Feminism is a range of political movements and social movements that share a common goal, to define and advance political, economic and social rights for women. This includes seeking to establish opportunities for women in education. Feminists have worked to promote autonomy and integrity, and to protect women and girls from rape, sexual harassment. Numerous feminist movements and ideologies have developed over the years and represent different viewpoints, some forms of feminism have been criticized for taking into account only white, middle class, and educated perspectives. This criticism led to the creation of specific or multicultural forms of feminism, including black feminism. Charles Fourier, a Utopian Socialist and French philosopher, is credited with having coined the word féminisme in 1837, depending on the historical moment and country, feminists around the world have had different causes and goals. Most western feminist historians assert that all working to obtain womens rights should be considered feminist movements.
Other historians assert that the term should be limited to the modern feminist movement and those historians use the label protofeminist to describe earlier movements. The history of the modern western feminist movements is divided into three waves, each wave dealt with different aspects of the same feminist issues. The first wave comprised womens suffrage movements of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the second wave was associated with the ideas and actions of the womens liberation movement beginning in the 1960s. The second wave campaigned for legal and social equality for women, the third wave is a continuation of, and a reaction to, the perceived failures of second-wave feminism, beginning in the 1990s. First-wave feminism was a period of activity during the 19th century, in the UK and US, it focused on the promotion of equal contract, marriage and property rights for women. This was followed by Australia granting female suffrage in 1902, in 1928 this was extended to all women over 21.
In the U. S. notable leaders of this movement included Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, who each campaigned for the abolition of slavery prior to championing womens right to vote. These women were influenced by the Quaker theology of spiritual equality, in the United States, first-wave feminism is considered to have ended with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, granting women the right to vote in all states. During the late Qing period and reform movements such as the Hundred Days Reform, Chinese feminists called for womens liberation from traditional roles, the Chinese Communist Party created projects aimed at integrating women into the workforce, and claimed that the revolution had successfully achieved womens liberation. According to Nawar al-Hassan Golley, Arab feminism was closely connected with Arab nationalism, in 1899, Qasim Amin, considered the father of Arab feminism, wrote The Liberation of Women, which argued for legal and social reforms for women.
He drew links between womens position in Egyptian society and nationalism, leading to the development of Cairo University, in 1923 Hoda Shaarawi founded the Egyptian Feminist Union, became its president and a symbol of the Arab womens rights movement
Florida /ˈflɒrᵻdə/ is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, and the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and is the largest city by area in the contiguous United States, the Miami metropolitan area is Floridas most populous urban area. The city of Tallahassee is the state capital, much of the state is at or near sea level and is characterized by sedimentary soil. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south, the American alligator, American crocodile, Florida panther, and manatee can be found in the Everglades National Park. It was a location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, the states economy relies mainly on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, the Kennedy Space Center, Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, and continues to attract celebrities and athletes. It is internationally known for golf, auto racing, by the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee, the Timucua, the Ais, the Tocobaga, the Calusa and the Tequesta. Florida was the first part of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans, the earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2,1513 and he named the region La Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is a myth, in May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land. He described seeing a wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet.
Very soon, many smokes appeared along the whole coast, billowing against the sky, the Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Spanish language, and more to Florida. Both the Spanish and French established settlements in Florida, with varying degrees of success, in 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561. Spain maintained tenuous control over the region by converting the tribes to Christianity. The area of Spanish Florida diminished with the establishment of English settlements to the north, the English attacked St. Augustine, burning the city and its cathedral to the ground several times. Florida attracted numerous Africans and African-Americans from adjacent British colonies who sought freedom from slavery, in 1738, Governor Manuel de Montiano established Fort Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose near St
Pohick Church is an Episcopal church in the community of Lorton in Fairfax County, United States. As Pohick Episcopal Church it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1969. The origins of Pohick Church can be traced to a chapel of ease for Overwharton Parish, which appears to have been built around 1695 in the Woodlawn area of todays community of Mount Vernon. This church, the first in the parish and thus the first in Northern Virginia, was recorded in a 1715 land grant as being along the Potomac Path, the county main road, which today is U. S. Route 1. In 1730 the parish relocated the church south, building a frame structure, no other trace of the original structure or its site exists, the last remnant was the cemetery, whose location is known but which was empty of grave markers by 1938. The church at Occoquan became the church of this new parish. Dr. Charles Green was the first rector of Pohick Church, he was sponsored by Augustine Washington, father of George. Green was confirmed to the post in 1736 and traveled to London for ordination, during his tenure as rector Green was involved in a major scandal when he was accused by Lawrence Washington of sexual misconduct with his wife Anne.
