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Philips

Koninklijke Philips N. V. is a Dutch multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Amsterdam one of the largest electronics companies in the world focused in the area of health technology, with other divisions being divested. It was founded in Eindhoven in 1891 by Gerard Philips and his father Frederik, with their first products being light bulbs, it was once one of the largest electronic conglomerates in the world and employs around 74,000 people across 100 countries. The company gained its royal honorary title in 1998 and dropped the "Electronics" in its name in 2013, due to its refocusing from consumer electronics to healthcare technology. Philips is organized into three main divisions: Philips Consumer Health, Well-being and Philips Professional Healthcare; the lighting division was spun off as a separate company, Signify N. V.. The company started making electric shavers in 1939 under the Philishave brand, post-war they developed the Compact Cassette format and co-developed the Compact Disc format with Sony, as well as numerous other technologies.

As of 2012, Philips was the largest manufacturer of lighting in the world as measured by applicable revenues. Philips has a primary listing on the Euronext Amsterdam stock exchange and is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index, it has a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange. Acquisitions include that of Magnavox, they have had a sports club since 1913 called PSV Eindhoven. The Philips Company was founded by Gerard Philips and his father Frederik Philips. Frederik, a banker based in Zaltbommel, financed the purchase and setup of an empty factory building in Eindhoven, where the company started the production of carbon-filament lamps and other electro-technical products in 1892; this first factory is used as a museum. In 1895, after a difficult first few years and near bankruptcy, the Philipses brought in Anton, Gerard's younger brother by sixteen years. Though he had earned a degree in engineering, Anton started work as a sales representative. With Anton's arrival, the family business began to expand resulting in the founding of Philips Metaalgloeilampfabriek N.

V. in Eindhoven in 1908, followed in 1912, by the foundation of Philips Gloeilampenfabrieken N. V.. After Gerard and Anton Philips changed their family business by founding the Philips corporation, they laid the foundations for the electronics multinational. In the 1920s, the company started to manufacture other products, such as vacuum tubes. In 1939, they introduced the Philishave; the "Chapel" is a radio with built-in loudspeaker, designed during the early 1930s. On 11 March 1927, Philips went on the air with shortwave radio station PCJJ, joined in 1929 by sister station PHOHI. PHOHI broadcast in Dutch to the Dutch East Indies while PCJJ broadcast in English and German to the rest of the world; the international program on Sundays commenced in 1928, with host Eddie Startz hosting the Happy Station show, which became the world's longest-running shortwave program. Broadcasts from the Netherlands were interrupted by the German invasion in May 1940; the Germans commandeered the transmitters in Huizen to use for pro-Nazi broadcasts, some originating from Germany, others concerts from Dutch broadcasters under German control.

Philips Radio was absorbed shortly after liberation when its two shortwave stations were nationalised in 1947 and renamed Radio Netherlands Worldwide, the Dutch International Service. Some PCJ programs, such as Happy Station, continued on the new station. Philips was instrumental in the revival of the Stirling engine when, in the early 1930s, the management decided that offering a low-power portable generator would assist in expanding sales of its radios into parts of the world where mains electricity was unavailable and the supply of batteries uncertain. Engineers at the company's research lab carried out a systematic comparison of various power sources and determined that the forgotten Stirling engine would be most suitable, citing its quiet operation and ability to run on a variety of heat sources, they were aware that, unlike steam and internal combustion engines no serious development work had been carried out on the Stirling engine for many years and asserted that modern materials and know-how should enable great improvements.

Encouraged by their first experimental engine, which produced 16 W of shaft power from a bore and stroke of 30 mm × 25 mm, various development models were produced in a program which continued throughout World War II. By the late 1940s, the'Type 10' was ready to be handed over to Philips's subsidiary Johan de Witt in Dordrecht to be produced and incorporated into a generator set as planned; the result, rated at 180/200 W electrical output from a bore and stroke of 55 mm × 27 mm, was designated MP1002CA. Production of an initial batch of 250 began in 1951, but it became clear that they could not be made at a competitive price, besides with the advent of transistor radios with their much lower power requirements meant that the original rationale for the set was disappearing. 150 of these sets

Constance Whitney Warren

Constance Whitney Warren was an American sculptor. She was born in New York City to Georgia "Daisy" Williams. In 1912, at St Patrick's Cathedral, she married Count Guy de Lasteyrie, son of the Marquis de Lasteyrie and a descendant of Gilbert du Motier, marquis de Lafayette, she died in 1948, aged 60, but little is known of her life. Texas Cowboy Monument, Texas State Capitol, Texas, 1921–25. Tribute to Range Riders, Oklahoma State Capitol, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1926–29. Lariat Cowboy, Arizona, unveiled 1954

Jacob Talmon

Jacob Leib Talmon was Professor of Modern History at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He has been categorised as a'Cold War liberal' because of the anti-Marxism which permeates his main works, he studied the genealogy of totalitarianism, arguing that political Messianism stemmed from the French Revolution, stressed the similarities between Jacobinism and Stalinism. He coined the terms "totalitarian democracy" and "Messianic democracy/political Messianism". Talmon was born in a town in central Poland, into an orthodox Jewish family, he left in 1934 to study at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem in the British Mandate of Palestine, now Israel. He left for London after the Nazi invasion, his main works are The Origins of Totalitarian Democracy and Political Messianism: The Romantic Phase. Talmon argued that Rousseau's position may best be understood as "totalitarian democracy", a philosophy in which liberty is realized "only in the pursuit and attainment of an absolute collective purpose." Following the 1967 Six-Day War, Talmon engaged in a debate with Arnold J. Toynbee on the role of Jews and Zionism in history.

Talmon died in Jerusalem on June 1980, two days after his 64th birthday. In 1957, Talmon was awarded the Israel Prize, for social sciences; the Origins of Totalitarian Democracy, London: Secker & Warburg, vol. 1: 1952, vol. 2: 1960 The Nature of Jewish History-Its Universal Significance, 1957 Political Messianism – The Romantic Phase, 1960 The Unique and The Universal, 1965 Romanticism and Revolt, 1967 Israel among the Nations, 1968 The Age of Violence, 1974 The Myth of Nation and Vision of Revolution – The Origins of Ideological Polarization in the 20th Century, 1981 The Riddle of the Present and the Cunning of History, 2000 Totalitarian democracy List of Israel Prize recipients Two Statements on the Mid-East War, 1973 Arie Dubnov,'A tale of trees and crooked timbers: Jacob Talmon and Isaiah Berlin on the question of Jewish Nationalism', History of European Ideas, Vol. 34, No. 2 Arie Dubnov,'Priest or Jester? Jacob L. Talmon on History and Intellectual engagement', History of European Ideas, Vol. 34, No. 2