The phonograph is a device for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound. In its forms, it is called a gramophone or, since the 1940s, a record player; the sound vibration waveforms are recorded as corresponding physical deviations of a spiral groove engraved, incised, or impressed into the surface of a rotating cylinder or disc, called a "record". To recreate the sound, the surface is rotated while a playback stylus traces the groove and is therefore vibrated by it faintly reproducing the recorded sound. In early acoustic phonographs, the stylus vibrated a diaphragm which produced sound waves which were coupled to the open air through a flaring horn, or directly to the listener's ears through stethoscope-type earphones; the phonograph was invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison. Alexander Graham Bell's Volta Laboratory made several improvements in the 1880s and introduced the graphophone, including the use of wax-coated cardboard cylinders and a cutting stylus that moved from side to side in a zigzag groove around the record.
In the 1890s, Emile Berliner initiated the transition from phonograph cylinders to flat discs with a spiral groove running from the periphery to near the center, coining the term gramophone for disc record players, predominantly used in many languages. Improvements through the years included modifications to the turntable and its drive system, the stylus or needle, the sound and equalization systems; the disc phonograph record was the dominant audio recording format throughout most of the 20th century. In the 1980s, phonograph use on a standard record player declined due to the rise of the cassette tape, compact disc, other digital recording formats. However, records are still a favorite format for some audiophiles, DJs and turntablists, have undergone a revival since the 1990s; the original recordings of musicians, which may have been recorded on tape or digital methods, are sometimes re-issued on vinyl. Usage of terminology is not uniform across the English-speaking world. In more modern usage, the playback device is called a "turntable", "record player", or "record changer", although each of these terms denote categorically distinct items.
When used in conjunction with a mixer as part of a DJ setup, turntables are colloquially called "decks". In electric phonographs, the motions of the stylus are converted into an analogous electrical signal by a transducer converted back into sound by a loudspeaker; the term phonograph was derived from the Greek words φωνή and γραφή. The similar related terms gramophone and graphophone have similar root meanings; the roots were familiar from existing 19th-century words such as photograph and telephone. The new term may have been influenced by the existing words phonographic and phonography, which referred to a system of phonetic shorthand. Arguably, any device used to record sound or reproduce recorded sound could be called a type of "phonograph", but in common practice the word has come to mean historic technologies of sound recording, involving audio-frequency modulations of a physical trace or groove. In the late-19th and early-20th centuries, "Phonograph", "Gramophone", "Graphophone", "Zonophone", "Graphonole" and the like were still brand names specific to various makers of sometimes different machines.
"Talking machine" had earlier been used to refer to complicated devices which produced a crude imitation of speech, by simulating the workings of the vocal cords and lips – a potential source of confusion both and now. In British English, "gramophone" may refer to any sound-reproducing machine using disc records, which were introduced and popularized in the UK by the Gramophone Company. "gramophone" was a proprietary trademark of that company and any use of the name by competing makers of disc records was vigorously prosecuted in the courts, but in 1910 an English court decision decreed that it had become a generic term. The term "phonograph" was restricted to machines that used cylinder records. "Gramophone" referred to a wind-up machine. After the introduction of the softer vinyl records, 33 1⁄3-rpm LPs and 45-rpm "single" or two-song records, EPs, the common name became "record player" or "turntable"; the home record player was part of a system that included a radio and might play audiotape cassettes.
From about 1960, such a system began to be described as a "hi-fi" or a "stereo". In American English, "phonograph", properly specific to machines made by Edison, was sometimes used in a generic sense as early as the 1890s to include cylinder-playing machines made by others, but it was considered incorrect to apply it to Emile Berliner's upstart Gramophone, a different machine which played discs. "Talking machine" was the comprehensive generic term, but from about 1902 on, the gene
Emmanuel Faber is a French businessman. He is the Chief executive officer of Danone, the Vice-Chairman of the board of directors, he is a member of the Executive Committee since 2000. Emmanuel Faber passed his baccalaureat in Gap in the early 1980s. Upon graduation from HEC Paris in 1986, Faber began his career at Company, he worked for Barings Bank, before joining Legris Industries in 1993 as Administrative and Financial Director. He became general manager in 1996. Faber started his career with Company, he worked for the investment bank Barings Bank before joining Legris Industries as Chief Administrative and Financial Officer in 1993, was named Chief Executive Officer in 1996. He joined Danone in 1997 as head of Finance and Information Systems. In 2000, he became a member of the Executive Committee. In 2005, he was appointed as Vice President, Asia-Pacific region, in charge of operational activities. Following the encounter of Franck Riboud and Muhammad Yunus, he initiates the social business joint venture Grameen-Danone Foods, Ltd in Bangladesh.
