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A photodiode is a semiconductor device that converts light into an electrical current. The current is generated. Photodiodes may contain optical filters, built-in lenses, may have large or small surface areas. Photodiodes have a slower response time as their surface area increases; the common, traditional solar cell used to generate electric solar power is a large area photodiode. Photodiodes are similar to regular semiconductor diodes except that they may be either exposed or packaged with a window or optical fiber connection to allow light to reach the sensitive part of the device. Many diodes designed for use specially as a photodiode use a PIN junction rather than a p–n junction, to increase the speed of response. A photodiode is designed to operate in reverse bias. A photodiode is a p -- PIN structure; when a photon of sufficient energy strikes the diode, it creates an electron–hole pair. This mechanism is known as the inner photoelectric effect. If the absorption occurs in the junction's depletion region, or one diffusion length away from it, these carriers are swept from the junction by the built-in electric field of the depletion region.

Thus holes move toward the anode, electrons toward the cathode, a photocurrent is produced. The total current through the photodiode is the sum of the dark current and the photocurrent, so the dark current must be minimized to maximize the sensitivity of the device. To first order, for a given spectral distribution, the photocurrent is linearly proportional to the irradiance; when used in zero bias or photovoltaic mode, photocurrent flows out of the anode through a short circuit to the cathode. If the circuit is opened or has a load impedance, restricting the photocurrent out of the device, a voltage builds up in the direction that forward biases the diode, that is, anode positive with respect to cathode. If the circuit is shorted or the impedance is low, a forward current will consume all or some of the photocurrent; this mode exploits the photovoltaic effect, the basis for solar cells – a traditional solar cell is just a large area photodiode. For optimum power output, the photovoltaic cell will be operated at a voltage that causes only a small forward current compared to the photocurrent.

In this mode the diode is reverse biased. This reduces the response time because the additional reverse bias increases the width of the depletion layer, which decreases the junction's capacitance and increases the region with an electric field that will cause electrons to be collected; the reverse bias reduces the dark current without much change in the photocurrent. Although this mode is faster, the photoconductive mode can exhibit more electronic noise due to dark current or avalanche effects; the leakage current of a good PIN diode is so low that the Johnson–Nyquist noise of the load resistance in a typical circuit dominates. Avalanche photodiodes are photodiodes with structure optimized for operating with high reverse bias, approaching the reverse breakdown voltage; this allows each photo-generated carrier to be multiplied by avalanche breakdown, resulting in internal gain within the photodiode, which increases the effective responsivity of the device. A phototransistor is a light-sensitive transistor.

A common type of phototransistor, called a photobipolar transistor, is in essence a bipolar transistor encased in a transparent case so that light can reach the base–collector junction. It was invented by Dr. John N. Shive at Bell Labs in 1948, but it was not announced until 1950; the electrons that are generated by photons in the base–collector junction are injected into the base, this photodiode current is amplified by the transistor's current gain β. If the base and collector leads are used and the emitter is left unconnected, the phototransistor becomes a photodiode. While phototransistors have a higher responsivity for light they are not able to detect low levels of light any better than photodiodes. Phototransistors have longer response times. Field-effect phototransistors known as photoFETs, are light-sensitive field-effect transistors. Unlike photobipolar transistors, photoFETs control drain-source current by creating a gate voltage. A Solaristor is a two-terminal gate-less phototransistor.

A compact class of two-terminal phototransistors or solaristors have been demonstrated in 2018 by ICN2 researchers. The novel concept is a two-in-one power source plus transistor device that runs on solar energy by exploiting a memresistive effect in the flow of photogenerated carriers; the material used to make a photodiode is critical to defining its properties, because only photons with sufficient energy to excite electrons across the material's bandgap will produce significant photocurrents. Materials used to produce photodiodes include: Because of their greater bandgap, silicon-based photodiodes generate less noise than germanium-based photodiodes. Like two dimensional materials such as MoS2, graphene etc. Any p–n junction, if illuminated, is a photodiode. Semiconductor devices such as diodes, transistors and ICs contain p–n junctions, will not function if they are illuminated by unwanted electromagnetic radiation of wavelength suitable to produce a photocurrent. If these housings are not opaque to high-energy radiation, transistors and ICs can malfunction due to induced photo-currents.

