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Philosophy of education

The philosophy of education examines the goals, forms and meaning of education. The term is used to describe both fundamental philosophical analysis of these themes and the description or analysis of particular pedagogical approaches. Considerations of how the profession relates to broader philosophical or sociocultural contexts may be included; the philosophy of education applied philosophy. For example, philosophers of education study what constitutes upbringing and education, the values and norms revealed through upbringing and educational practices, the limits and legitimization of education as an academic discipline, the relation between educational theory and practice. In universities, the philosophy of education forms part of departments or colleges of education. Date: 424/423 BC – 348/347 BC Plato's educational philosophy was grounded in a vision of an ideal Republic wherein the individual was best served by being subordinated to a just society due to a shift in emphasis that departed from his predecessors.

The mind and body were to be considered separate entities. In the dialogues of Phaedo, written in his "middle period" Plato expressed his distinctive views about the nature of knowledge and the soul:When the soul and body are united nature orders the soul to rule and govern, the body to obey and serve. Now which of these two functions is akin to the divine? and which to the mortal? Does not the divine appear…to be that which orders and rules, the mortal to be that, subject and servant? On this premise, Plato advocated removing children from their mothers' care and raising them as wards of the state, with great care being taken to differentiate children suitable to the various castes, the highest receiving the most education, so that they could act as guardians of the city and care for the less able. Education would be holistic, including facts, physical discipline, music and art, which he considered the highest form of endeavor. Plato believed that talent was distributed non-genetically and thus must be found in children born in any social class.

He built on this by insisting that those suitably gifted were to be trained by the state so that they might be qualified to assume the role of a ruling class. What this established was a system of selective public education premised on the assumption that an educated minority of the population were, by virtue of their education, sufficient for healthy governance. Plato's writings contain some of the following ideas: Elementary education would be confined to the guardian class till the age of 18, followed by two years of compulsory military training and by higher education for those who qualified. While elementary education made the soul responsive to the environment, higher education helped the soul to search for truth which illuminated it. Both boys and girls receive the same kind of education. Elementary education consisted of music and gymnastics, designed to train and blend gentle and fierce qualities in the individual and create a harmonious person. At the age of 20, a selection was made.

The best students would take an advanced course in mathematics, geometry and harmonics. The first course in the scheme of higher education would last for ten years, it would be for those. At the age of 30 there would be another selection. After accepting junior positions in the army for 15 years, a man would have completed his theoretical and practical education by the age of 50. Date: 1724–1804 Immanuel Kant believed that education differs from training in that the former involves thinking whereas the latter does not. In addition to educating reason, of central importance to him was the development of character and teaching of moral maxims. Kant was a proponent of learning by doing. Date: 1770–1831 Date: 384 BC – 322 BC Only fragments of Aristotle's treatise On Education are still in existence. We thus know of his philosophy of education through brief passages in other works. Aristotle considered human nature and reason to be important forces to be cultivated in education. Thus, for example, he considered repetition to be a key tool to develop good habits.

The teacher was to lead the student systematically. Aristotle placed great emphasis on balancing the theoretical and practical aspects of subjects taught. Subjects he explicitly mentions as being important included reading and mathematics, he mentioned the importance of play. One of education's primary missions for Aristotle its most important, was to produce good and virtuous citizens for the polis. All who have meditated on the art of governing mankind have been convinced that the fate of empires depends on the education of youth. Date: 980 AD – 1037 AD In the medieval Islamic world, an elementary school was known as a maktab, which dates back to at least the 10th century. Like madrasahs, a maktab was attached to a mosque. In the 11th century, Ibn Sina, wrote a chapter dealing with the maktab entitled "The Role of the Teacher in the Training and Upbringing of Children", as a guide to teachers working at maktab schools, he wrote that children can learn better if taught in classes instead of individual tuition from private tutors, he gave a number of re


