Philomela or Philomel is a minor figure in Greek mythology and is invoked as a direct and figurative symbol in literary and musical works in the Western canon. She is identified as being the "princess of Athens" and the younger of two daughters of Pandion I, King of Athens, Zeuxippe, her sister, was the wife of King Tereus of Thrace. While the myth has several variations, the general depiction is that Philomela, after being raped and mutilated by her sister's husband, obtains her revenge and is transformed into a nightingale, a bird renowned for its song; because of the violence associated with the myth, the song of the nightingale is depicted or interpreted as a sorrowful lament. In nature, the female nightingale is mute and only the male of the species sings. Ovid and other writers have made the association that the etymology of her name was "lover of song", derived from the Greek φιλο- and μέλος instead of μῆλον; the name means "lover of fruit", "lover of apples", or "lover of sheep". The most complete and extant rendering of the story of Philomela and Tereus can be found in Book VI of the Metamorphoses of the Roman poet Ovid, where the story reaches its full development during antiquity.
It is that Ovid relied upon Greek and Latin sources that were available in his era such as the Bibliotheca of Pseudo-Apollodorus, or sources that are no longer extant or exist today only in fragments—especially Sophocles' tragic drama Tereus. According to Ovid, in the fifth year of Procne's marriage to Tereus, King of Thrace and son of Ares, she asked her husband to "Let me at Athens my dear sister see / Or let her come to Thrace, visit me." Tereus agreed to escort her sister, Philomela, to Thrace. King Pandion of Athens, the father of Philomela and Procne, was apprehensive about letting his one remaining daughter leave his home and protection and asks Tereus to protect her as if he were her father. Tereus agrees. However, Tereus lusted for Philomela when he first saw her, that lust grew during the course of the return voyage to Thrace. Arriving in Thrace, he raped her. After the assault, Tereus advised her to keep silent. Philomela was angered Tereus. In his rage, he abandoned her in the cabin.
In Ovid's Metamorphoses Philomela's defiant speech is rendered as: Rendered unable to speak because of her injuries, Philomela wove a tapestry that told her story and had it sent to Procne. Procne was incensed and in revenge, she killed her son by Tereus, boiled him and served him as a meal to her husband. After Tereus ate Itys, the sisters presented him with the severed head of his son, he became aware of their conspiracy and his cannibalistic meal, he pursued them with the intent to kill the sisters. They fled but were overtaken by Tereus at Daulia in Phocis. In desperation, they prayed to the gods to be turned into birds and escape Tereus' rage and vengeance; the gods transformed Procne into a Philomela into a nightingale. Subsequently, the gods would transform Tereus into a hoopoe, it is typical for myths from antiquity to have been altered over the passage of time or for competing variations of the myth to emerge. With the story of Philomela, most of the variations concern which sister became the nightingale or the swallow, into what type of bird Tereus was transformed.
Since Ovid's Metamorphoses, it has been accepted that Procne was transformed into a nightingale, Philomela into a swallow. The description of Tereus as an "epops" has been translated as a hoopoe. Since many of the earlier sources are no longer extant, or remain only fragments, Ovid's version of the myth has been the most lasting and influenced most works. Early Greek sources have it. Sources, among them Ovid and the Bibliotheca of Pseudo-Apollodorus, in modern literature the English romantic poets like Keats write that although she was tongueless, Philomela was turned into a nightingale, Procne into a swallow. Eustathius' version of the story has the sisters reversed, so that Philomela married Tereus and that Tereus lusted after Procne, it is salient to note that in taxonomy and binomial nomenclature, the genus name of the martins is Progne, a Latinized form of Procne. Other related genera named after the myth include the Crag Martins Ptyonoprogne, Saw-wings Psalidoprocne. Coincidentally, although most of the depictions of the nightingale and its song in art and literature are of female nightingales, the female of the species does not sing—it is the male of the species who sings its characteristic song.