At the end of 2006, he oversees the creation of danone.communities, the first French mutual investment fund carrying social business, serves as Director of the danone.communities mutual investment fund since 2008. From January 2008 to September 2014, he served as Deputy General Manager of Danone, responsible for major corporate functions, was named Vice-Chairman of the Board of Directors in April 2011. Invited by Chico Whitaker, he attends the World Social Forum in Belem in 2009. Faber co-chairs with Martin Hirsch the Action Tank “Business and Poverty”, social experimentation lab, initiated in 2010 by the HEC Paris Chair “Social Business – Enterprise and Poverty”, which gathers companies, civil society organizations and academic spheres together with one common objective: contribute to reducing poverty and exclusion in France. Since 2011, he has chaired the Strategic Guidance Committee of IEDES of Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne University, which amongst others, publishes the “Tiers-Monde” journal.
In 2013, at the request of the French Minister of Development, Pascal Canfin, he writes a report with Jay Naidoo on reforming Official Development Assistance: “Mobilizing actors: a new approach to development aid”. Together with Michael Lonsdale and Eric-Emmanuel Schmitt, he was chosen to be one of the three French sponsors of the World Youth Day 2011. In October 2014, he became the CEO of Danone. On January 1, 2015, he was appointed Chairman of Danone's Executive Committee. In June 2016 he gave the commencement address to graduates of HEC where he spoke of the need for people to come together and bring down walls. In 2012, his annual compensation is €3.9million. Main basse sur la cité.
Bakri Siregar was an Indonesian socialist literary critic and writer. Siregar was born in Langsa, Dutch East Indies, on 14 December 1922, he was active writing by the Japanese occupation in the early 1940s, as evidenced by one of his short stories, "Tanda Bahagia", being published in Asia Raja on 1 September 1944. After Indonesia's independence, Siregar went to the Soviet Union to further study socialism, he considered their system beneficial to the populace, which reaffirmed his ideology. He praised Soviet writers who rejected cosmopolitanism and abstractionism, he published several dramas after returning to Indonesia, including the original Tugu Putih, Dosa dan Hukuman, Gadis Teratai. By 1951 Siregar had reached the capital of North Sumatra. While there, he took up a position as a high school teacher and, in 1952, joined the leftist oriented Institute of People's Culture. Siregar published his first analysis of Indonesian literature, Ceramah Sastra, in 1952. In 1953 he published a collection of short stories, entitled Jejak Langkah.
The following year he released the stageplay Saijah dan Adinda, based on a story in Dutch author Multatuli's novel Max Havelaar. While a high school teacher, Siregar used his position to spot upcoming actors and direct them to Lekra's stage production company Dinamo. From 1956 until 1957, Siregar taught Indonesian language at the University of Warsaw in Poland. Afterwards, he returned to Indonesia and taught Indonesian at the University of North Sumatra in Medan until 1959, his final teaching position was as a lecturer on the history of Indonesian literature at Peking University in China, a position which he held until 1962. While he was in Peking, he sat on Lekra's board of directors. In 1964 he published Sedjarah Sastera Indonesia Modern I. Sedjarah applied a strong Marxist view; the work was the first history of Indonesian literature, as well as the last published work to apply Marxist theory to Indonesian literature up until 2000. After the failed coup d'état – described by the government as having been led by the Indonesian Communist Party – on 30 September 1965, leftists were hunted by the military and the general public, while such institutions were closed.
Siregar himself was arrested and spent twelve years in prison. His manuscript from the period, Angkatan-Angkatan dalam Sastra Indonesia, remains unpublished. Siregar died in Jakarta on 19 June 1994. Siregar defined Indonesian literature as works written in Indonesian which reflected the nation's struggle for continued independence. Although he recognised earlier literary works in local languages and Malay, he believed that modern Indonesian literature began with the Indonesian National Awakening in the 1920s, he viewed the early institutions of Indonesian literature poorly, describing Balai Pustaka as using "language politics... used to divide the Indonesian people on ethnic lines" while Poedjangga Baroe was described as a bourgeois work, unable to objectively understand the needs of the people and therefore unfit to reflect the struggle for independence. Siregar divided Indonesian literature into four periods, as follows: Early 20th century until 1942, beginning with the works of Marco Kartodikromo and continuing through the founding of Balai Pustaka and publication of Poedjangga Baroe 1942 until 1945, during the Japanese Occupation of the Indies.
Siregar's writings, although influential in their time, were buried. His Sedjarah was banned, as of 2010 was still difficult to obtain. Footnotes Bibliography