Vitonen or V divisioona is the sixth level in the Finnish football league system and comprises 228 teams. The V divisioona was introduced in the mid-1990s became known as the Vitonen. There are 228 clubs in the Vitonen, divided in 22 groups of 7 to 19 teams each representing a geographical area. During the course of a season each club plays the others twice, once at their home ground and once at that of their opponents; the exception is the 19 team Keski-Suomi division. The top team in each Vitonen group is promoted or qualifies for a promotion playoff to the Nelonen and the lowest placed teams may be relegated to the Kutonen; the Vitonen is administered by 11 of the District Football Associations of the Football Association of Finland. Responsibilities for the 22 sections are divided as follows: SPL Helsinki - 3 sections SPL Uusimaa - 4 sections SPL Kaakkois-Suomi - 2 sections SPL Itä-Suomi - 4 sections SPL Keski-Suomi - 1 section SPL Pohjois-Suomi - 1 section SPL Keski-Pohjanmaa - 1 section SPL Vaasa - 1 section SPL Satakunta - 1 section SPL Tampere - 2 sections SPL Turku - 2 sectionsTeams within the Vitonen are eligible to compete in the Suomen Cup and the Suomen Regions' Cup.

The clubs are listed in an abbreviated form and their full names can be viewed by referring to the List of clubs or the relevant District Association. Finnish FA ResultCode Vitonen - Finnish Wikipedia

2017 Scottish League Cup Final

The 2017 Scottish League Cup Final was the 72nd final of the Scottish League Cup and took place on 26 November 2017 at Hampden Park, Glasgow. The clubs contesting the final were Celtic. Celtic won the match 2–0, winning their 17th League Cup title. Motherwell won Group F to qualify for the second round, winning all four games against Queen's Park, Greenock Morton, Edinburgh City and Berwick Rangers. Motherwell were seeded for the second round draw and were drawn to face Group D runners-up Ross County away from home on 9 August; the Steelmen required extra time to see off a spirited home side, with Ross MacLean scoring the decisive goal eight minutes from the final whistleStephen Robinson's faced Aberdeen at Fir Park in the quarter-finals on 21 September. A Peter Hartley header, bookended by a Louis Moult double, secured Motherwell's place in the semi-finals. Rangers provided the opposition at Hampden Park on 22 October. In a match filled with controversial refereeing decisions, another brace from Louis Moult sent Motherwell to the final.

As Celtic participated in European competition, they received a bye through the 2017–18 Scottish League Cup group stage. The holders were seeded for the second round draw and were drawn at home to face Group E runners-up Kilmarnock on 8 August. A brace from Leigh Griffiths and goals from Anthony Ralston, Kieran Tierney and Stuart Armstrong secured a 5–0 victory. Celtic visited Dundee in the quarter-finals on 20 September; the Dark Blues were unable to contain Brendan Rodgers' side, with James Forrest, Scott Sinclair and Callum McGregor all on the scoresheet in a 4–0 win. Celtic faced Hibernian in the semi-final at Hampden Park on 21 October. Two goals each from Mikael Lustig and Moussa Dembélé booked Celtic's place in the 2017 final, presenting the Bhoys with the opportunity to defend the trophy. Following a goalless first half, James Forrest gave Celtic the lead four minutes after the interval, controlling a Callum McGregor pass before curling the ball with his left foot into the far left corner of the net.

On the hour mark, Craig Thomson awarded the Glasgow side a controversial penalty after Cédric Kipré was adjudged to have fouled Scott Sinclair. The French defender was red-carded and compatriot Moussa Dembélé converted the resultant penalty, shooting low to the centre of the net to secure back-to-back League Cup triumphs for the Scottish champions. Official website

Camp Susque

Camp Susque is an ACA accredited nondenominational Christian summer camp and retreat facility located in Trout Run, Pennsylvania, a village north of Williamsport, founded in 1947. A location was rented, the first camp was attended by 23 boys. In 1949, incorporation papers were obtained in the name of Inc.. In 1951 Camp Kline, where the first camp was held, became unavailable, so Bob Dittmar began looking for an alternative location. Land along Lycoming Creek in Lycoming County was available and ideal, so the advisory board met, agreed to purchase the land for $10,000. In 1953 the purchase was finalized, the following summer, Camp Susque moved to its current location. Bob Dittmar and Bob Christenson designed a logo for the camp. Attendance continued to grow, the facilities continued to expand; as such, a girl's camp program was added, the name changed to Camp Susque.2Each year, there are three weeks of a boys only camp, with three levels, Littlemen and Woodsmen, followed by three weeks of girls only camp with the levels of Jays and Hawks.

