Captain Matthew Flinders was an English navigator and cartographer who led the first circumnavigation of Australia and identified it as a continent. Flinders made three voyages to the southern ocean between 1791 and 1810. In the second voyage, George Bass and Flinders confirmed. In the third voyage, Flinders circumnavigated the mainland of what was to be called Australia, accompanied by Aboriginal man Bungaree. Heading back to England in 1803, Flinders' vessel needed urgent repairs at Isle de France. Although Britain and France were at war, Flinders thought the scientific nature of his work would ensure safe passage, but a suspicious governor kept him under arrest for more than six years. In captivity, he recorded details of his voyages for future publication, put forward his rationale for naming the new continent'Australia', as an umbrella term for New Holland and New South Wales – a suggestion taken up by Governor Macquarie. Flinders' health had suffered and although he reached home in 1810, he did not live to see the success of his praised book and atlas, A Voyage to Terra Australis.
The location of his grave was lost by the mid-19th century but archaeologists excavating a former burial ground near London's Euston railway station for the High Speed 2 project, announced in January 2019 that his remains had been identified. Matthew Flinders was born in Donington, England, the son of Matthew Flinders, a surgeon, his wife Susannah, née Ward, he was educated at Cowley's Charity School, from 1780 and at the Reverend John Shinglar's Grammar School at Horbling in Lincolnshire. In his own words, he was "induced to go to sea against the wishes of my friends from reading Robinson Crusoe", in 1790, at the age of fifteen, he joined the Royal Navy. Serving on HMS Alert, he transferred to HMS Scipio, in July 1790 was made midshipman on HMS Bellerophon under Captain Pasley. By Pasley's recommendation, he joined Captain Bligh's expedition on HMS Providence, transporting breadfruit from Tahiti to Jamaica; this was Bligh's second "Breadfruit Voyage" following on from the ill-fated voyage of the Bounty.
Flinders' first voyage to New South Wales, first trip to Port Jackson, was in 1795 as a midshipman aboard HMS Reliance, carrying the newly appointed governor of New South Wales Captain John Hunter. On this voyage he established himself as a fine navigator and cartographer, became friends with the ship's surgeon George Bass, three years his senior and had been born 11 miles from Donington. Not long after their arrival in Port Jackson and Flinders made two expeditions in two small open boats, named Tom Thumb and Tom Thumb II respectively: the first to Botany Bay and Georges River, the second, in the larger Tom Thumb II, south from Port Jackson to Lake Illawarra, during which expedition they had to seek shelter at Wattamolla. In 1798, Matthew Flinders, now a lieutenant, was given command of the sloop Norfolk with orders "to sail beyond Furneaux's Islands, should a strait be found, pass through it, return by the south end of Van Diemen's Land"; the passage between the Australian mainland and Tasmania enabled savings of several days on the journey from England, was named Bass Strait, after his close friend.
In honour of this discovery, the largest island in Bass Strait would be named Flinders Island. The town of Flinders near the mouth of Western Port commemorates Bass' discovery of that bay and port on 4 January 1798. Flinders never entered Western Port, passed Cape Schanck only on 3 May 1802. Flinders once more sailed Norfolk, this time north on 17 July 1799, he touched down at Pumicestone Passage and Coochiemudlo Island and rowed ashore at Clontarf. During this visit he named Redcliffe after the Red Cliffs. In March 1800, Flinders set sail for England. Flinders' work had come to the attention of many of the scientists of the day, in particular the influential Sir Joseph Banks, to whom Flinders dedicated his Observations on the Coasts of Van Diemen's Land, on Bass's Strait, etc.. Banks used his influence with Earl Spencer to convince the Admiralty of the importance of an expedition to chart the coastline of New Holland; as a result, in January 1801, Flinders was given command of HMS Investigator, a 334-ton sloop, promoted to commander the following month.
