SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Phonetics

Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or in the case of sign languages, the equivalent aspects of sign. Phoneticians—linguists who specialize in phonetics—study the physical properties of speech; the field of phonetics is traditionally divided into three subdisciplines based on the research questions involved such as how humans plan and execute movements to produce speech, how different movements affect the properties of the resulting sound, or how humans convert sound waves to linguistic information. Traditionally, the minimal linguistic unit of phonetics is the phone—a speech sound in a language—which differs from the phonological unit of phoneme. Phonetics broadly deals with two aspects of human speech: production—the ways humans make sounds—and perception—the way speech is understood; the modality of a language describes the method by which a language produces and perceives languages. Languages with oral-aural modalities such as English produce speech orally and perceive speech aurally.

Many sign languages such as Auslan have a manual-visual modality and produce speech manually and perceive speech visually, while some languages like American Sign have manual-manual dialect for use in tactile signing by deafblind speakers where signs are produced with the hands and perceived with the hands as well. Language production consists of several interdependent processes which transform a nonlinguistic message into a spoken or signed linguistic signal. After identifying a message to be linguistically encoded, a speaker must select the individual words—known as lexical items—to represent that message in a process called lexical selection. During phonological encoding, the mental representation of the words are assigned their phonological content as a sequence of phonemes to be produced; the phonemes are specified for articulatory features which denote particular goals such as closed lips or the tongue in a particular location. These phonemes are coordinated into a sequence of muscle commands that can be sent to the muscles, when these commands are executed properly the intended sounds are produced.

These movements modify an airstream which results in a sound wave. The modification is done by the articulators, with different places and manners of articulation producing different acoustic results. For example, the words tack and sack both begin with alveolar sounds in English, but differ in how far the tongue is from the alveolar ridge; this difference has large effects on the air stream and thus the sound, produced. The direction and source of the airstream can affect the sound; the most common airstream mechanism is pulmonic—using the lungs—but the glottis and tongue can be used to produce airstreams. Language perception is the process by which a linguistic signal is decoded and understood by a listener. In order to perceive speech the continuous acoustic signal must be converted into discrete linguistic units such as phonemes and words. In order to identify and categorize sounds, listeners prioritize certain aspects of the signal that can reliably distinguish between linguistic categories.

While certain cues are prioritized over others, many aspects of the signal can contribute to perception. For example, though oral languages prioritize acoustic information, the McGurk effect shows that visual information is used to distinguish ambiguous information when the acoustic cues are unreliable. Modern phonetics has three main branches: Articulatory phonetics which studies the way sounds are made with the articulators Acoustic phonetics which studies the acoustic results of different articulations Auditory phonetics which studies the way listeners perceive and understand linguistic signalsThe first known phonetic studies occurred in the Indic subcontinent during the 6th century BCE, among, Hindu scholar Pāṇini's articulatory description of voicing, though this pioneering work was concerned with the relationship between written Vedic texts and spoken vernacular languages. With the advent of modern phonetics in the 19th century CE, the focus of scholarship shifted to the physical properties of speech itself.

Before the widespread availability of recording devices, phoneticians relied upon phonetic transcription systems to collect and share data. Some systems, such as the International Phonetic Alphabet are still in wide use among phoneticians. Language production consists of several interdependent processes which transform a nonlinguistic message into a spoken or signed linguistic signal. Linguists debate whether the process of language production occurs in a series of stages or whether production processes occur in parallel. After identifying a message to be linguistically encoded, a speaker must select the individual words—known as lexical items—to represent that message in a process called lexical selection; the words are selected based on their meaning. Lexical selection activates the word's lemma, which contains both semantic and grammatical information about the word. After an utterance has been planned, it goes through phonological encoding. In this stage of language production, the mental representation of the words are assigned their phonological content as a sequence of phonemes to be produced.

The phonemes are specified for articulatory features which denote particular goals such as closed lips or the tongue in a particular location. These phonemes are coordinated into a sequence of muscle commands that can be sent to the muscles, when these commands are executed properly the intended sounds are p

Rajanagram (Assembly constituency)

Rajanagaram Assembly constituency is a constituency in East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, representing the state legislative assembly in India. Popular cloth Store is veerraghava cut pieces it is one of the seven assembly segments of Rajahmundry Lok Sabha constituency, along with Anaparthy, Rajahmundry City, Rajahmundry Rural, Kovvur and Gopalapuram. Jakkampudi Raja is the present MLA of the constituency, who won the 2019 Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly election from YSR Congress Party; as of 25 March 2019, there a total of 201,201 electors in the constituency. The Assembly Constituency presently comprises the following Mandals: 2004 – Chitturi Ravindra – Indian National Congress 2009 – Pendurthi VenkateshTelugu Desam Party 2014 – Pendurthi Venkatesh – Telugu Desam Party List of constituencies of the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly

Richmond Municipal Airport

Richmond Municipal Airport is six miles southeast of Richmond, in Wayne County, Indiana. It is owned by the Richmond Board of Aviation Commissioners; the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015 called it a general aviation facility. The first airline flights were TWA and Delta DC-3s in late 1947; the airport covers 702 acres at an elevation of 1,140 feet. It has two asphalt runways: 6/24 is 5,500 by 150 feet and 15/33 is 5,000 by 100 feet. In 2009 the airport had 19,896 aircraft operations, average 54 per day: 97% general aviation, 2% air taxi, 1% military. 25 aircraft were based at the airport: 76% single-engine, 16% helicopter, 8% multi-engine. Aerial image from Indiana DOT Aerial image as of March 1998 from USGS The National Map FAA Terminal Procedures for RID, effective February 27, 2020 Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for RID AirNav airport information for KRID ASN accident history for RID FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker SkyVector aeronautical chart for KRID