In an early account, Sophocles wrote that Tereus was turned into a large-beaked bird whom some scholars translate as a hawk while a number of retellings and other works hold that Tereus was instead changed into a hoopoe. Various translations of Ovid state that Tereus was transformed into other birds than the hawk and hoopoe, including references by Dryden and Gower to the lapwing. Several writers omit key details of the story. According to Pausanias, Tereus was so remorseful for his actions against Philomela and Itys that he kills himself. Two birds appear as the
"Farther Up the Road" or "Further On up the Road" is a blues song first recorded in 1957 by Bobby "Blue" Bland. It is an early influential Texas shuffle and features guitar playing that represents the transition from the 1940s blues style to the 1960s blues-rock style; the song became Bland's first record chart one of his best-known tunes. As a blues standard, "Farther Up the Road" has been performed and recorded by numerous blues and other artists, including Eric Clapton who has made it part of his repertoire; the songwriting for "Farther Up the Road" is credited to Joe Medwick Veasey, a Houston-area independent songwriter/broker, Duke Records owner Don Robey. In an interview, blues singer Johnny Copeland claimed. According to Bobby Bland, Medwick wrote the song with no involvement by Robey; the guitar work on the song has been attributed to three different guitar players: Pat Hare, Mel Brown, Wayne Bennett. However, Bland noted that Hare was the session guitarist, having been chosen by arranger/trumpeter Joe Scott.
It was Hare's only session with Bland, although he was in Junior Parker's Blue Flames, who sometimes provided backup while Bland was on tour. Bennett and Brown were Bland's guitarists. "Farther Up the Road" has been called a "seminal Texas shuffle" featuring "a style which Bland evolved as his own, with his light, melodic vocals riding over an ebullient shuffle". According to music critic Dave Marsh, "Bland's deep vocal and Scott's arrangement, which swings as hard as it rocks, links Ray Charles' big band R&B to more modern currents in Southern soul". Bland's smooth vocals are contrasted with Pat Hare's raucous, overdriven guitar fills and soloing, a style which prefigured the blues-rock sound of the late 1960s. Music critic Dave Marsh adds that the song is "a perfect Texas blues... signature lick provides the missing link between T-Bone Walker and Eric Clapton". The backing arrangement is provided by the Bill Harvey Orchestra, who added a big band-influenced intro and outro as well as chord substitutions to the twelve-bar scheme.
The song has been notated in 4/4 time in the key of F with a moderate tempo. Part of the song's success may be due to Bland's "telling a convincing story, making brief lyrical vignettes believable with his conversational style". Author Anand Prahlad comments on the song's use of "the theme of reciprocity": However, Prahlad adds, "His usage of the proverb contains a philosophical dimension, absent from the other and a momentary distance from the emotional wound"; the song was Bland's first charting single after several years of recording for various record companies. It became a number one hit during a fourteen-week stay in 1957 in the Billboard R&B chart as well as reaching number 43 in the Billboard Hot 100 pop chart. Bland enjoyed nearly uninterrupted chart success for the next twenty years. "Farther Up the Road" is included on Bland's first album, Blues Consolidated, a co-release with Junior Parker in 1958 on Duke Records. The song is included on many official Bland compilations, including The Best of Bobby Bland and I Pity the Fool: The Duke Recordings, Vol. 1.