Investigator set sail for New Holland on 18 July 1801. Attached to the expedition were the botanist Robert Brown, botanical artist Ferdinand Bauer, landscape artist William Westall, gardener Peter Good, geological assistant John Allen, John Crosley as astronomer. Vallance et al. comment that compared to the Baudin expedition this was a'modest contingent of scientific gentlemen', which reflects'British parsimony' in scientific endeavour. On 17 April 1801, Flinders married his longtime friend Ann Chappelle and had hoped to bring her with him to Port Jackson; however the Admiralty had strict rules against wives accompanying captains. Flinders brought Ann on board ship and planned to ignore the rules, but the Admiralty learned of his plans and he was chastised for his bad judgement and told he must remove her from the ship; this is well documented in correspondence between Flinders and his chief benefactor, Sir Joseph Banks, in May 1801: I have but time to tell you that the news of your marriage, published in the Lincoln paper, has reached me.
The Lords of the Admiralty have heard that Mrs. Flinders is on board the Investigator, that you have some thought of carrying her to sea with you; this I was sorry to hear, if, the case I beg to give you my
Cape Woolamai, Victoria
Cape Woolamai is a small town and headland at the south eastern tip of Phillip Island in Victoria, Australia. It is home to Cape Woolamai State Faunal Reserve, the Phillip Island Airport. Cape Woolamai contains a subdivision called Cape Woolamai; the cape was named by George Bass when he passed it on his whaleboat voyage in early 1798. Wollamai is the snapper fish in the language of the Eora aboriginal people of Port Jackson, where the fish is found. Bass, who had learnt some of the Sydney language from the Eora leader Bennelong,) thought the headland resembled the head of that fish. In 1826, during the establishment of Fort Dumaresq, near Rhyll, coal was reported to have been found in the vicinity of the Cape; the area was purchased from the government in 1868 by John Cleeland, sea captain and owner of the Melbourne Cup winner of 1875,'Wollomai'. He built Wollomai House, ran merino sheep from New South Wales. In 1910 his son, John Blake Cleeland, noticed the sand was shifting due to erosion so he planted rows of Marram grass, still evident today.
In 1959, 230 acres of farmland was sold and subdivided into housing estates for beach shacks and holiday makers. It was named' Woolamai Waters and Woolamai Waters West', renamed' Cape Woolamai'. Cape Woolamai had a Post Office from 1970 to 1974, open only during summer. A Woolamai Post Office was open from 1911 until 1974; the roads were sealed in the late 1980s and beach shacks turned into more substantial houses. Today Cape Woolamai has a world-renowned surf beach, Woolamai Beach Surf Life Saving Club, a popular Safety Beach; the headland contains remnant vegetation and wildlife such as an important breeding colony of the short-tailed shearwater or Australian muttonbird. Volunteer groups such as the Cape Woolamai Coast Action Group conduct regular improvement and maintenance works including weed control and revegetation, it lies within the Phillip Island Important Bird Area, so identified by BirdLife International because of its importance in supporting significant populations of little penguins, short-tailed shearwaters and Pacific gulls.
Bass Coast Shire Website Downloadable map of Cape Woolamai Official Profile at Phillip Island Nature Parks Profile at Domain.com Profile at VisitPhillipIsland.com
San Remo, Victoria
San Remo is a town in southern Victoria, Australia in the Gippsland region. Formed as a fishing village, its economy is now based on tourism, it is notable as the town on the mainland end of the bridge to Phillip Island. At the 2016 census, San Remo had a population of 1212, it is located at the western tip of the Anderson Peninsula, 122 km south-east of Melbourne via the South Gippsland Highway, near Kilcunda and opposite Newhaven on Phillip Island. The area around what is now San Remo was used for many centuries by the Bunurong people who occupied an area of the Mornington Peninsular, of the Kulin nation. George Bass explored the coast and discovered the strait separating the mainland and Van Diemen's land, together with the bay he named Western Port. Sealers frequented Islands in the 1820s before Europeans settled the coast. Samuel Anderson a Scottish immigrant who in 1835 established the third permanent settlement in Victoria at Bass. Samuel had arrived in Hobart aboard the "Lang" in September 1830 and was employed as bookkeeper for Van Diemens Land Co at Circular Head Tasmania.
