Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes. They can form lipid bilayers because of their amphiphilic characteristic; the structure of the phospholipid molecule consists of two hydrophobic fatty acid "tails" and a hydrophilic "head" consisting of a phosphate group. The two components are joined together by a glycerol molecule; the phosphate groups can be modified with simple organic molecules such as choline, ethanolamine or serine. The first phospholipid identified in 1847 as such in biological tissues was lecithin, or phosphatidylcholine, in the egg yolk of chickens by the French chemist and pharmacist Theodore Nicolas Gobley. Biological membranes in eukaryotes contain another class of lipid, interspersed among the phospholipids and together they provide membrane fluidity and mechanical strength. Purified phospholipids are produced commercially and have found applications in nanotechnology and materials science. An amphiphile is a term describing a chemical compound possessing both hydrophilic and lipophilic properties.
The phospholipid head contains a negatively charged phosphate group and glycerol. The phospholipid tails consist of 2 long fatty acid chains; when placed in aqueous solutions, phospholipids are driven by hydrophobic interactions that result in the fatty acid tails aggregating to minimize interactions with water molecules. These specific properties allow phospholipids to play an important role in the phospholipid bilayer. In biological systems, the phospholipids occur with other molecules in a bilayer such as a cell membrane. Lipid bilayers occur when hydrophobic tails line up against one another, forming a membrane of hydrophilic heads on both sides facing the water; such movement can be described by the fluid mosaic model, that describes the membrane as a mosaic of lipid molecules that act as a solvent for all the substances and proteins within it, so proteins and lipid molecules are free to diffuse laterally through the lipid matrix and migrate over the membrane. Sterols contribute to membrane fluidity by hindering the packing together of phospholipids.
However, this model has now been superseded, as through the study of lipid polymorphism it is now known that the behaviour of lipids under physiological conditions is not simple. See: GlycerophospholipidPhosphatidic acid Phosphatidylethanolamine Phosphatidylcholine Phosphatidylserine Phosphoinositides: Phosphatidylinositol Phosphatidylinositol phosphate Phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate and Phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate See Sphingolipid Ceramide phosphorylcholine Ceramide phosphorylethanolamine Ceramide phosphoryllipid Phospholipids have been used to prepare liposomal and other nanoformulations of topical and parenteral drugs for differing reasons like improved bio-availability, reduced toxicity and increased permeability across membranes. Liposomes are composed of phosphatidylcholine-enriched phospholipids and may contain mixed phospholipid chains with surfactant properties; the ethosomal formulation of ketoconazole using phospholipids is a promising option for transdermal delivery in fungal infections.
Computational simulations of phospholipids are performed using molecular dynamics with force fields such as GROMOS, CHARMM, or AMBER. Phospholipids are optically birefringent, i.e. their refractive index is different along their axis as opposed to perpendicular to it. Measurement of birefringence can be achieved using cross polarisers in a microscope to obtain an image of e.g. vesicle walls or using techniques such as dual polarisation interferometry to quantify lipid order or disruption in supported bilayers. There are no simple methods available for analysis of phospholipids since the close range of polarity between different phospholipid species makes detection difficult. Oil chemists use spectroscopy to determine total Phosphorus abundance and calculate approximate mass of phospholipids based on molecular weight of expected fatty acid species. Modern lipid profiling employs more absolute methods of analysis, with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy 31P-NMR, while HPLC-ELSD provides relative values.