Background radiation from the packaging is significant. Radiation hardening mitig


Saint-Avold is a commune in the Moselle department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. It is situated twenty-eight miles east of Metz and seventeen miles southwest of Saarbrücken, Germany; the Saint-Avold area has suffered invasions and since the nineteenth century has been controlled alternately by German and French authorities. The original Abbey of Saint Nabor began as an oratory for a sixth-century monastery. A complex developed after it received the relics of Saint Nabor, the church was rebuilt in the eighteenth century, in part following Baroque style, it was designated as a basilica. During the French Revolution, the monastery and church suffered extensive damage; the ancient parish church was sacrificed in exchange for keeping Saint Nabor. The abbey suffered bombing damage during World War II, but much of the church has hence been restored. Just north of the town is the site of Europe's largest United States' World War II military cemetery, the Lorraine American Cemetery and Memorial, with the graves of 10,489 American soldiers who died during World War II.

Most of the men were killed during the United States' drive to expel German forces from the fortress city of Metz toward the Siegfried Line and the Rhine River. The soldiers were from the U. S. Seventh Army's its cavalry groups. Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb". Louis Aloyse Risse, engineer born in Saint-Avold who designed the Grand Concourse in the Bronx in New York. Erich Isselhorst, Nazi war criminal, executed in Strasbourg in 1948 Communes of the Moselle department INSEE commune file History of Saint Avold Saint-Avold, France Web site Photo of Saint Nabor Basilica Sociéte d'Histoire du Pays Naborien

Frank Sanchez

Francisco J. Sánchez is an American lawyer and business advisor, former Under Secretary of Commerce for International Trade at the Department of Commerce in the Obama administration. Sánchez graduated with a B. A. from Florida State University in 1982. In 1986, he received a J. D. from Florida State University College of Law. He earned a Master of Public Policy from Harvard University in 1993. From 1984 to 1987, Sánchez worked for Governor Bob Graham and Lieutenant Governor Wayne Mixson. In 1987 he joined the law firm of Steel and Davis. In 1993 he went to work for CMI, an international consulting firm focusing on negotiations strategy and conflict management, he co-founded CMI International Group and served as a senior advisor to CMPartners. From 1999 to 2000, he served as a Special Assistant to the President. From 2000 to 2001, he served as Assistant Secretary of Transportation for Aviation and International Affairs. In 2001, he founded Cambridge Negotiation Strategies. Sánchez ran for mayor of Tampa, Florida in 2003.

In the election, Sánchez came in second after taking it to a runoff. On April 20, 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Sánchez to be Under Secretary of Commerce for International Trade. After one and a half years, Sánchez was unanimously confirmed by the U. S. Senate in September 2010. Sanchez played a leadership role in advancing President Obama's National Export Initiative, to grow exports abroad while creating and supporting American jobs. Under his tenure "22,000 companies realized about $190 billion in U. S. export content, about 96 percent small- and medium-sized companies". The number of these small and medium-size companies that export went up from 257,000 to nearly 300,000, a little over 1 percent of American businesses. Sanchez oversaw the development of U. S. trade policy, promoted U. S. companies in the global economy, strengthened American competitiveness across all industries, addressed market access and compliance issues, administered U. S. trade laws. Sanchez led international trade missions with multiple U.

S companies to emerging markets like China, South Korea and Saudi Arabia. He has been an advocate for U. S. businesses during international travel and domestic and international meetings. Sanchez was appointed by President Obama as one of five senior administration officials to the Congressional-Executive Commission on China from 2011-2012, he has been on the Board of Directors for the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, an "independent" U. S. Government agency that sells investment services assisting U. S. companies abroad. Sanchez has been a member of the non-profit think tank Council on Foreign Relations, his last day as Undersecretary was November 6, 2013. On November 6, 2013, President Barack Obama nominated former Bank of America chief executive Stefan M. Selig as Sanchez' successor; as of 2014, Sanchez returned to the private sector. In May 2014, Sanchez was elected to the board of Archer Daniels Midland, an American global food-processing and commodities-trading corporation, headquartered in Chicago, Illinois.

