SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Photochrom

Photochrom is a process for producing colorized images from black-and-white photographic negatives via the direct photographic transfer of a negative onto lithographic printing plates. The process is a photographic variant of chromolithography; the process was invented in the 1880s by Hans Jakob Schmid, an employee of the Swiss company Orell Gessner Füssli—a printing firm whose history began in the 16th century. Füssli founded the stock company Photochrom Zürich as the business vehicle for the commercial exploitation of the process and both Füssli and Photoglob continue to exist today. From the mid-1890s the process was licensed by other companies, including the Detroit Photographic Company in the US, the Photochrom Company of London. Amongst the first commercial photographers to employ the technique were French photographer Félix Bonfils, British photographer Francis Frith and American photographer William Henry Jackson, all active in the 1880s; the photochrom process was most popular in the 1890s, when true color photography was first developed but was still commercially impractical.

In 1898 the US Congress passed the Private Mailing Card Act which let private publishers produce postcards. These could be mailed for one cent each. Publishers created thousands of photochrom prints of cities or landscapes, sold them as postcards. In this format, photochrom reproductions became popular; the Detroit Photographic Company produced as many as seven million photochrom prints in some years, ten to thirty thousand different views were offered. After World War I, which ended the craze for collecting photochrom postcards, the chief use of the process was for posters and art reproductions; the last photochrom printer operated up to 1970. A tablet of lithographic limestone called a "litho stone" was coated with a light-sensitive surface composed of a thin layer of purified bitumen dissolved in benzene. A reversed halftone negative was pressed against the coating and exposed to daylight, causing the bitumen to harden in proportion to the amount of light passing through each portion of the negative.

A solvent such as turpentine was applied to remove the unhardened bitumen and retouch the tonal scale, strengthening or softening tones as required. Thus the image became imprinted on the stone in bitumen; each tint was applied using a separate stone. The finished print was produced using at least six, but more ten to fifteen, tint stones. Description of the Photochrom process The Library of Congress Public Domain Photochrom Prints Search Search at the Zurich Central Library Detroit Photographic Company’s Views of North America, ca. 1897-1924 from the Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library

Tzfat cheese

Tzfat cheese is a semi-hard salty cheese produced in Israel from sheep's milk. It was first produced in Safed in 1840 and is still produced there by descendants of the original cheese makers; the cheese began to be produced in 1840 at HaMeiri Dairy, established in the home of Meir Arzoni, who immigrated from Persia. Gvina sfattit is a mild curd cheese molded in a basket that gives the cheese distinctive circular striations; the cheese has low fat content. The milk is pasteurized at a low 72 °C. Trimming is based on the action of enzymes contained in a special ferment and on calcium chloride rather than on the action of lactic acid; the fermentation is quick, about an hour. After the separation of most of the whey, the cheese is stored for several hours in straw or plastic baskets to drain the remaining whey and to form its round shape. For the remainder of the draining time, the cheese is inverted several times to help the draining and to form the basket's pattern on all sides. Fresh Tzfat cheese is used for sandwiches.

The aged variety can be grated for use in cooking. List of sheep milk cheeses Israeli cuisine

Esch-sur-Sûre

Esch-sur-Sûre is a commune and small town in north-western Luxembourg. It is part of the canton of Wiltz, part of the district of Diekirch. At one point it was the second smallest commune by area in Luxembourg, until Neunhausen and Heiderscheid were merged into it in 2011; as of 2005, the town of Esch-sur-Sûre, which lies in the north of the commune, has a population of 314. Esch-sur-Sûre is situated by the river Sauer, just east and downstream of the artificial Upper Sauer Lake; the town's prominent castle, the main part of the town below, sit on a spur of a land within a sharp meander of the river. The suffix to its name distinguishes Esch-sur-Sûre from the city of Esch-sur-Alzette, known just as Esch. Above the town, the river has been dammed to form a hydroelectric reservoir extending some 6 miles up the valley; the Upper Sauer dam was built in the 1960s to meet the country's drinking water needs. The commune consists of the following villages: Media related to Esch-sur-Sûre at Wikimedia Commons www.petitbourg.lu Le Paradis des Ardennes Luxembourgoises