Washington demanded Greens ouster from his post at the church, Green refused, in the end, the rector remained at Pohick for the next twenty years as a respected clergyman, at his death in 1765 George Washington served as his executor. He was replaced as rector by Lee Massey, a lawyer who was ordained in 1766. Masseys duties frequently took him to other churches in the parish, elected to the post of warden, on October 25,1762, was George Washington. In October 1763 Washington and George William Fairfax were appointed churchwardens for the following year, by 1767, the Pohick vestry determined that the now-dilapidated frame structure serving the parish should be replaced. The final vote was seven to five in favor of moving the site of the church, the new location was settled on, and a building committee was impaneled, its members were Washington, George William Fairfax, Daniel McCarty, and Edward Payne. Recalling the Biblical image of a city upon a hill, the highest point of land in the vicinity was chosen as the site of the new church, French was to be paid £877 for his work, in Virginia currency.
Some sources have claimed that George Washington himself drew up the design for the building, construction was initially overseen by the planter Daniel French, a member of the congregation. The account presented by him for his services survives, and indicates that he was paid £58,19,0 for his craft. An early plan describing the initial disposition and ownership of pews in the building was copied by Benson Lossing and republished by him in 1859, the eight pews located in the west end of the church were set aside for Inhabitants and House Keepers of the Parish. Construction of the building was completed in 1774, just before the start of the American Revolutionary War
Mary May Maxwell was an early American member of the Baháí Faith. Mary Ellis Bolles was born to John Bolles and Mary Martin Bolles, in Englewood and she was nicknamed May to distinguish her from her mother. The Bolles family were distinguished in New York City, owning a bank in the city. When she was fourteen May was sent to England to live with her English cousins, for one year May lived in Kensington. May became very spiritually minded, she was given a gift of a Bible in 1885, as May approached her late teens, her family saw it was the time for her to be married. Phoebe Hearst, who was a friend of her mother. She was brought out in Washington, may was considered a great beauty with a petite figure, blue eyes and long fair hair attracting several suitors who courted her. The rejection of marriage proposals frustrated her family. She was bought out again into Newport society in the hopes of finding a husband, may fell in love during this period and became engaged, but it was broken off. May plunged into depression, and it was around this time that her health seriously deteriorated, in late 1894, May moved to Paris with her mother and brother, who was attending the École des Beaux-Arts.
May’s mother still hoped for her to marry, but May resented the Parisian high society and she went through periods of deep depression and insomnia and even considered entering a convent. In 1897 May lost both her grandmother and cousin whom she was close to. At 27 May became obsessed with mortality and became bedridden leading to many of her family believing she was going to die. In November 1898, Phoebe Hearst, accompanied by her nieces and other Bahá’ís like Lua Getsinger, Hearst was shocked to see 28-year-old May bedridden with the chronic malady which had inflicted her. She invited May to sojourn to the East with her believing the change of air to be conducive to her health, Getsinger disclosed to May the purpose of the journey, a pilgrimage to visit the head of the Bahá’í religion Abdul-Bahá. May arrived in Acre in February 1899 and she wrote of the first time she met Abdu’l-Bahá as of that first meeting I can remember neither joy nor pain nor anything that I can name. May returned to Paris and began teaching her new faith and played a significant role in introducing the religion to people while in Paris.
Her teaching acquired many new believers, including Englishman Thomas Breakwell, on her return five of the younger female pilgrims had a photograph commissioned and sent to Abdul-Bahá
Pleasanton is an affluent city in Alameda County, incorporated in 1894. It is a suburb in the San Francisco Bay Area located about 25 miles east of Oakland, the population was 70,285 at the 2010 census. In 2005 and 2007, Pleasanton was ranked the wealthiest middle-sized city in the United States by the Census Bureau, Pleasanton is home to the headquarters of Safeway, Inc. and Blackhawk Network. Although Oakland is the Alameda County seat, a few county offices, the main county jail is in the neighboring city of Dublin. The Alameda County Fairgrounds are located in Pleasanton where the county fair is held during the last week of June, Pleasanton Ridge Regional Park is located on the west side of town. Pleasanton was named the third wealthiest city in terms of earnings in the United States by NerdWallet in 2013, before the establishment of Pleasanton, in the 1850s, an earlier settlement, called Alisal was there. It is still standing and serves as the centerpiece of the Alviso Adobe Community Park, Main Street shootouts were not uncommon.