Phospholipid synthesis occurs in the cytosolic side of ER membrane, studded with proteins that act in synthesis and allocation. A vesicle will bud off from the ER containing phospholipids destined for the cytoplasmic cellular membrane on its exterior leaflet and phospholipids destined for the exoplasmic cellular membrane on its inner leaflet. Common sources of industrially produced phospholipids are soya, sunflower, chicken eggs, bovine milk, fish eggs etc; each source has a unique profile of individual phospholipid species and differing applications in food, pharmaceuticals and drug delivery. Some types of phospholipid can be split to produce products that function as second messengers in signal transduction. Examples include phosphatidylinositol -bisphosphate, that can be split by the enzyme Phospholipase C into inositol triphosphate and diacylglycerol, which both carry out the functions of the Gq type of G protein in response to various stimuli and interven
"... Ich töte mich jedesmal aufs Neue, doch ich bin unsterblich, und ich erstehe wieder auf; the original pressing had no title, though the "... Ich töte mich..." line was printed in blackletter on the back cover. Released as a limited edition of 1,000, the album has been re-released at least three times. "... Ich töte mich..." consists of baroque-tinged neo-medieval music and is punctuated by drum machines and pipe organs. Much of the instrumentation is synthesized due to a low budget. Sopor Aeternus would not return to prominent synthesizer use until 2004's "La Chambre D'Echo" - Where the dead Birds sing. "... Ich töte mich..." features several elements of the musical project's traditional musicality, including the use of brass and woodwinds throughout. "Birth - Fiendish Figuration" would go on to be re-recorded at least three more times on albums, while "Tanz der Grausamkeit" would be re-recorded as "Saltatio Crudelitas" for "Todeswunsch - Sous le soleil de Saturne" and the raucous "Do you know my Name?" would receive equal treatment on "Flowers in Formaldehyde".
In 1999, "... Ich töte mich..." was re-released with different artwork and seven bonus tracks, including a couple of demos. All of the bonus songs were re-recorded for the 2003 album "Es reiten die Toten so schnell"; the album has since been re-issued twice with different artwork. The artwork for the 2004 edition stresses that the full recording consists of demos, the accompanying press release from Apocalyptic Vision suggested to purchase "... Ich töte mich..." after one is acquainted with Sopor Aeternus' music. This press release was removed from the website; the subtitles of songs were not printed on re-issues. All tracks are written by Anna-Varney Cantodea. Gerrit Fischer: Guitar on "Time stands still..." and "Do you know my Name?" Varney: Vocals, all other instruments and programming
Microgravity University known as the Reduced Gravity Student Flight Opportunities Program was a program run by NASA which enables undergraduate university students to perform microgravity experiments aboard NASA's DC-9 aircraft at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. Acceptance into the program requires a team of four fliers and was done through the writing and submission of a technical proposal which details among other things what the experiment was about, safety considerations, outreach plans. In the 2007 campaign, 36 of the 74 proposals submitted were accepted. Upon acceptance, a flight date was assigned and the team must design and build the planned experiment by then. Prior to flight, submission of a TEDP was required, as were FAA approved physical examinations for all fliers and the optional alternate flier; the flight week began with an introduction to the facility, the crew, a description of what was planned overall. The rest of the week involved training, tours and flights. Setup of the experiment was done at Ellington Field's hangar 990 concurrently for all teams in the flight week.
The hangar houses the C-9 as well as NASA's two WB-57 high altitude research aircraft. Microgravity flights were performed during the next two days: two of the fliers on one day and the other two on the other day; the flight day begins with a briefing which involves last minute instructions and advice, the administration of anti motion sickness medicine. Each microgravity flight contains 30 zero gravity sessions, called parabolas, lasting 20 to 25 seconds each. Additionally and Martian parabolas were done. Transportation and housing for the flight week and the trip to Houston were not provided by NASA and must be arranged by the students. Official site Campaign photos
Twelve Days of OK Go is a compilation album by American rock band OK Go. It was released on December 31, 2012. OK Go started releasing the songs on December 10, with one song released each weekday; the last song, a cover of "Any Time at All", was released on Christmas. A bonus track, a cover of "This Will Be Our Year," was released on New Year's Eve. "Last Leaf" - 2:13 "Dynamite" - 2:48 "Oh Lately It's So Quiet" - 3:18 "Here It Goes Again" - 4:36 "Wave of Mutilation" - 3:14 "Down For the Count" - 3:01 "Bye Bye Baby" - 2:02 "Antmusic" - 2:51 "Letterbox" - 2:07 "Father Christmas" - 4:13 "Have Yourself A Merry Little Christmas" - 2:49 "Any Time At All" - 2:11 "This Will Be Our Year" - 2:08
Marsh House is an area of Darwen, England. The Marsh House area itself was used for industrial purposes in the 20th centuries; the main industry was mining and, due to the after-effects of this, certain parts of Marsh House cannot be built on for safety reasons to this day. Parts of the mine at Ellison Fold still remain in Bailey's field next to Avallon Way; the ward once had a railway station known as "Sough". This station was situated between the Entiwstle Station; however this was closed after the number of people using. In recent years, there has been a push to reopen the station and the case for this is improving year on year because of a number of factors; the ward has the listed Turncroft Hall within its boundaries. Over the past 40 years or so, the area has had large amount of investment put into it. Most of the money has gone into building housing on Green Belt land. However, there is an area where houses have been built on land used for factories; the result of the 2014 local government election in Marsh House ward was as follows: Traditionally, the area had been a Conservative stronghold but all councillors now represent the Labour Party Sadly John Roberts died in 2017 at the subsequent by-election the seat was re taken by the Conservatives Marsh House has several pubs - The Borough, The Craven Heifer, The Crown and Thistle, The Victoria and The Greenfield.
