompson - saxophones Peter Sklair - bass Ian Hermann - drums, percussionwith Smiler Makana - African hunting bows Kelly Petlane - pennywhistle Doren Thobeki - additional vocals Walter Sanza - additional vocals Chief Dawethi - additional vocals
Moy Hall near the village of Moy south of Inverness has been the home of the Clan Mackintosh chiefs since the 14th century. Jacobite supporter Lady Anne Farquharson-MacKintosh entertained Charles Edward Stuart here in 1746. Lady MacKintosh learned that government forces were advancing to capture Stuart and she arranged for four of her men to hide by the roadside when the government troops approached. Setting off their pistols to fire one at a time, they shouted for Clan MacDonald and Clan Cameron to advance, thus tricking the government forces into thinking they had stumbled into the whole of Jacobite Army. Government forces speedily retreated and the event is remembered as "The Rout of Moy"; the historic 19th century Moy Hall was demolished after World War II having been overcome by dry rot. It was designed by Alexander Ross and James Adam and built c1872, its replacement built nearby, the new "Moy Hall", is a somewhat smaller but comfortable home which retains various features from the old place, such as the wooden panelling.
Colonel Anne Mackintosh, Scotland's Beautiful Rebel by Jean Mackintosh Goldstrom