Banditos such as Claudio Feliz and Joaquin Murrieta would ambush prospectors on their way back from the gold rush fields, in the 1860s Procopio, Narciso Bojorques and others took refuge there. Pleasanton is located on the lands of the Rancho Valle de San José and its name came from John W. Kottinger, an Alameda County justice of the peace, who named it after his friend, Union army cavalry Major General Alfred Pleasonton. A typographical error by a U. S. Postal Service employee apparently led to the current spelling, the reputation it had gained from its days as Alisal passed and in 1917, Pleasanton became the backdrop for the film Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm, which starred Mary Pickford. The town was home to Phoebe Apperson Hearst, who lived in a 50-room mansion on a 2,000 acres estate. Pleasanton is located at 37°40′21″N 121°52′57″W and is adjacent to Hayward and Dublin. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 24.3 square miles. On the east side of town on Stanley Blvd, near the Livermore border is Shadow Cliffs Regional Park, a lake that permits swimming and boating.
On the west side is the Pleasanton Ridge with two parks, Pleasanton Ridge and Augustin Bernal Park, much of Pleasanton is drained by the Arroyo Valle and Arroyo Mocho watercourses. Pleasanton lies along the route of the historic First Transcontinental Railroad, the highest recorded temperature was 115 °F in 1950. The lowest recorded temperature was 17 °F in 1990, because of the preservation of Pleasantons historic downtown area, many examples of architectural styles dating back to the mid-19th century exist. Buildings in Gothic Revival, Italianate, Commercial Italianate, Colonial Revival, one of the icons of downtown Pleasanton is the Kolln Hardware building, located at 600 Main Street
Tarpon Springs, Florida
Tarpon Springs is a city in Pinellas County, United States. The population was 23,484 at the 2010 census, Tarpon Springs has the highest percentage of Greek Americans of any city in the US. Downtown Tarpon has long been a point and is currently undergoing beautification. The region, with a series of bayous feeding into the Gulf of Mexico, was first settled by white and black farmers, some of the newly arrived visitors spotted tarpon jumping out of the waters and so named the location Tarpon Springs. In 1882, Hamilton Disston, who in the year had purchased the land where the city of Tarpon Springs now stands. On February 12,1887, Tarpon Springs became the first incorporated city in what is now Pinellas County. Less than a year on January 13,1888, the Orange Belt Railway, during this time the area was developed as a wintering spot for wealthy northerners. In the 1880s, John Cheyney founded the first local sponge business, the industry continued to grow in the 1890s, and many blacks and whites from Key West and the Bahamas settled in Tarpon Springs to harvest and process sponges.
A few Greek immigrants arrived in city during the 1890s to work in the sponge industry. In 1905, John Cocoris introduced the technique of sponge diving to Tarpon Springs and recruited divers, the first divers came from the Saronic Gulf islands of Aegina and Hydra, but they were soon outnumbered by those from the Dodecanese islands of Kalymnos and Halki. The sponge industry soon became one of the maritime industries in Florida. The 1953 film Beneath the 12-Mile Reef, depicting the sponge industry, the sponges recovered, allowing for a smaller but consistent sponge industry today. In the 1980s, the business experienced a boom due to a sponge disease that killed the Mediterranean sponges. Today there is still a small active sponge industry, visitors can often view sponge fishermen working at the Sponge Docks on Dodecanese Boulevard. In addition, visitors can enjoy shops and museum exhibits that detail Tarpon Springs Greek heritage, Tarpon Springs climate borders on humid subtropical and tropical savanna, with warm temperatures year-round, although winters nights are cool.
Annual precipitation is around 50 inches, winters are warm, with daytime highs of 72 °F to 80 °F, and nightly lows of 45 °F to 60 °F. The record low temperature of 19 °F was observed on four different dates, December 1,1962, December 13,1962, December 14,1962, and January 13,1985. Summers are hot and very humid, causing frequent afternoon thunderstorms that can produce hail
San Mateo County, California
San Mateo County is a county located in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 718,451, the county seat is Redwood City. San Mateo County is included in the San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, and is part of the San Francisco Bay Area and it covers most of the San Francisco Peninsula. San Francisco International Airport is located at the end of the county. The countys built-up areas are mostly suburban with some areas being very urban, San Mateo County was formed in 1856 after San Francisco County, one of the states 18 original counties since Californias statehood in 1850, was split apart. Until 1856, San Franciscos city limits extended west to Divisadero Street and Castro Street, in response to the lawlessness and vigilantism that escalated rapidly between 1855 and 1856, the California government decided to divide the county. A straight line was drawn across the tip of the San Francisco Peninsula just north of San Bruno Mountain.