Eric Clapton recorded several versions of "Farther Up the Road" over the years calling it after its opening lyrics "Further On up the Road". Clapton uses the lyrics from the original, but the song is performed at a faster tempo as an unembellished shuffle; the song first appeared on his 1975 live album E. C. Was Here. In 1976, a live version was recorded with Freddie King, included on Freddie King. In 1976, he performed the song with the Band in the concert film The Last Waltz. Another live version was recorded in Japan in 1979 for Clapton's Just One Night. In 1981, Clapton recorded it with Jeff Beck during The Secret Policeman's Other Ball benefit show. A version with Joe Bonamassa appears on the 2009 video Joe Bonamassa: Live from the Royal Albert Hall. Clapton co-performed the song with Robbie Robertson during his induction at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2000 and resurrected it for his 2007 and 2011 Asian and American world tours
Ibrahima Diallo is an English footballer. He played in the 7-a-side football event at the 2012 Summer Paralympics in London. Diallo was born on 16 January 1993 in Guinea, he moved to England at the age of ten with two siblings. In December 2011 he was diagnosed with cerebral palsy after a physiotherapist, who worked with the British Paralympic team, noticed his unusual running style during a training session for the English College's team at Lilleshall. Diallo had attributed his problems when running to tight muscle groups in his thigh; as a teenager Diallo played for the Bristol City F. C. academy teams. Since February 2012 he has played for the Great Britain 7-a-side team for players with cerebral palsy. In 2012, he was a member of the Great Britain team that won a silver medal at the 2012 Paralympic World Cup; the British team were beaten 4-2 by Brazil, the team ranked fourth in the world, in the final of the tournament, held in Manchester. Diallo and Patrick Heselton each scored consolation goals for Great Britain after Brazil had taken a 4-0 lead.
Diallo had scored a hat-trick of goals in a 7-3 win over Ireland in the final group match which qualified the British team for the final. He represented Great Britain at the 2012 Summer Paralympics as part of a twelve-player squad for the 7-a-side football event, he scored a goal in four different matches but Great Britain finished 7th of the 8 teams. In his domestic football career Diallo moved from Clevedon Town to Mangotsfield United in March 2014, he had also played for Filton Academy and Paulton Rovers. Diallo plays for Bitton AFC
Adam Ferency is a Polish actor. He has appeared in more than 70 films and television shows since 1976, he starred in the 1990 film Burial of a Potato, screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 1991 Cannes Film Festival. Blind Chance Fever Interrogation The Mother of Kings Burial of a Potato Conversation with a Cupboard Man With Fire and Sword Pornografia 80 Million Battle of Warsaw 1920 Cold War Cinema of Poland List of Poles Adam Ferency on IMDb
The Granite Railway was one of the first railroads in the United States, built to carry granite from Quincy, Massachusetts to a dock on the Neponset River in Milton. From there boats carried the heavy stone to Charlestown for construction of the Bunker Hill Monument; the Granite Railway is popularly termed the first commercial railroad in the United States, as it was the first chartered railway to evolve into a common carrier without an intervening closure. The last active quarry closed in 1963. In 1825, after an exhaustive search throughout New England, Solomon Willard selected the Quincy site as the source of stone for the Bunker Hill Monument. After many delays and much obstruction, the railway itself was granted a charter on March 4, 1826, with right of eminent domain to establish its right-of-way. Businessman and state legislator Thomas Handasyd Perkins organized the financing of the new Granite Railway Company, owning a majority of its shares, he was designated its president; the railroad was designed and built by railway pioneer Gridley Bryant and began operations on October 7, 1826.
Bryant used developments, in use on the railroads in England, but he modified his design to allow for heavier, more concentrated loads and a three-foot frost line. The railway ran three miles from quarries to the Neponset River, its wagons had wheels 6 ft in diameter and were pulled by horses, although steam locomotives had been in operation in England for 13 years. The wooden rails were plated with iron and were laid 5 ft apart, on stone crossties spaced at 8-foot intervals. By 1837 these wooden rails had been replaced by granite rails, once again capped with iron. In 1830, a new section of the railway called the Incline was added to haul granite from the Pine Ledge Quarry to the railway level 84 ft below. Wagons moved down the 315-foot long incline in an endless conveyor belt; the incline continued in operation until the 1940s. The railway introduced several important inventions, including railway switches or frogs, the turntable, double-truck railroad cars. Gridley Bryant never patented his inventions.