The area has a Working Men's Club. The ward is served by a primary school called St Peter's Church of England; the area has no secondary education institutions but the town of Darwen has two secondary schools. Many parents decide though to send their children, out of the town to one of the following- Q. E. G. S- Independent Westholme- Independent Lords- Independent Canon Slade-Bolton State St Bede's RC - Blackburn State St Wilfrid's- Blackburn State or Turton- Bolton State. In recent months, there has been a big move towards restoring the heritage of the area. Things such as stone walls, field gates for the abandoned farm land, the Rosehill Riverbed, the original Blacksnape gates and the mining history have all been brought to the attention of both local community groups and the council. There is going to be a big push towards tourism for the area over the next year alongside the rest of Darwen. Due to most of the housing being built in the north of the ward, areas have been split up according to their position in the north of the ward.
Avallon Way and Lisbon Drive Bailey's Field The Housing areas of Chapter Road, Pole Lane and Priory Drive The Village of Clear Water The Woodland and Fields of Rosehill Half of The Village of Blacksnape and playing fields Ashton Park The Sidings The Hall of Turncroft and surrounding housing area The Housing area of Highfield The housing area and fields of Sough The housing area and fields of Cranberry Spring Vale Garden Village Part of the West Pennine Moors
The first season of Packed to the Rafters, an Australian drama television series, began airing on 26 August 2008 on the Seven Network. The season concluded on 24 March 2009 after 22 episodes; the first season averaged 1,904,364 viewers. The season was released on DVD as a six disc set under the title of Packed to the Rafters: The Complete Season 1 on 2 December 2009; the first season begins as Julie and Dave Rafter are over the moon when their last remaining child leaves home. But what happens when the rest of the family returns to the nest? Less than 48 hours after their middle son Ben moves himself next door, all dreams of freedom are put on hold as one by one their youngest son Nathan and his princess wife Sammy, their troubled eldest daughter Rachel, Julie's vulnerable father Ted all return to the family home. Plenty of drama, lots of laughs and a few tears ensue as the Rafters must learn to live under the same roof once again. Rebecca Gibney as Julie Rafter Erik Thomson as Dave Rafter Jessica Marais as Rachel Rafter Angus McLaren as Nathan Rafter Hugh Sheridan as Ben Rafter Jessica McNamee as Sammy Rafter and Michael Caton as Ted Taylor George Houvardas as Nick "Carbo" Karandonis Zoe Ventoura as Melissa Bannon Caroline Brazier as Chrissy Merchant Justin Rosniak as Stuart "Warney" Warne Luke Pegler as Daniel Griggs Sarah Chadwick as Trish Westaway Jerome Ehlers as Anthony Westaway Kate Fitzpatrick as Marjorie Stevens George Spartels as Theo Karandonis Dina Panozzo as Rita Karandonis Roy Billing as Ron Barrett Belinda Bromilow as Libby Sanders Craig McLachlan as Steve Wilson Michael Booth as George Spiteri 1 Viewer numbers are based on preliminary OzTAM data for Sydney, Brisbane and Perth combined