The consolidated city-county of San Francisco was formed by an introduced by Horace Hawes. San Mateo County was officially organized on 18 April 1857 under a bill introduced by Senator T. G, San Mateo County annexed part of northern Santa Cruz County in March 1868, including Pescadero and Pigeon Point. Although the forming bill named Redwood City the county seat, a May 1856 election marked by unblushing frauds, perpetuated on an unorganized and wholly unprotected community by thugs and ballot stuffers from San Francisco named Belmont the county seat. The election results were declared illegal and the county government was moved to Redwood City, Redwood Citys status as county seat was upheld in two succeeding elections in May 1861 and 9 December 1873, defeating San Mateo and Belmont. Another election in May 1874 named San Mateo the county seat, but the supreme court overturned that election on 24 February 1875. San Mateo County bears the Spanish name for Saint Matthew, until about 1850, the name appeared as San Matheo.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 741 square miles. It is the third-smallest county in California by land area, a number of bayside watercourses drain the eastern part of the county including San Bruno Creek and Colma Creek. Streams draining the county include Frenchmans Creek, Pilarcitos Creek, Naples Creek, Arroyo de en Medio. These streams originate along the spur of the Santa Cruz Mountains that run through the county. San Mateo County straddles the San Francisco Peninsula, with the Santa Cruz Mountains running its entire length, the county encompasses a variety of habitats including estuarine, oak woodland, redwood forest, coastal scrub and oak savannah
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D. C. is the capital of the United States. The signing of the Residence Act on July 16,1790, Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Congress and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, named in honor of President George Washington, the City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia, in 1871. Washington had an population of 681,170 as of July 2016. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the population to more than one million during the workweek. The Washington metropolitan area, of which the District is a part, has a population of over 6 million, the centers of all three branches of the federal government of the United States are in the District, including the Congress and Supreme Court.
Washington is home to national monuments and museums, which are primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts 176 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of international organizations, trade unions, non-profit organizations, lobbying groups. A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973, the Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, the District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century, One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia.
Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. 43, published January 23,1788, James Madison argued that the new government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance. Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia, known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital, on July 9,1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River. The exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles.
Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory, the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, many of the stones are still standing
Uhle was born in Dresden, Germany on 25 March 1856 and received his Ph. D. in 1880 from the University of Leipzig. He married Charlotte Grosse from Philadelphia, where he worked at the University of Pennsylvania for several years, trained as a philologist, Uhle became interested in Peru while a curator at Dresden Museum. In 1888, a friend, Alphons Stübel, who had recently published an article on the history of Peruvian archaeology. He first traveled to South America in 1892 to initiate research in Argentina and Bolivia for the Konigliches Museum fur Völkerkunde in Berlin, in that same year he published The Ruins of Tiahuanaco in the Highlands of Ancient Peru, with photographer and engineer B. von Grumbkow. This extensive work is considered the first in depth account of the ancient site of Tiwanaku. Uhle returned to South America in 1896, now sponsored by the American Exploration Society in Philadelphia and he enjoyed the patronage of Mrs. Phoebe Hearst, the mother of William Randolph Hearst. He undertook excavations at Pachacamac, near the coast of Peru and his site report of work at Pachacamac was highly praised and is still used as a basic text for studying South American archaeology.
He recognized versions of Tiwanaku stone sculpture imagery on ceramics, textiles, on this trip, he recovered approximately 9,000 artifacts spanning over 3,000 years of Andean pre-history. These included Nazca pottery, textiles, objects made of wood and other plant material, and objects constructed of materials such as feathers, bone. He concentrated on the dating of artifacts, and established a system primarily based on textile design. Artifacts found in the Mocha Valley were dated based on the position of Inca ceramic styles. This early dating was advanced by American archaeologist Alfred Kroeber and is one of the key points in understanding the chronology of pre-Inca Peru, Uhle worked in the highlands of Bolivia and Chile. In 1917 he was the first to describe the Chinchorro mummies. Max Ulhe participated in numerous paleontological excavations, Uhle made a notable contribution to North American archaeology in excavations of the Emeryville shell-mound in San Francisco Bay, California. The German-Peruvian Max Uhle School in Arequipa, Peru was named after him
George Washington was an American politician and soldier who served as the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797 and was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He served as Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War and he is popularly considered the driving force behind the nations establishment and came to be known as the father of the country, both during his lifetime and to this day. Washington was widely admired for his leadership qualities and was unanimously elected president by the Electoral College in the first two national elections. Washingtons incumbency established many precedents still in use today, such as the system, the inaugural address. His retirement from office two terms established a tradition that lasted until 1940 when Franklin Delano Roosevelt won an unprecedented third term. The 22nd Amendment now limits the president to two elected terms and he was born into the provincial gentry of Colonial Virginia to a family of wealthy planters who owned tobacco plantations and slaves, which he inherited.