The novelty of the new railroad attracted tourists who journeyed out from Boston to witness the revolutionary technology in person. Notable visitors such as statesman Daniel Webster and English actress Fanny Kemble were early witnesses to the new railway. Miss Kemble described her 1833 visit in her journal; the Granite Railway was the site of one of the first fatal railway accidents in the United States, on July 25, 1832, when the wagon containing Thomas B. Achuas, of Cuba, derailed as he and three other tourists were taking a tour; the accident occurred while the wagon—empty of stone but now carrying the four passengers—was ascending the Incline on its return trip and a cable broke. The occupants of the car were thrown over a cliff 35 ft. Mr. Achuas was killed and the three other passengers were badly injured. In 1871 the Old Colony and Newport Railway took over the original right-of-way of the Granite Railway, replacing its track with contemporary construction, steam trains took granite from the quarries directly to Boston without need of barges from the Neponset River.
This portion of the Old Colony Railroad through Quincy and Milton was absorbed into the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad and closed. During the early twentieth century, metal channels were laid over the old granite rails on the Incline and motor trucks were hauled up and down on a cable. Most of the right of way of the railway was incorporated into much of the Southeast Expressway in Milton and Quincy; the railway's Incline was added to the National Register of Historic Places on June 19, 1973, a surviving portion of the railroad bed, just off the end of Bunker Hill Lane, was added on October 15, 1973. A centennial historic plaque from 1926, an original switch frog, a piece of train track, a section of superstructure from the Granite Railway are in the gardens on top of the Southeast Expressway as it passes under East Milton Square; the frog had been displayed at the World's Columbian Exposition at Chicago in 1893. The commemorative display is at the approximate site of the railroad's right-of-way as it went through Milton on its way to the Neponset River.
In Quincy, visitors can walk along several parkland trails that reveal vestiges of the original railway trestle and the Incline. These trails connect to the quarries, most of which are now filled for safety purposes with dirt from the massive Big Dig highway project in Boston. In years past, many persons were injured — and some killed — while diving into the flooded abandoned quarries from great heights; the Department of Conservation and Recreation maintains the Quincy Quarries Reservation, which has facilities for rock climbing, trails connecting the remains of the Granite Railway. Mine railway National Register of Historic Places listings in Quincy, Massachusetts Oldest railroads in North America Friends of the Blue Hills Journal of Fanny Kemble A History of the Origin and Development of the Granite Railway at Quincy, Massachusetts printed for The Granite Railway Company, 1926. Scholes, Robert E; the Granite Railway and its Associated Enterprises. Historic American Buildings Survey – Granite Railway, Pine Hill Quarry to Neponset River, Norfolk County, MA Website for Quincy Historical Society and information on the Granite Railway The Massachusetts state government Department of Conservation and Recreation for the Quincy Quarries Reservation Granite Railway Drawings Granite Railway Phot
Kabgayi is just south of Gitarama in Muhanga District, Southern Province, Rwanda, 25 miles southwest of Kigali. It was established as a Catholic Church mission in 1905, it became the center for the Roman Catholic Church in Rwanda and is the site of the oldest cathedral in the country and of Catholic seminaries, schools and a hospital. The church at first supported the Tutsi ruling elite, but backed the Hutu majority. During the 1994 Rwandan genocide thousands of Tutsis who had taken refuge here were killed; some survivors admire the courage of many priests who helped them during those difficult days,like Father Evergiste RUKEBESHA and many others. Some Hutus including three bishops and many priests were killed by the rebels RPF soldiers. A mass grave beside the hospital is marked by a memorial. Inside the Basilica are kept the bodies of the three beshops killed by FPR rebels. Two of them were refused by the Rwandan government to be transferred in their own cathedrals. Kabgayi lies in the middle of Rwanda's central plateau at an elevation of about 6,000 feet above sea level.