In 1835 he left the company and sailed to Westernport, it has been suggested that the sloop "Rebecca" was purchased by Samuel and his partner/s. In 1837 his partner Robert Massie left VDL Co and joined Samuel at Westernport; the partnership of Massie and Anderson floundered in the credit squeeze of 1842 and the partnership sold by auction all their assets to repay creditors. This appears to be the end of the partnership with Massie relocating to Melbourne by 1844 meeting and marrying Eliza Armstrong in 1845 departing to Taraville. Samuels Brothers Hugh and Thomas followed him to Bass and when land was released they bought over 2000 acres centred on the Anderson area today with their homestead "Netherwood" being built on the shores of Westernport; the Anderson brothers and their descendants featured prominently in the local municipal area. An early pioneer and explorer, Anderson Inlet at Inverloch was named after Samuel Anderson. Descendents of the Anderson family remain around San Remo to this day.
In 1797 George Bass, a naval surgeon and explorer, took a voyage in an open whaleboat to explore the coastline. It was explored on foot in 1826 by William Hovell. Around 1840 a deepwater port was established at Griffiths Point in order to provide exports of wattle bark, farm produce and cattle, later coal starting in the 1870s. A township grew around this port, brought in tourists. In 1888 the township was named San Remo after the resort town in Italy; the Post Office opened on 14 August 1873 and was renamed San Remo in 1888. Early in the 20th Century, commercial fishing of the King George whiting came to the area, the produce being sent to Melbourne markets via railway. Since 2006 San Remo has a tidal power test facility. Installed Nereus tidal turbines dispatch power directly to national grid. In 2008 a monument to those local professional fisherman lost at sea was erected with funds provided by local businesses and rotary. A cairn with the names of those lost at sea with a navigation light atop is a main feature.
Today there is a fishing co-operative near the bridge that supplies good fresh fish the King George whiting for which the area is known. Kustom Nats in January; the San Remo Channel Challenge is held in February. San Remo Fishing Festival, Blessing of the Fleet in September. Blessing of the Bikes in October. At 12 noon daily, the San Remo fisherman's co-operative feeds the pelicans at the jetty and gives a free public talk at the pier. Sanremo in Italy
Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands before British colonisation. The time of arrival of the first Indigenous Australians is a matter of debate among researchers; the earliest conclusively human remains found in Australia are those of Mungo Man LM3 and Mungo Lady, which have been dated to around 50,000 years BP. Recent archaeological evidence from the analysis of charcoal and artefacts revealing human use suggests a date as early as 65,000 BP. Luminescence dating has suggested habitation in Arnhem Land as far back as 60,000 years BP. Genetic research has inferred a date of habitation as early as 80,000 years BP. Other estimates have ranged up to 100,000 years and 125,000 years BP. Although there are a number of commonalities between Indigenous Aboriginal Australians, there is a great diversity among different Indigenous communities and societies in Australia, each with its own mixture of cultures and languages.
In present-day Australia these groups are further divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken. Aboriginal people today speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English; the population of Indigenous Australians at the time of permanent European settlement is contentious and has been estimated at between 318,000 and 1,000,000 with the distribution being similar to that of the current Australian population, the majority living in the south-east, centred along the Murray River. A population collapse principally from disease followed European settlement beginning with a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans. Massacres and war by British settlers contributed to depopulation; the characterisation of this violence as genocide is controversial and disputed. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the official flags of Australia.