In his youth, he became an officer in the colonial militia during the first stages of the French. In 1775, the Second Continental Congress commissioned him as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army in the American Revolution, in that command, Washington forced the British out of Boston in 1776 but was defeated and nearly captured that year when he lost New York City. After crossing the Delaware River in the middle of winter, he defeated the British in two battles, retook New Jersey, and restored momentum to the Patriot cause and his strategy enabled Continental forces to capture two major British armies at Saratoga in 1777 and Yorktown in 1781. In battle, Washington was repeatedly outmaneuvered by British generals with larger armies, after victory had been finalized in 1783, Washington resigned as commander-in-chief rather than seize power, proving his opposition to dictatorship and his commitment to American republicanism. Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which devised a new form of government for the United States.
Following his election as president in 1789, he worked to unify rival factions in the fledgling nation and he supported Alexander Hamiltons programs to satisfy all debts and state, established a permanent seat of government, implemented an effective tax system, and created a national bank. In avoiding war with Great Britain, he guaranteed a decade of peace and profitable trade by securing the Jay Treaty in 1795 and he remained non-partisan, never joining the Federalist Party, although he largely supported its policies. Washingtons Farewell Address was a primer on civic virtue, warning against partisanship, sectionalism. He retired from the presidency in 1797, returning to his home, upon his death, Washington was eulogized as first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen by Representative Henry Lee III of Virginia. He was revered in life and in death and public polling consistently ranks him among the top three presidents in American history and he has been depicted and remembered in monuments, public works and other dedications to the present day.
He was born on February 11,1731, according to the Julian calendar, the Gregorian calendar was adopted within the British Empire in 1752, and it renders a birth date of February 22,1732. Washington was of primarily English gentry descent, especially from Sulgrave and his great-grandfather John Washington emigrated to Virginia in 1656 and began accumulating land and slaves, as did his son Lawrence and his grandson, Georges father Augustine
Haifa, is the third-largest city in the State of Israel, with a population of 278,903 in 2015. The city of Haifa forms part of the Haifa metropolitan area and it is home to the Baháí World Centre, a UNESCO World Heritage Site and a destination for Bahai pilgrims. Built on the slopes of Mount Carmel, the settlement has a history spanning more than 3,000 years, the earliest known settlement in the vicinity was Tell Abu Hawam, a small port city established in the Late Bronze Age. In the 3rd century CE, Haifa was known as a dye-making center, over the centuries, the city has changed hands, being conquered and ruled by the Phoenicians, Hasmoneans, Byzantines, Crusaders, Ottomans and the Israelis. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, the Haifa Municipality has governed the city, as of 2016, the city is a major seaport located on Israels Mediterranean coastline in the Bay of Haifa covering 63.7 square kilometres. It lies about 90 kilometres north of Tel Aviv and is the regional center of northern Israel.
According to researcher J. Kis-Lev Haifa is considered a haven for coexistence between Jews and Arabs. Two respected academic institutions, the University of Haifa and the Technion, are located in Haifa, in addition to the largest k-12 school in Israel, the city plays an important role in Israels economy. It is home to Matam, one of the oldest and largest high-tech parks in the country, Haifa owns the underground rapid transit system located in Israel. Haifa Bay is a center of industry, petroleum refining. Haifa formerly functioned as the terminus of an oil pipeline from Iraq via Jordan. With locals using it to refer to a tell at the foot of the Carmel Mountains that contains its remains. The name Efa first appears during Roman rule, some time after the end of the 1st century, Haifa is mentioned more than 100 times in the Talmud, a work central to Judaism. Hefa or Hepha in Eusebius of Caesareas 4th-century work, Onomasticon, is said to be another name for Sycaminus, references to this city end with the Byzantine period.
Following the Arab conquest in the 7th century, Haifa was used to refer to a site established on Tel Shikmona upon what were already the ruins of Sycaminon. Haifa is mentioned by the mid-11th-century Persian chronicler Nasir Khusraw, the Crusaders, who captured Haifa briefly in the 12th century, call it Caiphas, and believe its name related to Cephas, the Aramaic name of Simon Peter. Other spellings in English have included Caipha, Caiffa and Khaifa.5 miles to the east. The new village, the nucleus of modern Haifa, was first called al-imara al-jadida by some, but others residing there called it Haifa al-Jadida at first, the ultimate origin of the name Haifa remains unclear