The camp has a "Young Explorers Camp" for children grades 1~3 who are not yet old enough to attend the regular week-long camp. There is a "Family Camp" where families can rent a tent platform or cabin. Camp Susque offers off-site "Wilderness Trips", for teens 14-18. One of these, the "Adirondack Adventure" is a week long canoe trip in New York. There is a hike up Mount Ampersand in the middle of the week.2Camp Susque houses and sponsors The Susque Academy. The academy is a two-week intensive worldview studies program intended as an academic and spiritual formation opportunity for high school and early college-age students; the curriculum consists of five core classes focusing on worldviews, devotional classics, Biblical studies, practical theology. The program goal is to ground students in Christian truth while exposing them to alternative truth-claims found in contemporary culture. Additional seminars provide a look at art, literature, ethics, politics and personal discipline. Camp Susque is not only a summer camp, but has events during the winter season.

Winter Camps are split into four age groups. The Chill is for campers in grades 3-5, the Frost for grades 6-8, the Freeze for grades 9-12 and the Blast for college-age young adults. Freeze and Blast occur over the Christmas to New Year's holidays. Frost and Chill occur in January and late February, respectively. Camp Susque official website

Football League Group Cup

The Football League Group Cup was a short-lived football competition which first took place during the 1981–1982 season. For English clubs it was a replacement for the Anglo-Scottish Cup, discontinued due to the withdrawal of Scottish League clubs. For the 1982–83 season it was renamed as the Football League Trophy, it is considered as the forerunner of the Associate Members' Cup, which commenced from the 1983–84 season, although some sources regard the Football League Group Cup as the same as the League Trophy tournaments. In each season there were 32 participants, split into eight regional groups of four teams each, with three round-robin games played by each side; the eight group winners qualified for the quarter finals, the knockout stages were played as a single leg, with the game going to extra time and penalties if necessary. The final was played on the home ground of one of the two teams; the following 32 sides played in the competition, these are sub-divided according to the League division they played in that season.

Football League First Division: Notts County Football League Second Division: Bolton Wanderers, Grimsby Town, Norwich City, Rotherham United, Shrewsbury Town, Watford Football League Third Division: Burnley, Carlisle United, Chesterfield, Doncaster Rovers, Lincoln City, Newport County, Oxford United, Plymouth Argyle, Preston North End, Southend United, Wimbledon Football League Fourth Division: Aldershot, Bournemouth, Bradford City, Hartlepool United, Hull City, Peterborough United, Sheffield United, Torquay United The tournament was won by Grimsby Town, who defeated Wimbledon 3–2 in the final at Blundell Park on Tuesday 6 April 1982. The following 32 sides played in the competition, these are sub-divided according to the League division they played in that season. Football League First Division: Norwich City, Watford Football League Second Division: Crystal Palace, Grimsby Town, Shrewsbury Town Football League Third Division: Bournemouth, Bradford City, Chesterfield, Exeter City, Lincoln City, Newport County, Oxford United, Sheffield United, Southend United Football League Fourth Division: Aldershot, Bristol City, Colchester United, Halifax Town, Hartlepool United, Hull City, Mansfield Town, Northampton Town, Peterborough United, Scunthorpe United, Torquay United, Tranmere Rovers, Wimbledon The tournament was won by Millwall, who defeated Lincoln City 3–2 in the final at Sincil Bank on Wednesday 20 April 1983.

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality

Ian Hawkins

Ian Hawkins is a British military historian and author and editor of books about World War II. B-17s over Berlin: Personal Stories from the 95th Bomb Group. Brassey's. 1990. ISBN 008040569X. Published as Courage*honor*victory Destroyer: an Anthology of First-hand Accounts of the War at Sea, 1939-1945. Conway Maritime Press. 2003. ISBN 0851779476. OCLC 54664339. Münster: the Way It Was. Robinson Typographics. 1984. ISBN 0918837006. OCLC 11650377. Edited by Richard H. Perry The Munster Raid: Before and After. FNP Military Division. 1999. ISBN 0917678494. OCLC 43562170; the Munster Raid: Bloody Skies over Germany. AERO. 1990. ISBN 0830650016. OCLC 20057559. 20th Century Crusaders: 392nd Bombardment Group, January 1943-September 1945: True Tales of the Air War over Europe Told by Those who Lived Them. Turner Pub. 1997. ISBN 1563113694. OCLC 41439247. With Bill and Marge Braddock, editors