The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century to mean, "first or earliest known, indigenous". It comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from origo; the word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789. It soon became employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. While the term Indigenous Australians, has grown since the 1980s to be more inclusive of Torres Strait Islander people, many Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples dislike it, feeling that it is too generic and removes their identity. Being more specific, for example naming the language group, is considered best practice and most respectful. Terms that are considered disrespectful include Aborigine and ATSI The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many regional groups that identify under names from local Indigenous languages; these include: Murrawarri people -- see Murawari language. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land.
These larger groups may be further subdivided. It is estimated that before the arrival of British settlers, the population of Indigenous Australians was 318,000–750,000 across the continent; the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, speak a Papuan language. Accordingly, they are not included under the designation "Aboriginal Australians"; this has been another factor in the promotion of the more inclusive term "Indigenous Australians". Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as Torres Strait Islanders. A further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage; the Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879. Many Indigenous organisations incorporate the phrase "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander" to highlight the distinctiveness and importance of Torres Strait Islanders in Australia's Indigenous population.
Eddie Mabo was from "Mer" or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term "black" has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement. While related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal he
Phillip Island (Norfolk Island)
Phillip Island is an island located 6 km south of Norfolk Island in the Southwest Pacific, is part of the Norfolk Island group. It was named in 1788 by Lieutenant Philip Gidley King for Arthur Phillip, the first Governor of New South Wales. Phillip Island is part of the Australian external territory of Norfolk Island, is included in Norfolk Island National Park, as is neighbouring Nepean Island and about 10 per cent of Norfolk Island proper. A National Parks hut located near the centre of the island houses a small rotating group of around four people for much of the year. Otherwise the island is uninhabited. Phillip Island has an area of 190 hectares, measuring 2.1 km from west to east and 1.95 km from north to south, with the highest point, Jacky Jacky, being 280 m above sea level. It is shaped like a hairdryer with the nozzle pointing east; the island is of volcanic origin, made of basaltic lava dating from the Miocene epoch. Phillip Island is included on the Register of the National Estate.
The vegetation of Phillip Island was devastated due to the introduction, during Norfolk's penal colony era, of pest animals such as pigs and rabbits. This caused massive erosion, giving the island a reddish-brown colour as viewed from Norfolk, due to the absence of topsoil. However, the pigs and goats were removed by the early 20th century, rabbits were exterminated by 1988. Since natural regeneration of native species and weeds, remediation work by park staff, has brought considerable improvement to Phillip Island's environment. Revegetation is underway. A substantial proportion of the areas which were bare before rabbit eradication began is now well vegetated, though much is weed species. Considering most of the island's surface was devoid of vegetation before rabbit control, the rate of vegetation development and soil formation is extraordinary. Burrow-nesting seabirds now have colonies. Reforestation of Norfolk Island pine on Phillip Island was assisted in the late 1980s by a C130E Hercules from the RAAF's No. 37 Squadron based in Richmond.
Record crops of Norfolk Island pine seeds were collected and aerial seeded on Phillip Island by the Hercules aircraft. Phillip Island has a vascular flora of about 80 species. Three plant species are endemic to Phillip Island. Was discovered there after the rabbits had gone, the current small population of this species is derived from the single original plant discovered. Was rediscovered on Phillip Island when the rabbits had been eradicated; the third plant that grows only on this island is the. Despite the environmental degradation, the lack of feral cats and rats on the island has allowed some animals to persist there after having become extinct on Norfolk. However, there are extinct species, such as the Norfolk kaka. Two terrestrial reptiles—a gecko, a skink —have been recorded; the island is an important breeding site for 12 species of seabirds, including the providence petrel, Kermadec petrel, white-necked petrel, black-winged petrel, wedge-tailed shearwater, Australasian gannet, sooty tern, red-tailed tropicbird, grey noddy.