The community is just south of Gitarama, the second-largest city in Rwanda, about 30 kilometres from Kigali, the capital. It has a temperate climate. There are two rainy seasons. Average annual rainfall is 1,000 to 1,100 millimetres. Estimated annual evapotranspiration is about 815 millimetres; the soil is sandy and infertile. As of 2002 most of the people in the surrounding Kabgayi district were engaged in farming. Only a few of the wealthier households could afford to own cattle; the Kingdom of Rwanda before the European colonial powers arrived was ruled by a Tutsi elite of about 15% of the population over a Hutu peasant class of about 85%. Both are thought to have migrated from elsewhere at some time in the past, the Tutsis from the east and the Hutu from the north; the stereotype is that the Tutsis were slim while the Hutus were shorter and sturdier. The Tutsis were cattle-owners with a warrior tradition and the Hutus were farmers; the two groups shared kinyarwanda. Wealthy Hutus had married into the Tutsi ruling class, many Tutsis were poor farmers with no cattle, but there were still social distinctions that set the Tutsis above the Hutus at the start of the colonial era.
At first, the missions in Rwanda were under the Apostolic Vicariate of Southern Victoria Nyanza, headed by John Joseph Hirth. Kabgayi was founded as a mission post after the Germans, the colonial power, had received reluctant permission from the court of King Musinga of Rwanda in 1904; the missionaries received Kabgayi hill in February 1905. They obtained about 120 hectares of land, they embarked on a massive building program, first of houses and of church buildings, requiring porters, brick layers, cooks and other workers. Their demands for labor from the people of the region caused tension with the court. In response, the German authorities informed the missionaries that they must obtain permission from the Court for recruiting labor, the colonial power would not assist them in this. However, the mission soon became a power in the land. King Musinga, engaged in an internal power struggle, took care to maintain friendly relations with the missionaries, in December 1906 told them he would like all his people to learn to pray.
The Tutsi notables saw value in good relations with these powerful landowners. Their lengthy visits became a problem to the priests, who could not always give them the attention that courtesy demanded. In July 1907 the fathers began to build a school in Kabgayi for the sons of Tutsi chiefs, whom they considered to be the natural leaders of the country; the fathers sided with a Hutu peasant against his Tutsi overlord when the peasant was in the wrong according to the laws of the land, again drew censure from the German authorities. In general, the missionaries at Kabgayi followed a pro-Tutsi policy; the church became established in Rwanda. The missions in Burundi, under the Apostolic Vicariate of Unyanyembe, were joined with those of Rwanda to form the Apostolic Vicariate of Kivu. On 12 December 1912, Jean-Joseph Hirth was appointed the first Vicar Apostolic of Kivu; the Minor Seminary of Saint Leon was founded at Kabgayi in 1913. Some of the first students had been taught at the Rubyia mission in Tanganyika, could speak better Latin than the old European priests.
Hirth established his headquarters at Kabgayi and worked with the Rwandan seminarists there until his retirement in 1921. In 1916, during World War I, the Belgians took over Burundi, they continued German policies, including support of the Tutsi ruling class. By 1921 there were thirty thousand Christians in the Apostolic Vicariate of Kivu. Kabgayi became the seat of the Apostolic Vicariate of Ruanda when it was created in April 1922, separated from the Apostolic Vicariate of Urundi. In 1928 Alexis Kagame entered the Kabgayi minor seminary, he was to become a major intellectual leader and expert on Rwandan traditions and culture. In 1932 the first printing press in Rwanda was installed at Kabgayi. Kinyamateka,the first local journal, began to appear in 1933. Communications improved. In 1938 a track was opened; the Belgian colonial mandate ended after World War II. In 1946 Rwanda and Burundi were made a trust territory by the United Nations, remaining under Belgian administration. In 1952 Monsignor Aloys Bigirumwami, the first black Roman Catholic bishop in Belgian Africa, was consecrated at Kabgayi.
He was to be a voice in favor of reconciliation between Tutsi and Hutus. In