Sanchez is on the Board of Counselors for McLarty Associates, a Washington-based international business consulting firm, led by Nelson Cunningham, Mack McLarty, John Negroponte. Which split off Kissinger Associates in 2008. Sanchez is senior managing director in the leadership team of Pt. Capital, a 2013 private equity firm concentrating on investment in the Arctic, including Alaska, Iceland and northern Canada Pan Arctic, he is a non-Resident Fellow at Global Cities Program. Top 100 Hispanics by Hispanic Business Magazine Top Hispanics nationwide by Poder Magazine - "Black Book" National Hall of Fame by Boys & Girls Club of America Governor's Point of Light Award for Outstanding Community Service Recipient of Daily Points of Light Award from the National Points of Light Institute

Engal Selvi

Engal Selvi is a 1960 Tamil language drama film, produced by T. E. Vasudevan under the Associate Producers banner and directed by D. Yoganand, it stars Akkineni Nageswara Rao and Anjali Devi in the lead roles, with music composed by K. V. Mahadevan; the film was a remake of Hindi film Lajwanti. The film was dubbed into Telugu as Kanna Kuthuru. Anjali Devi as Kamala Nageswara Rao T. S. Balaiah Balaji as Ashoka V. R. Rajagopal C. K. Saraswathi K. R. Chellam Mohana Baby Uma Art: R. P. S. Mani Choreography: P. S. Gopalakrishnan Stills: R. Venkatachari Story - Screenplay - Dialogues: Maran Lyrics: Kannadasan, A. Maruthakasi, Kavi Rajagopal Playback: V. N. Sundharam, P. B. Srinivas, A. L. Raghavan, P. Leela, P. Suseela, M. S. Rajeswari, K. Jamuna Rani & L. R. Eswari. Music: K. V. Mahadevan Editing: M. S. Mani Cinematography: Adhi M. Irani Producer: T. E. Vasudevan Director: D. Yoganand Lab: Vijaya Banner: Associate Producers Release Date: 8 July 1960 Music was composed by K. V. Mahadevan. Music released on Audio Company.

The film had a wrestling match between King Kong. The producer said while the shooting of the match was in progress, he noticed blood oozing from King Kong's mouth, he was concerned and shouted, "cut, cut". But the wrestler King Kong wanted the blood to be seen in the film. King Kong hit the producer, but Dara Singh intervened and told him that he is the producer of the film, the producer reminisced in an interview later; the producer said. However, it appears; the Indian Express wrote, "Anjali Devi, Nageswara Rao and Baby Uma give a convincing display of a devoted wife, a distraught husband a love-lorn child". Engal Selvi on YouTube - Full feature film

Alexander Hochberg

Alexander von Hochberg or Aleksander Pszczyński was a German aristocrat and military officer. In 1984, he served as the head of the Hochberg von Pless princely family, he was born 1 February 1905 in London, to Hans Heinrich XV, 3rd Prince von Pleß and his first wife Daisy, Princess of Pless. As an heir of once mighty Silesian ducal family of Dukes von Pless, Alexander had been a Polish citizen following the annexation of Upper Silesia and Pless by Poland in 1921. Following the confiscation by the Polish State of 65% of the family's assets and his father's death in 1938 he emigrated to Paris, where he later joined the Polish Army in the West in the latter stages of the war, he served with distinction in Italy. After the war he settled in Pollensa on the Spanish island of Majorca, where he died on 22 February 1984; the von Pless line of his family is now headed by his nephew Bolko Graf von Hochberg, 6th Fürst von Pless. Ludovici, Laurence James; the Three of Us. London: Marjay Books. Luke, Michael.

Hansel Pless: Prisoner of History. A Life of H. S. H. Hans Heinrich XVII, 4th Prince of Pless. London: Cygnet Press


A Kegel perineometer or vaginal manometer is an instrument for measuring the strength of voluntary contractions of the pelvic floor muscles. Arnold Kegel was the gynecologist who invented Kegel exercises; this followed the observation that muscles of the pelvic floor weakened following the trauma of childbirth. Ascertaining the air pressure inside the vagina by insertion of a perineometer, while requesting the woman to squeeze as hard as possible, indicates whether or not she would benefit from strengthening the vaginal muscles using the Kegel exercises. More modern electromyograph perineometers, which measure electrical activity in the pelvic floor muscles, may be more effective in this purpose. Assessment of pelvic floor strength during gynaecological examination may help to identify women with fascial defects of the pelvic floor, as well as those at risk of genital prolapse or urinary incontinence. Both the Kegel perineometer and a digital examination are effective and concordant in their results in this assessment.

Perineal tear classification