The sooty tern has traditionally been subject to seasonal egg harvesting. Phillip Island has been identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area, separate from the Norfolk Island IBA, because it supports small but increasing populations of providence and white-necked petrels as well as over 1% of the world population of grey noddies. Anon.. Management Plan 2008-18 Norfolk Island Botanic Garden. Environment Australia: Canberra. ISBN 0-642-54667-3 Hoare, Merval.. Rambler's Guide to Norfolk Island. Pacific Publications: Sydney. ISBN 0-85807-020-0 Coyne, Peter.. Incredible! Phillip Island, South Pacific; the amazing story of the birth and rebirth of a natural treasure. Petaurus Press: Canberra. ISBN 9780980652802 Phillip Island Department of the Environment and Water Resources Management Plan 2008-18 | Norfolk Island National Park and Norfolk Island Botanic Garden Geological origins, Norfolk Island Tourism
A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit for its inherent or an exhibited natural or cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, offering leisure and amusement. Places of natural beauty such as beaches, tropical island resorts, national parks, mountains and forests, are examples of traditional tourist attractions which people may visit. Cultural tourist attractions can include historical places, ancient temples, aquaria and art galleries, botanical gardens and structures, theme parks and carnivals, living history museums, public art, ethnic enclave communities, historic trains and cultural events. Factory tours, industrial heritage, creative art and crafts workshops are the object of cultural niches like industrial tourism and creative tourism. Many tourist attractions are landmarks. Tourist attractions are created to capitalise on legends such as a supposed UFO crash site near Roswell, New Mexico and the alleged Loch Ness monster sightings in Scotland.
Ghost sightings make tourist attractions. Ethnic communities may become tourist attractions, such as Chinatowns in the United States and the black British neighbourhood of Brixton in London, England. In the United States and marketers of attractions advertise tourist attractions on billboards along the sides of highways and roadways in remote areas. Tourist attractions distribute free promotional brochures to be displayed in rest areas, information centers, fast food restaurants, motel rooms or lobbies. While some tourist attractions provide visitors a memorable experience for a reasonable admission charge or for free, others may be of low quality and overprice their goods and services in order to profit excessively from tourists; such places are known as tourist traps. Within cities, rides on boats and sightseeing buses are sometimes popular. Novelty attractions are oddities such as the "biggest ball of twine" in Cawker City, the Corn Palace in Mitchell, South Dakota, or Carhenge in Alliance, where old cars serve in the place of stones in a replica of Stonehenge.
Novelty attractions are part of Midwestern culture. A tourist destination is a city, town, or other area, dependent to a significant extent on revenues from tourism, or "a country, region, city, or town, marketed or markets itself as a place for tourists to visit", it may contain one or more tourist attractions and some "tourist traps". Fátima town, for example, is a popular tourist destination in Portugal. Siem Reap town is a popular tourist destination in Cambodia owing to its proximity to the Angkor temples; the Loire valley, the third tourist destination in France, is a good example of a region marketed and branded as a place for tourists to visit known for its Châteaux of the Loire valley. A tropical island resort is an island or archipelago that depends on tourism as its source of revenue; the Bahamas in the Caribbean, Bali in Indonesia, Phuket in Thailand, Hawaii in the United States, Palawan in the Philippines, Fiji in the Pacific, Santorini and Ibiza in the Mediterranean are examples of popular island resorts.
France, the United States, Spain were the three most popular international destinations in 2017. The total number of international travelers arriving in those countries was about 234 million, contributing 8.9%, 7.7%, 14.9% to the total GDP of those countries. From the tourism industry supply perspective a destination is defined by a geo-political boundary, destination marketing is most funded by governments. From the traveler perspective, a destination might be perceived quite differently; the tourism industry generates substantial economic benefits for both host countries and tourists' home countries. In developing countries, one of the primary motivations for a region to promote itself as a tourism destination is the expected economic benefit. According to the World Tourism Organization, 698 million people travelled to a foreign country in 2000, spending more than US$478 billion. International tourism receipts combined with passenger transport total more than US$575 billion – making tourism the world's number one export earner, ahead of automotive products, chemicals and food.
Tourist attractions can: Contribute to government revenues.